23:1 The Lord says, 1 “The leaders of my people are sure to be judged. 2 They were supposed to watch over my people like shepherds watch over their sheep. But they are causing my people to be destroyed and scattered. 3 23:2 So the Lord God of Israel has this to say about the leaders who are ruling over his people: “You have caused my people 4 to be dispersed and driven into exile. You have not taken care of them. So I will punish you for the evil that you have done. 5 I, the Lord, affirm it! 6 23:3 Then I myself will regather those of my people 7 who are still alive from all the countries where I have driven them. I will bring them back to their homeland. 8 They will greatly increase in number. 23:4 I will install rulers 9 over them who will care for them. Then they will no longer need to fear or be terrified. None of them will turn up missing. 10 I, the Lord, promise it! 11
1 tn Heb “Oracle of the
2 sn Heb This particle once again introduces a judgment speech. The indictment is found in v. 1 and the announcement of judgment in v. 2. This leads into an oracle of deliverance in vv. 3-4. See also the note on the word “judged” in 22:13.
3 tn Heb “Woe to the shepherds who are killing and scattering the sheep of my pasture.” See the study note on 22:13 for the significance of “Sure to be judged” (Heb “Woe”) See the study note for the significance of the metaphor introduced here.
sn Verses 1-4 of ch. 23 are an extended metaphor in which the rulers are compared to shepherds and the people are compared to sheep. This metaphor has already been met with in 10:21 and is found elsewhere in the context of the
4 tn Heb “about the shepherds who are shepherding my people. ‘You have caused my sheep….’” For the metaphor see the study note on the previous verse.
5 tn Heb “Therefore, thus says the
6 tn Heb “Oracle of the
7 tn Heb “my sheep.”
8 tn Heb “their fold.”
9 tn Heb “shepherds.”
10 tn There are various nuances of the word פָּקַד (paqad) represented in vv. 2, 4. See Ps 8:4 (8:5 HT) and Zech 10:3 for “care for/take care of” (cf. BDB 823 s.v. פָּקַד Qal.A.1.a). See Exod 20:5; Amos 3:2; Jer 9:24; 11:22 for “punish” (cf. BDB 823 s.v. פָּקַד Qal.A.3). See 1 Kgs 20:39 and 2 Kgs 10:19 for “be missing” (cf. BDB 823 s.v. פָּקַד Niph.1).
sn There is an extended play on the Hebrew word פָּקַד which is a word with rather broad English equivalents. Here the word refers to the fault of the shepherds/rulers who have not “taken care” of the sheep/people (v. 2), the “punishment” for the evil they have done in not taking care of them (v. 2), and the fact that after the
11 tn Heb “Oracle of the