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Isaiah 10:20-23

Context

10:20 At that time 1  those left in Israel, those who remain of the family 2  of Jacob, will no longer rely on a foreign leader that abuses them. 3  Instead they will truly 4  rely on the Lord, the Holy One of Israel. 5  10:21 A remnant will come back, a remnant of Jacob, to the mighty God. 6  10:22 For though your people, Israel, are as numerous as 7  the sand on the seashore, only a remnant will come back. 8  Destruction has been decreed; 9  just punishment 10  is about to engulf you. 11  10:23 The sovereign master, the Lord who commands armies, is certainly ready to carry out the decreed destruction throughout the land. 12 

1 tn Or “in that day.” The verb that introduces this verse serves as a discourse particle and is untranslated; see note on “in the future” in 2:2.

2 tn Heb “house” (so KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV).

3 tn Heb “on one who strikes him down.” This individual is the king (“foreign leader”) of the oppressing nation (which NLT specifies as “the Assyrians”).

4 tn Or “sincerely”; KJV, ASV, NAB, NRSV “in truth.”

5 sn See the note on the phrase “the Holy One of Israel” in 1:4.

6 tn The referent of אֵל גִּבּוֹר (’el gibbor, “mighty God”) is uncertain. The title appears only here and in 9:6, where it is one of the royal titles of the coming ideal Davidic king. (Similar titles appear in Deut 10:17 and Neh 9:32 [“the great, mighty, and awesome God”] and in Jer 32:18 [“the great and mighty God”]. Both titles refer to God.) Though Hos 3:5 pictures Israel someday seeking “David their king,” and provides some support for a messianic interpretation of Isa 10:21, the Davidic king is not mentioned in the immediate context of Isa 10:21 (see Isa 11, however). The preceding verse mentions Israel relying on the Lord, so it is likely that the title refers to God here.

7 tn Heb “are like.”

8 sn The twofold appearance of the statement “a remnant will come back” (שְׁאָר יָשׁוּב, shear yashuv) in vv. 21-22 echoes and probably plays off the name of Isaiah’s son Shear-jashub (see 7:3). In its original context the name was meant to encourage Ahaz (see the note at 7:3), but here it has taken on new dimensions. In light of Ahaz’s failure and the judgment it brings down on the land, the name Shear-jashub now foreshadows the destiny of the nation. According to vv. 21-22, there is good news and bad news. The good news is that a remnant of God’s people will return; the bad news is that only a remnant will be preserved and come back. Like the name Immanuel, this name foreshadows both judgment (see the notes at 7:25 and 8:8) and ultimate restoration (see the note at 8:10).

9 tn Or “predetermined”; cf. ASV, NASB “is determined”; TEV “is in store.”

10 tn צְדָקָה (tsÿdaqah) often means “righteousness,” but here it refers to God’s just judgment.

11 tn Or “is about to overflow.”

12 tn Heb “Indeed (or perhaps “for”) destruction and what is decreed the sovereign master, the Lord who commands armies, is about to accomplish in the middle of all the land.” The phrase כָלָא וְנֶחֱרָצָה (khalavenekheratsah, “destruction and what is decreed”) is a hendiadys; the two terms express one idea, with the second qualifying the first.



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