63:6 I trampled nations in my anger,
I made them drunk 1 in my rage,
I splashed their blood on the ground.” 2
63:7 I will tell of the faithful acts of the Lord,
of the Lord’s praiseworthy deeds.
I will tell about all 3 the Lord did for us,
the many good things he did for the family of Israel, 4
because of 5 his compassion and great faithfulness.
63:8 He said, “Certainly they will be my people,
children who are not disloyal.” 6
He became their deliverer.
63:16 For you are our father,
though Abraham does not know us
and Israel does not recognize us.
You, Lord, are our father;
you have been called our protector from ancient times. 7
and make our minds stubborn so that we do not obey you? 10
Return for the sake of your servants,
the tribes of your inheritance!
but then our adversaries knocked down 13 your holy sanctuary.
3 tn Heb “according to all which.”
4 tn Heb “greatness of goodness to the house of Israel which he did for them.”
5 tn Heb “according to.”
6 tn Heb “children [who] do not act deceitfully.” Here the verb refers to covenantal loyalty.
7 tn Heb “our protector [or “redeemer”] from antiquity [is] your name.”
8 tn Some suggest a tolerative use of the Hiphil here, “[why do] you allow us to stray?” (cf. NLT). Though the Hiphil of תָעָה (ta’ah) appears to be tolerative in Jer 50:6, elsewhere it is preferable or necessary to take it as causative. See Isa 3:12; 9:15; and 30:28, as well as Gen 20:13; 2 Kgs 21:9; Job 12:24-25; Prov 12:26; Jer 23:13, 32; Hos 4:12; Amos 2:4; Mic 3:5.
9 tn This probably refers to God’s commands.
10 tn Heb “[Why do] you harden our heart[s] so as not to fear you.” The interrogative particle is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).
sn How direct this hardening is, one cannot be sure. The speaker may envision direct involvement on the Lord’s part. The Lord has brought the exile as judgment for the nation’s sin and now he continues to keep them at arm’s length by blinding them spiritually. The second half of 64:7 might support this, though the precise reading of the final verb is uncertain. On the other hand, the idiom of lament is sometimes ironic and hyperbolically deterministic. For example, Naomi lamented that Shaddai was directly opposing her and bringing her calamity (Ruth 1:20-21), while the author of Ps 88 directly attributes his horrible suffering and loneliness to God (see especially vv. 6-8, 16-18). Both individuals make little, if any, room for intermediate causes or the principle of sin and death which ravages the human race. In the same way, the speaker in Isa 63:17 (who evidences great spiritual sensitivity and is anything but “hardened”) may be referring to the hardships of exile, which discouraged and even embittered the people, causing many of them to retreat from their Yahwistic faith. In this case, the “hardening” in view is more indirect and can be lifted by the Lord’s intervention. Whether the hardening here is indirect or direct, it is important to recognize that the speaker sees it as one of the effects of rebellion against the Lord (note especially 64:5-6).
11 tn Or “holy” (ASV, NASB, NRSV, TEV, NLT).
12 tn Heb “for a short time they had a possession, the people of your holiness.”
13 tn Heb “your adversaries trampled on.”