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Isaiah 63:11-19

Context

63:11 His people remembered the ancient times. 1 

Where is the one who brought them up out of the sea,

along with the shepherd of 2  his flock?

Where is the one who placed his holy Spirit among them, 3 

63:12 the one who made his majestic power available to Moses, 4 

who divided the water before them,

gaining for himself a lasting reputation, 5 

63:13 who led them through the deep water?

Like a horse running on flat land 6  they did not stumble.

63:14 Like an animal that goes down into a valley to graze, 7 

so the Spirit of the Lord granted them rest.

In this way 8  you guided your people,

gaining for yourself an honored reputation. 9 

63:15 Look down from heaven and take notice,

from your holy, majestic palace!

Where are your zeal 10  and power?

Do not hold back your tender compassion! 11 

63:16 For you are our father,

though Abraham does not know us

and Israel does not recognize us.

You, Lord, are our father;

you have been called our protector from ancient times. 12 

63:17 Why, Lord, do you make us stray 13  from your ways, 14 

and make our minds stubborn so that we do not obey you? 15 

Return for the sake of your servants,

the tribes of your inheritance!

63:18 For a short time your special 16  nation possessed a land, 17 

but then our adversaries knocked down 18  your holy sanctuary.

63:19 We existed from ancient times, 19 

but you did not rule over them,

they were not your subjects. 20 

1 tn Heb “and he remembered the days of antiquity, Moses, his people.” The syntax of the statement is unclear. The translation assumes that “his people” is the subject of the verb “remembered.” If original, “Moses” is in apposition to “the days of antiquity,” more precisely identifying the time period referred to. However, the syntactical awkwardness suggests that “Moses” may have been an early marginal note (perhaps identifying “the shepherd of his flock” two lines later) that has worked its way into the text.

2 tn The Hebrew text has a plural form, which if retained and taken as a numerical plural, would probably refer to Moses, Aaron, and the Israelite tribal leaders at the time of the Exodus. Most prefer to emend the form to the singular (רָעָה, raah) and understand this as a reference just to Moses.

3 sn See the note at v. 10.

4 tn Heb “who caused to go at the right hand of Moses the arm of his splendor.”

5 tn Heb “making for himself a lasting name.”

6 tn Heb “in the desert [or “steppe”].”

7 tn The words “to graze” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

8 tn Or “so” (KJV, ASV), or “thus” (NAB, NRSV).

9 tn Heb “making for yourself a majestic name.”

10 tn This probably refers to his zeal for his people, which motivates him to angrily strike out against their enemies.

11 tn The Hebrew text reads literally, “the agitation of your intestines and your compassion to me they are held back.” The phrase “agitation of your intestines” is metonymic, referring to the way in which one’s nervous system reacts when one feels pity and compassion toward another. אֵלַי (’elay, “to me”) is awkward in this context, where the speaker represents the nation and, following the introduction (see v. 7), utilizes first person plural forms. The translation assumes an emendation to the negative particle אַל (’al). This also necessitates emending the following verb form (which is a plural perfect) to a singular jussive (תִתְאַפָּק, titappaq). The Hitpael of אָפַק (’afaq) also occurs in 42:14.

12 tn Heb “our protector [or “redeemer”] from antiquity [is] your name.”

13 tn Some suggest a tolerative use of the Hiphil here, “[why do] you allow us to stray?” (cf. NLT). Though the Hiphil of תָעָה (taah) appears to be tolerative in Jer 50:6, elsewhere it is preferable or necessary to take it as causative. See Isa 3:12; 9:15; and 30:28, as well as Gen 20:13; 2 Kgs 21:9; Job 12:24-25; Prov 12:26; Jer 23:13, 32; Hos 4:12; Amos 2:4; Mic 3:5.

14 tn This probably refers to God’s commands.

15 tn Heb “[Why do] you harden our heart[s] so as not to fear you.” The interrogative particle is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).

sn How direct this hardening is, one cannot be sure. The speaker may envision direct involvement on the Lord’s part. The Lord has brought the exile as judgment for the nation’s sin and now he continues to keep them at arm’s length by blinding them spiritually. The second half of 64:7 might support this, though the precise reading of the final verb is uncertain. On the other hand, the idiom of lament is sometimes ironic and hyperbolically deterministic. For example, Naomi lamented that Shaddai was directly opposing her and bringing her calamity (Ruth 1:20-21), while the author of Ps 88 directly attributes his horrible suffering and loneliness to God (see especially vv. 6-8, 16-18). Both individuals make little, if any, room for intermediate causes or the principle of sin and death which ravages the human race. In the same way, the speaker in Isa 63:17 (who evidences great spiritual sensitivity and is anything but “hardened”) may be referring to the hardships of exile, which discouraged and even embittered the people, causing many of them to retreat from their Yahwistic faith. In this case, the “hardening” in view is more indirect and can be lifted by the Lord’s intervention. Whether the hardening here is indirect or direct, it is important to recognize that the speaker sees it as one of the effects of rebellion against the Lord (note especially 64:5-6).

16 tn Or “holy” (ASV, NASB, NRSV, TEV, NLT).

17 tn Heb “for a short time they had a possession, the people of your holiness.”

18 tn Heb “your adversaries trampled on.”

19 tn Heb “we were from antiquity” (see v. 16). The collocation עוֹלָם + מִן + הָיָה (hayah + min + ’olam) occurs only here.

20 tn Heb “you did not rule them, your name was not called over them.” The expression “the name is called over” indicates ownership; see the note at 4:1. As these two lines stand they are very difficult to interpret. They appear to be stating that the adversaries just mentioned in v. 18 have not been subject to the Lord’s rule in the past, perhaps explaining why they could commit the atrocity described in v. 18b.



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