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Isaiah 60:1--66:24

Context
Zion’s Future Splendor

60:1 “Arise! Shine! For your light arrives!

The splendor 1  of the Lord shines on you!

60:2 For, look, darkness covers the earth

and deep darkness covers 2  the nations,

but the Lord shines on you;

his splendor 3  appears over you.

60:3 Nations come to your light,

kings to your bright light.

60:4 Look all around you! 4 

They all gather and come to you –

your sons come from far away

and your daughters are escorted by guardians.

60:5 Then you will look and smile, 5 

you will be excited and your heart will swell with pride. 6 

For the riches of distant lands 7  will belong to you

and the wealth of nations will come to you.

60:6 Camel caravans will cover your roads, 8 

young camels from Midian and Ephah.

All the merchants of Sheba 9  will come,

bringing gold and incense

and singing praises to the Lord. 10 

60:7 All the sheep of Kedar will be gathered to you;

the rams of Nebaioth will be available to you as sacrifices. 11 

They will go up on my altar acceptably, 12 

and I will bestow honor on my majestic temple.

60:8 Who are these who float along 13  like a cloud,

who fly like doves to their shelters? 14 

60:9 Indeed, the coastlands 15  look eagerly for me,

the large ships 16  are in the lead,

bringing your sons from far away,

along with their silver and gold,

to honor the Lord your God, 17 

the Holy One of Israel, 18  for he has bestowed honor on you.

60:10 Foreigners will rebuild your walls;

their kings will serve you.

Even though I struck you down in my anger,

I will restore my favor and have compassion on you. 19 

60:11 Your gates will remain open at all times;

they will not be shut during the day or at night,

so that the wealth of nations may be delivered,

with their kings leading the way. 20 

60:12 Indeed, 21  nations or kingdoms that do not serve you will perish;

such nations will be totally destroyed. 22 

60:13 The splendor of Lebanon will come to you,

its evergreens, firs, and cypresses together,

to beautify my palace; 23 

I will bestow honor on my throne room. 24 

60:14 The children of your oppressors will come bowing to you;

all who treated you with disrespect will bow down at your feet.

They will call you, ‘The City of the Lord,

Zion of the Holy One of Israel.’ 25 

60:15 You were once abandoned

and despised, with no one passing through,

but I will make you 26  a permanent source of pride

and joy to coming generations.

60:16 You will drink the milk of nations;

you will nurse at the breasts of kings. 27 

Then you will recognize that I, the Lord, am your deliverer,

your protector, 28  the powerful ruler of Jacob. 29 

60:17 Instead of bronze, I will bring you gold,

instead of iron, I will bring you silver,

instead of wood, I will bring you 30  bronze,

instead of stones, I will bring you 31  iron.

I will make prosperity 32  your overseer,

and vindication your sovereign ruler. 33 

60:18 Sounds of violence 34  will no longer be heard in your land,

or the sounds of 35  destruction and devastation within your borders.

You will name your walls, ‘Deliverance,’

and your gates, ‘Praise.’

60:19 The sun will no longer supply light for you by day,

nor will the moon’s brightness shine on you;

the Lord will be your permanent source of light –

the splendor of your God will shine upon you. 36 

60:20 Your sun will no longer set;

your moon will not disappear; 37 

the Lord will be your permanent source of light;

your time 38  of sorrow will be over.

60:21 All of your people will be godly; 39 

they will possess the land permanently.

I will plant them like a shoot;

they will be the product of my labor,

through whom I reveal my splendor. 40 

60:22 The least of you will multiply into 41  a thousand;

the smallest of you will become a large nation.

When the right time comes, I the Lord will quickly do this!” 42 

The Lord Will Rejuvenate His People

61:1 The spirit of the sovereign Lord is upon me,

because the Lord has chosen 43  me. 44 

He has commissioned 45  me to encourage 46  the poor,

to help 47  the brokenhearted,

to decree the release of captives,

and the freeing of prisoners,

61:2 to announce the year when the Lord will show his favor,

the day when our God will seek vengeance, 48 

to console all who mourn,

61:3 to strengthen those who mourn in Zion,

by giving them a turban, instead of ashes,

oil symbolizing joy, 49  instead of mourning,

a garment symbolizing praise, 50  instead of discouragement. 51 

They will be called oaks of righteousness, 52 

trees planted by the Lord to reveal his splendor. 53 

61:4 They will rebuild the perpetual ruins

and restore the places that were desolate; 54 

they will reestablish the ruined cities,

the places that have been desolate since ancient times.

61:5 55 “Foreigners will take care of 56  your sheep;

foreigners will work in your fields and vineyards.

61:6 You will be called, ‘the Lord’s priests,

servants of our God.’ 57 

You will enjoy 58  the wealth of nations

and boast about 59  the riches you receive from them. 60 

61:7 Instead of shame, you will get a double portion; 61 

instead of humiliation, they will rejoice over the land they receive. 62 

Yes, 63  they will possess a double portion in their land

and experience lasting joy.

61:8 For I, the Lord, love justice

and hate robbery and sin.

I will repay them because of my faithfulness; 64 

I will make a permanent covenant with them.

61:9 Their descendants will be known among the nations,

their offspring among the peoples.

All who see them will recognize that

the Lord has blessed them.” 65 

61:10 I 66  will greatly rejoice 67  in the Lord;

I will be overjoyed because of my God. 68 

For he clothes me in garments of deliverance;

he puts on me a robe symbolizing vindication. 69 

I look like a bridegroom when he wears a turban as a priest would;

I look like a bride when she puts on her jewelry. 70 

61:11 For just as the ground produces its crops

and a garden yields its produce,

so the sovereign Lord will cause deliverance 71  to grow,

and give his people reason to praise him in the sight of all the nations. 72 

The Lord Takes Delight in Zion

62:1 “For the sake of Zion I will not be silent;

for the sake of Jerusalem 73  I will not be quiet,

until her vindication shines brightly 74 

and her deliverance burns like a torch.”

62:2 Nations will see your vindication,

and all kings your splendor.

You will be called by a new name

that the Lord himself will give you. 75 

62:3 You will be a majestic crown in the hand of the Lord,

a royal turban in the hand of your God.

62:4 You will no longer be called, “Abandoned,”

and your land will no longer be called “Desolate.”

Indeed, 76  you will be called “My Delight is in Her,” 77 

and your land “Married.” 78 

For the Lord will take delight in you,

and your land will be married to him. 79 

62:5 As a young man marries a young woman,

so your sons 80  will marry you.

As a bridegroom rejoices over a bride,

so your God will rejoice over you.

62:6 I 81  post watchmen on your walls, O Jerusalem;

they should keep praying all day and all night. 82 

You who pray to 83  the Lord, don’t be silent!

62:7 Don’t allow him to rest until he reestablishes Jerusalem, 84 

until he makes Jerusalem the pride 85  of the earth.

62:8 The Lord swears an oath by his right hand,

by his strong arm: 86 

“I will never again give your grain

to your enemies as food,

and foreigners will not drink your wine,

which you worked hard to produce.

62:9 But those who harvest the grain 87  will eat it,

and will praise the Lord.

Those who pick the grapes will drink the wine 88 

in the courts of my holy sanctuary.”

62:10 Come through! Come through the gates!

Prepare the way for the people!

Build it! Build the roadway!

Remove the stones!

Lift a signal flag for the nations!

62:11 Look, the Lord announces to the entire earth: 89 

“Say to Daughter Zion,

‘Look, your deliverer comes!

Look, his reward is with him

and his reward goes before him!’” 90 

62:12 They will be called, “The Holy People,

the Ones Protected 91  by the Lord.”

You will be called, “Sought After,

City Not Abandoned.”

The Victorious Divine Warrior

63:1 Who is this who comes from Edom, 92 

dressed in bright red, coming from Bozrah? 93 

Who 94  is this one wearing royal attire, 95 

who marches confidently 96  because of his great strength?

“It is I, the one who announces vindication,

and who is able to deliver!” 97 

63:2 Why are your clothes red?

Why do you look like someone who has stomped on grapes in a vat? 98 

63:3 “I have stomped grapes in the winepress all by myself;

no one from the nations joined me.

I stomped on them 99  in my anger;

I trampled them down in my rage.

Their juice splashed on my garments,

and stained 100  all my clothes.

63:4 For I looked forward to the day of vengeance,

and then payback time arrived. 101 

63:5 I looked, but there was no one to help;

I was shocked because there was no one offering support. 102 

So my right arm accomplished deliverance;

my raging anger drove me on. 103 

63:6 I trampled nations in my anger,

I made them drunk 104  in my rage,

I splashed their blood on the ground.” 105 

A Prayer for Divine Intervention

63:7 I will tell of the faithful acts of the Lord,

of the Lord’s praiseworthy deeds.

I will tell about all 106  the Lord did for us,

the many good things he did for the family of Israel, 107 

because of 108  his compassion and great faithfulness.

63:8 He said, “Certainly they will be my people,

children who are not disloyal.” 109 

He became their deliverer.

63:9 Through all that they suffered, he suffered too. 110 

The messenger sent from his very presence 111  delivered them.

In his love and mercy he protected 112  them;

he lifted them up and carried them throughout ancient times. 113 

63:10 But they rebelled and offended 114  his holy Spirit, 115 

so he turned into an enemy

and fought against them.

63:11 His people remembered the ancient times. 116 

Where is the one who brought them up out of the sea,

along with the shepherd of 117  his flock?

Where is the one who placed his holy Spirit among them, 118 

63:12 the one who made his majestic power available to Moses, 119 

who divided the water before them,

gaining for himself a lasting reputation, 120 

63:13 who led them through the deep water?

Like a horse running on flat land 121  they did not stumble.

63:14 Like an animal that goes down into a valley to graze, 122 

so the Spirit of the Lord granted them rest.

In this way 123  you guided your people,

gaining for yourself an honored reputation. 124 

63:15 Look down from heaven and take notice,

from your holy, majestic palace!

Where are your zeal 125  and power?

Do not hold back your tender compassion! 126 

63:16 For you are our father,

though Abraham does not know us

and Israel does not recognize us.

You, Lord, are our father;

you have been called our protector from ancient times. 127 

63:17 Why, Lord, do you make us stray 128  from your ways, 129 

and make our minds stubborn so that we do not obey you? 130 

Return for the sake of your servants,

the tribes of your inheritance!

63:18 For a short time your special 131  nation possessed a land, 132 

but then our adversaries knocked down 133  your holy sanctuary.

63:19 We existed from ancient times, 134 

but you did not rule over them,

they were not your subjects. 135 

64:1 (63:19b) 136  If only you would tear apart the sky 137  and come down!

The mountains would tremble 138  before you!

64:2 (64:1) As when fire ignites dry wood,

or fire makes water boil,

let your adversaries know who you are, 139 

and may the nations shake at your presence!

64:3 When you performed awesome deeds that took us by surprise, 140 

you came down, and the mountains trembled 141  before you.

64:4 Since ancient times no one has heard or perceived, 142 

no eye has seen any God besides you,

who intervenes for those who wait for him.

64:5 You assist 143  those who delight in doing what is right, 144 

who observe your commandments. 145 

Look, you were angry because we violated them continually.

How then can we be saved? 146 

64:6 We are all like one who is unclean,

all our so-called righteous acts are like a menstrual rag in your sight. 147 

We all wither like a leaf;

our sins carry us away like the wind.

64:7 No one invokes 148  your name,

or makes an effort 149  to take hold of you.

For you have rejected us 150 

and handed us over to our own sins. 151 

64:8 Yet, 152  Lord, you are our father.

We are the clay, and you are our potter;

we are all the product of your labor. 153 

64:9 Lord, do not be too angry!

Do not hold our sins against us continually! 154 

Take a good look at your people, at all of us! 155 

64:10 Your chosen 156  cities have become a desert;

Zion has become a desert,

Jerusalem 157  is a desolate ruin.

64:11 Our holy temple, our pride and joy, 158 

the place where our ancestors praised you,

has been burned with fire;

all our prized possessions have been destroyed. 159 

64:12 In light of all this, 160  how can you still hold back, Lord?

How can you be silent and continue to humiliate us?

The Lord Will Distinguish Between Sinners and the Godly

65:1 “I made myself available to those who did not ask for me; 161 

I appeared to those who did not look for me. 162 

I said, ‘Here I am! Here I am!’

to a nation that did not invoke 163  my name.

65:2 I spread out my hands all day long

to my rebellious people,

who lived in a way that is morally unacceptable,

and who did what they desired. 164 

65:3 These people continually and blatantly offend me 165 

as they sacrifice in their sacred orchards 166 

and burn incense on brick altars. 167 

65:4 They sit among the tombs 168 

and keep watch all night long. 169 

They eat pork, 170 

and broth 171  from unclean sacrificial meat is in their pans.

65:5 They say, ‘Keep to yourself!

Don’t get near me, for I am holier than you!’

These people are like smoke in my nostrils,

like a fire that keeps burning all day long.

65:6 Look, I have decreed: 172 

I will not keep silent, but will pay them back;

I will pay them back exactly what they deserve, 173 

65:7 for your sins and your ancestors’ sins,” 174  says the Lord.

“Because they burned incense on the mountains

and offended 175  me on the hills,

I will punish them in full measure.” 176 

65:8 This is what the Lord says:

“When 177  juice is discovered in a cluster of grapes,

someone says, ‘Don’t destroy it, for it contains juice.’ 178 

So I will do for the sake of my servants –

I will not destroy everyone. 179 

65:9 I will bring forth descendants from Jacob,

and from Judah people to take possession of my mountains.

My chosen ones will take possession of the land; 180 

my servants will live there.

65:10 Sharon 181  will become a pasture for sheep,

and the Valley of Achor 182  a place where cattle graze; 183 

they will belong to my people, who seek me. 184 

65:11 But as for you who abandon the Lord

and forget about worshiping at 185  my holy mountain,

who prepare a feast for the god called ‘Fortune,’ 186 

and fill up wine jugs for the god called ‘Destiny’ 187 

65:12 I predestine you to die by the sword, 188 

all of you will kneel down at the slaughtering block, 189 

because I called to you, and you did not respond,

I spoke and you did not listen.

You did evil before me; 190 

you chose to do what displeases me.”

65:13 So this is what the sovereign Lord says:

“Look, my servants will eat, but you will be hungry!

Look, my servants will drink, but you will be thirsty!

Look, my servants will rejoice, but you will be humiliated!

65:14 Look, my servants will shout for joy as happiness fills their hearts! 191 

But you will cry out as sorrow fills your hearts; 192 

you will wail because your spirits will be crushed. 193 

65:15 Your names will live on in the curse formulas of my chosen ones. 194 

The sovereign Lord will kill you,

but he will give his servants another name.

65:16 Whoever pronounces a blessing in the earth 195 

will do so in the name of the faithful God; 196 

whoever makes an oath in the earth

will do so in the name of the faithful God. 197 

For past problems will be forgotten;

I will no longer think about them. 198 

65:17 For look, I am ready to create

new heavens and a new earth! 199 

The former ones 200  will not be remembered;

no one will think about them anymore. 201 

65:18 But be happy and rejoice forevermore

over what I am about to create!

For look, I am ready to create Jerusalem 202  to be a source of joy, 203 

and her people to be a source of happiness. 204 

65:19 Jerusalem will bring me joy,

and my people will bring me happiness. 205 

The sound of weeping or cries of sorrow

will never be heard in her again.

65:20 Never again will one of her infants live just a few days 206 

or an old man die before his time. 207 

Indeed, no one will die before the age of a hundred, 208 

anyone who fails to reach 209  the age of a hundred will be considered cursed.

65:21 They will build houses and live in them;

they will plant vineyards and eat their fruit.

65:22 No longer will they build a house only to have another live in it, 210 

or plant a vineyard only to have another eat its fruit, 211 

for my people will live as long as trees, 212 

and my chosen ones will enjoy to the fullest what they have produced. 213 

65:23 They will not work in vain,

or give birth to children that will experience disaster. 214 

For the Lord will bless their children

and their descendants. 215 

65:24 Before they even call out, 216  I will respond;

while they are still speaking, I will hear.

65:25 A wolf and a lamb will graze together; 217 

a lion, like an ox, will eat straw, 218 

and a snake’s food will be dirt. 219 

They will no longer injure or destroy

on my entire royal mountain,” 220  says the Lord.

66:1 This is what the Lord says:

“The heavens are my throne

and the earth is my footstool.

Where then is the house you will build for me?

Where is the place where I will rest?

66:2 My hand made them; 221 

that is how they came to be,” 222  says the Lord.

I show special favor 223  to the humble and contrite,

who respect what I have to say. 224 

66:3 The one who slaughters a bull also strikes down a man; 225 

the one who sacrifices a lamb also breaks a dog’s neck; 226 

the one who presents an offering includes pig’s blood with it; 227 

the one who offers incense also praises an idol. 228 

They have decided to behave this way; 229 

they enjoy these disgusting practices. 230 

66:4 So I will choose severe punishment 231  for them;

I will bring on them what they dread,

because I called, and no one responded,

I spoke and they did not listen.

They did evil before me; 232 

they chose to do what displeases me.”

66:5 Hear the word of the Lord,

you who respect what he has to say! 233 

Your countrymen, 234  who hate you

and exclude you, supposedly for the sake of my name,

say, “May the Lord be glorified,

then we will witness your joy.” 235 

But they will be put to shame.

66:6 The sound of battle comes from the city;

the sound comes from the temple!

It is the sound of the Lord paying back his enemies.

66:7 Before she goes into labor, she gives birth!

Before her contractions begin, she delivers a boy!

66:8 Who has ever heard of such a thing?

Who has ever seen this?

Can a country 236  be brought forth in one day?

Can a nation be born in a single moment?

Yet as soon as Zion goes into labor she gives birth to sons!

66:9 “Do I bring a baby to the birth opening and then not deliver it?”

asks the Lord.

“Or do I bring a baby to the point of delivery and then hold it back?”

asks your God. 237 

66:10 Be happy for Jerusalem

and rejoice with her, all you who love her!

Share in her great joy,

all you who have mourned over her!

66:11 For 238  you will nurse from her satisfying breasts and be nourished; 239 

you will feed with joy from her milk-filled breasts. 240 

66:12 For this is what the Lord says:

“Look, I am ready to extend to her prosperity that will flow like a river,

the riches of nations will flow into her like a stream that floods its banks. 241 

You will nurse from her breast 242  and be carried at her side;

you will play on her knees.

66:13 As a mother consoles a child, 243 

so I will console you,

and you will be consoled over Jerusalem.”

66:14 When you see this, you will be happy, 244 

and you will be revived. 245 

The Lord will reveal his power to his servants

and his anger to his enemies. 246 

66:15 For look, the Lord comes with fire,

his chariots come like a windstorm, 247 

to reveal his raging anger,

his battle cry, and his flaming arrows. 248 

66:16 For the Lord judges all humanity 249 

with fire and his sword;

the Lord will kill many. 250 

66:17 “As for those who consecrate and ritually purify themselves so they can follow their leader and worship in the sacred orchards, 251  those who eat the flesh of pigs and other disgusting creatures, like mice 252  – they will all be destroyed together,” 253  says the Lord. 66:18 “I hate their deeds and thoughts! So I am coming 254  to gather all the nations and ethnic groups; 255  they will come and witness my splendor. 66:19 I will perform a mighty act among them 256  and then send some of those who remain to the nations – to Tarshish, Pul, 257  Lud 258  (known for its archers 259 ), Tubal, Javan, 260  and to the distant coastlands 261  that have not heard about me or seen my splendor. They will tell the nations of my splendor. 66:20 They will bring back all your countrymen 262  from all the nations as an offering to the Lord. They will bring them 263  on horses, in chariots, in wagons, on mules, and on camels 264  to my holy hill Jerusalem,” says the Lord, “just as the Israelites bring offerings to the Lord’s temple in ritually pure containers. 66:21 And I will choose some of them as priests and Levites,” says the Lord. 66:22 “For just as the new heavens and the new earth I am about to make will remain standing before me,” says the Lord, “so your descendants and your name will remain. 66:23 From one month 265  to the next and from one Sabbath to the next, all people 266  will come to worship me,” 267  says the Lord. 66:24 “They will go out and observe the corpses of those who rebelled against me, for the maggots that eat them will not die, 268  and the fire that consumes them will not die out. 269  All people will find the sight abhorrent.” 270 

1 tn Or “glory” (so most English versions).

2 tn The verb “covers” is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).

3 tn Or “glory” (so most English versions); TEV “the brightness of his presence.”

4 tn Heb “Lift up around your eyes and see!”

5 tn Or “shine,” or “be radiant” (NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV).

6 tn Heb “and it will tremble and be wide, your heart.”

7 tn Heb “the wealth of the sea,” i.e., wealth that is transported from distant lands via the sea.

8 tn Heb “an abundance of camels will cover you.”

9 tn Heb “all of them, from Sheba.”

10 tn Heb “and they will announce the praises of the Lord.”

11 tn Heb “will serve you,” i.e., be available as sacrifices (see the next line). Another option is to understood these “rams” as symbolic of leaders who will be subject to the people of Zion. See v. 10.

12 tc Heb “they will go up on acceptance [on] my altar.” Some have suggested that the preposition עַל (’al) is dittographic (note the preceding יַעֲלוּ [yaalu]). Consequently, the form should be emended to לְרָצוֹן (lÿratson, “acceptably”; see BDB 953 s.v. רָצוֹן). However, the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa has both לרצון followed by the preposition על, which would argue against deleted the preposition. As the above translation seeks to demonstrate, the preposition עַל (’al) indicates a norm (“in accordance with acceptance” or “acceptably”; IBHS 218 §11.2.13e, n. 111) and the “altar” functions as an objective accusative with a verb of motion (cf. Gen 49:4; Lev 2:2; Num 13:17; J. N. Oswalt, Isaiah [NICOT], 2:534, n. 14).

13 tn Heb “fly” (so KJV, NASB, NRSV); NAB, NIV “fly along.”

14 tn Heb “to their windows,” i.e., to the openings in their coops. See HALOT 83 s.v. אֲרֻבָּה.

15 tn Or “islands” (NIV); CEV “distant islands”; TEV “distant lands.”

16 tn Heb “the ships of Tarshish.” See the note at 2:16.

17 tn Heb “to the name of the Lord your God.”

18 sn See the note on the phrase “the Holy One of Israel” in 1:4.

19 tn Heb “in my favor I will have compassion on you.”

20 tn Or “led in procession.” The participle is passive.

21 tn Or “For” (KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT); TEV “But.”

22 tn The infinitive absolute appears before the finite verb for emphasis.

23 tn Or “holy place, sanctuary.”

24 tn Heb “the place of my feet.” See Ezek 43:7, where the Lord’s throne is called the “place of the soles of my feet.”

25 sn See the note on the phrase “the Holy One of Israel” in 1:4.

26 tn Heb “Instead of your being abandoned and despised, with no one passing through, I will make you.”

27 sn The nations and kings are depicted as a mother nursing her children. Restored Zion will be nourished by them as she receives their wealth as tribute.

28 tn Or “redeemer.” See the note at 41:14.

29 sn See 1:24 and 49:26.

30 tn The words “I will bring you” are supplied in the translation; they are understood by ellipsis (see the preceding lines).

31 tn The words “I will bring you” are supplied in the translation; they are understood by ellipsis (see the first two lines of the verse).

32 tn Or “peace” (KJV and many other English versions).

33 tn The plural indicates degree. The language is ironic; in the past Zion was ruled by oppressive tyrants, but now personified prosperity and vindication will be the only things that will “dominate” the city.

34 tn The words “sounds of” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

35 tn The words “sounds of” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

36 tn Heb “and your God for your splendor.”

37 sn In this verse “sun” and “moon” refer to the Lord’s light, which will replace the sun and moon (see v. 19). Light here symbolizes the restoration of divine blessing and prosperity in conjunction with the Lord’s presence. See 30:26.

38 tn Heb “days” (so KJV, NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT).

39 tn Or “righteous” (NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT); NAB “just.”

40 tn Heb “a shoot of his planting, the work of my hands, to reveal splendor.”

41 tn Heb “will become” (so NASB, NIV).

42 tn Heb “I, the Lord, in its time, I will quickly do it.”

43 tn Heb “anointed,” i.e., designated to carry out an assigned task.

44 sn The speaker is not identified, but he is distinct from the Lord and from Zion’s suffering people. He possesses the divine spirit, is God’s spokesman, and is sent to release prisoners from bondage. The evidence suggests he is the Lord’s special servant, described earlier in the servant songs (see 42:1-4, 7; 49:2, 9; 50:4; see also 51:16).

45 tn Or “sent” (NAB); NCV “has appointed me.”

46 tn Or “proclaim good news to.”

47 tn Heb “to bind up [the wounds of].”

48 tn Heb “to announce the year of the Lord’s favor, and the day of our God’s vengeance.

49 tn Heb “oil of joy” (KJV, ASV); NASB, NIV, NRSV “the oil of gladness.”

50 tn Heb “garment of praise.”

51 tn Heb “a faint spirit” (so NRSV); KJV, ASV “the spirit of heaviness”; NASB “a spirit of fainting.”

52 tn Rather than referring to the character of the people, צֶדֶק (tsedeq) may carry the nuance “vindication” here, suggesting that God’s restored people are a testimony to his justice. See v. 2, which alludes to the fact that God will take vengeance against the enemies of his people. Cf. NAB “oaks of justice.”

53 tn Heb “a planting of the Lord to reveal splendor.”

54 tn Heb “and the formerly desolate places they will raise up.”

55 sn The Lord speaks in vv. 7-8 (and possibly v. 9). It is not clear where the servant’s speech (see vv. 1-3a) ends and the Lord’s begins. Perhaps the direct address to the people signals the beginning of the Lord’s speech.

56 tn Heb “will stand [in position] and shepherd.”

57 tn The Hebrew text adds, “it will be said concerning you.”

58 tn Heb “eat” (KJV, NAB, NASB); NIV “feed on”; NLT “be fed with.”

59 tc The form in the Hebrew text is probably a corruption of יִתְאַמְּרוּ (yitammÿru), a Hitpael from אָמַר (’amar), meaning “boast about” (see HALOT 67 s.v. II אמר, HALOT 416 s.v. ימר, and BDB 56 s.v. אָמַר).

60 tn Heb “their glory” (i.e., riches).

61 tn Heb “instead of your shame, a double portion.”

62 tn Heb “and [instead of] humiliation they will rejoice [over] their portion.” The term תָחָת (takhat, “instead of”) is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).

63 tn Heb “therefore” (so KJV, NASB); NIV “and so.”

64 tn Heb “in faithfulness”; NASB, NRSV, NLT “faithfully.”

65 tn Heb “all who see them will recognize them, that they [are] descendants [whom] the Lord has blessed.”

66 sn The speaker in vv. 10-11 is not identified, but it is likely that the personified nation (or perhaps Zion) responds here to the Lord’s promise of restoration.

67 tn The infinitive absolute appears before the finite verb for emphasis.

68 tn Heb “my being is happy in my God”; NAB “in my God is the joy of my soul.”

69 tn Heb “robe of vindication”; KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV “robe of righteousness.”

70 tn Heb “like a bridegroom [who] acts like a priest [by wearing] a turban, and like a bride [who] wears her jewelry.” The words “I look” are supplied for stylistic reasons and clarification.

71 tn Or perhaps, “righteousness,” but the context seems to emphasize deliverance and restoration (see v. 10 and 62:1).

72 tn Heb “and praise before all the nations.”

73 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

74 tn Heb “goes forth like brightness.”

75 tn Heb “which the mouth of the Lord will designate.”

76 tn Or “for”; KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV “but.”

77 tn Hebrew חֶפְצִי־בָהּ (kheftsi-vah), traditionally transliterated “Hephzibah” (so KJV, ASV, NIV).

78 tn Hebrew בְּעוּלָה (bÿulah), traditionally transliterated “Beulah” (so KJV, ASV, NIV).

79 tn That is, the land will be restored to the Lord’s favor and once again enjoy his blessing and protection. To indicate the land’s relationship to the Lord, the words “to him” have been supplied at the end of the clause.

80 tc The Hebrew text has “your sons,” but this produces an odd metaphor and is somewhat incongruous with the parallelism. In the context (v. 4b, see also 54:5-7) the Lord is the one who “marries” Zion. Therefore several prefer to emend “your sons” to בֹּנָיִךְ (bonayikh, “your builder”; e.g., NRSV). In Ps 147:2 the Lord is called the “builder of Jerusalem.” However, this emendation is not the best option for at least four reasons. First, although the Lord is never called the “builder” of Jerusalem in Isaiah, the idea of Zion’s children possessing the land does occur (Isa 49:20; 54:3; cf. also 14:1; 60:21). Secondly, all the ancient versions support the MT reading. Thirdly, although the verb בָּעַל (baal) can mean “to marry,” its basic idea is “to possess.” Consequently, the verb stresses a relationship more than a state. All the ancient versions render this verb “to dwell in” or “to dwell with.” The point is not just that the land will be reinhabited, but that it will be in a relationship of “belonging” to the Israelites. Hence a relational verb like בָּעַל is used (J. N. Oswalt, Isaiah [NICOT], 2:581). Finally, “sons” is a well-known metaphor for “inhabitants” (J. de Waard, Isaiah, 208).

81 sn The speaker here is probably the prophet.

82 tn Heb “all day and all night continually they do not keep silent.” The following lines suggest that they pray for the Lord’s intervention and restoration of the city.

83 tn Or “invoke”; NIV “call on”; NASB, NRSV “remind.”

84 tn “Jerusalem” is supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons; note the following line.

85 tn Heb “[the object of] praise.”

86 tn The Lord’s right hand and strong arm here symbolize his power and remind the audience that his might guarantees the fulfillment of the following promise.

87 tn Heb “it,” the grain mentioned in v. 8a.

88 tn Heb “and those who gather it will drink it.” The masculine singular pronominal suffixes attached to “gather” and “drink” refer back to the masculine noun תִּירוֹשׁ (tirosh, “wine”) in v. 8b.

89 tn Heb “to the end of the earth” (so NASB, NRSV).

90 sn As v. 12 indicates, the returning exiles are the Lord’s reward/prize. See also 40:10 and the note there.

91 tn Or “the redeemed of the Lord” (KJV, NAB).

92 sn Edom is here an archetype for the Lord’s enemies. See 34:5.

93 tn Heb “[in] bright red garments, from Bozrah.”

94 tn The interrogative particle is understood by ellipsis; note the first line of the verse.

95 tn Heb “honored in his clothing”; KJV, ASV “glorious in his apparel.”

96 tc The Hebrew text has צָעָה (tsaah), which means “stoop, bend” (51:14). The translation assumes an emendation to צָעַד (tsaad, “march”; see BDB 858 s.v. צָעָה).

97 tn Heb “I, [the one] speaking in vindication [or “righteousness”], great to deliver.”

98 tn Heb “and your garments like one who treads in a vat?”

99 sn Nations, headed by Edom, are the object of the Lord’s anger (see v. 6). He compares military slaughter to stomping on grapes in a vat.

100 tn Heb “and I stained.” For discussion of the difficult verb form, see HALOT 170 s.v. II גאל. Perhaps the form is mixed, combining the first person forms of the imperfect (note the alef prefix) and perfect (note the תי- ending).

101 tn Heb “for the day of vengeance was in my heart, and the year of my revenge came.” The term גְּאוּלַי (gÿulai) is sometimes translated here “my redemption,” for the verbal root גאל often means “deliver, buy back.” A גֹּאֵל (goel, “kinsman-redeemer”) was responsible for protecting the extended family’s interests, often by redeeming property that had been sold outside the family. However, the responsibilities of a גֹּאֵל extended beyond financial concerns. He was also responsible for avenging the shed blood of a family member (see Num 35:19-27; Deut 19:6-12). In Isa 63:4, where vengeance is a prominent theme (note the previous line), it is probably this function of the family protector that is in view. The Lord pictures himself as a blood avenger who waits for the day of vengeance to arrive and then springs into action.

102 sn See Isa 59:16 for similar language.

103 tn Heb “and my anger, it supported me”; NIV “my own wrath sustained me.”

104 sn See Isa 49:26 and 51:23 for similar imagery.

105 tn Heb “and I brought down to the ground their juice.” “Juice” refers to their blood (see v. 3).

106 tn Heb “according to all which.”

107 tn Heb “greatness of goodness to the house of Israel which he did for them.”

108 tn Heb “according to.”

109 tn Heb “children [who] do not act deceitfully.” Here the verb refers to covenantal loyalty.

110 tn Heb “in all their distress, there was distress to him” (reading לוֹ [lo] with the margin/Qere).

111 tn Heb “the messenger [or “angel”] of his face”; NIV “the angel of his presence.”

sn This may refer to the “angel of God” mentioned in Exod 14:19, who in turn may be identical to the divine “presence” (literally, “face”) referred to in Exod 33:14-15 and Deut 4:37. Here in Isa 63 this messenger may be equated with God’s “holy Spirit” (see vv. 10-11) and “the Spirit of the Lord” (v. 14). See also Ps 139:7, where God’s “Spirit” seems to be equated with his “presence” (literally, “face”) in the synonymous parallelistic structure.

112 tn Or “redeemed” (KJV, NAB, NIV), or “delivered.”

113 tn Heb “all the days of antiquity”; KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV “days of old.”

114 tn Or “grieved, hurt the feelings of.”

115 sn The phrase “holy Spirit” occurs in the OT only here (in v. 11 as well) and in Ps 51:11 (51:13 HT), where it is associated with the divine presence.

116 tn Heb “and he remembered the days of antiquity, Moses, his people.” The syntax of the statement is unclear. The translation assumes that “his people” is the subject of the verb “remembered.” If original, “Moses” is in apposition to “the days of antiquity,” more precisely identifying the time period referred to. However, the syntactical awkwardness suggests that “Moses” may have been an early marginal note (perhaps identifying “the shepherd of his flock” two lines later) that has worked its way into the text.

117 tn The Hebrew text has a plural form, which if retained and taken as a numerical plural, would probably refer to Moses, Aaron, and the Israelite tribal leaders at the time of the Exodus. Most prefer to emend the form to the singular (רָעָה, raah) and understand this as a reference just to Moses.

118 sn See the note at v. 10.

119 tn Heb “who caused to go at the right hand of Moses the arm of his splendor.”

120 tn Heb “making for himself a lasting name.”

121 tn Heb “in the desert [or “steppe”].”

122 tn The words “to graze” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

123 tn Or “so” (KJV, ASV), or “thus” (NAB, NRSV).

124 tn Heb “making for yourself a majestic name.”

125 tn This probably refers to his zeal for his people, which motivates him to angrily strike out against their enemies.

126 tn The Hebrew text reads literally, “the agitation of your intestines and your compassion to me they are held back.” The phrase “agitation of your intestines” is metonymic, referring to the way in which one’s nervous system reacts when one feels pity and compassion toward another. אֵלַי (’elay, “to me”) is awkward in this context, where the speaker represents the nation and, following the introduction (see v. 7), utilizes first person plural forms. The translation assumes an emendation to the negative particle אַל (’al). This also necessitates emending the following verb form (which is a plural perfect) to a singular jussive (תִתְאַפָּק, titappaq). The Hitpael of אָפַק (’afaq) also occurs in 42:14.

127 tn Heb “our protector [or “redeemer”] from antiquity [is] your name.”

128 tn Some suggest a tolerative use of the Hiphil here, “[why do] you allow us to stray?” (cf. NLT). Though the Hiphil of תָעָה (taah) appears to be tolerative in Jer 50:6, elsewhere it is preferable or necessary to take it as causative. See Isa 3:12; 9:15; and 30:28, as well as Gen 20:13; 2 Kgs 21:9; Job 12:24-25; Prov 12:26; Jer 23:13, 32; Hos 4:12; Amos 2:4; Mic 3:5.

129 tn This probably refers to God’s commands.

130 tn Heb “[Why do] you harden our heart[s] so as not to fear you.” The interrogative particle is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).

sn How direct this hardening is, one cannot be sure. The speaker may envision direct involvement on the Lord’s part. The Lord has brought the exile as judgment for the nation’s sin and now he continues to keep them at arm’s length by blinding them spiritually. The second half of 64:7 might support this, though the precise reading of the final verb is uncertain. On the other hand, the idiom of lament is sometimes ironic and hyperbolically deterministic. For example, Naomi lamented that Shaddai was directly opposing her and bringing her calamity (Ruth 1:20-21), while the author of Ps 88 directly attributes his horrible suffering and loneliness to God (see especially vv. 6-8, 16-18). Both individuals make little, if any, room for intermediate causes or the principle of sin and death which ravages the human race. In the same way, the speaker in Isa 63:17 (who evidences great spiritual sensitivity and is anything but “hardened”) may be referring to the hardships of exile, which discouraged and even embittered the people, causing many of them to retreat from their Yahwistic faith. In this case, the “hardening” in view is more indirect and can be lifted by the Lord’s intervention. Whether the hardening here is indirect or direct, it is important to recognize that the speaker sees it as one of the effects of rebellion against the Lord (note especially 64:5-6).

131 tn Or “holy” (ASV, NASB, NRSV, TEV, NLT).

132 tn Heb “for a short time they had a possession, the people of your holiness.”

133 tn Heb “your adversaries trampled on.”

134 tn Heb “we were from antiquity” (see v. 16). The collocation עוֹלָם + מִן + הָיָה (hayah + min + ’olam) occurs only here.

135 tn Heb “you did not rule them, your name was not called over them.” The expression “the name is called over” indicates ownership; see the note at 4:1. As these two lines stand they are very difficult to interpret. They appear to be stating that the adversaries just mentioned in v. 18 have not been subject to the Lord’s rule in the past, perhaps explaining why they could commit the atrocity described in v. 18b.

136 sn In BHS the chapter division occurs in a different place from the English Bible: 64:1 ET (63:19b HT) and 64:2-12 (64:1-11 HT). Beginning with 65:1 the verse numbers in the English Bible and the Hebrew Bible are again the same.

137 tn Or “the heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavens” or “sky” depending on the context.

138 tn Or “quake.” נָזֹלּוּ (nazollu) is from the verbal root זָלַל (zalal, “quake”; see HALOT 272 s.v. II זלל). Perhaps there is a verbal allusion to Judg 5:5, the only other passage where this verb occurs. In that passage the poet tells how the Lord’s appearance to do battle caused the mountains to shake.

139 tn Heb “to make known your name to your adversaries.” Perhaps the infinitive construct with preposition -לְ (lamed) should be construed with “come down” in v. 1a, or subordinated to the following line: “To make known your name to your adversaries, let the nations shake from before you.”

140 tn Heb “[for which] we were not waiting.”

141 tn See the note at v. 1.

142 tn Heb “from ancient times they have not heard, they have not listened.”

143 tn Heb “meet [with kindness].”

144 tn Heb “the one who rejoices and does righteousness.”

145 tn Heb “in your ways they remember you.”

146 tc The Hebrew text reads literally, “look, you were angry and we sinned against them continually [or perhaps, “in ancient times”] and we were delivered.” The statement makes little sense as it stands. The first vav [ו] consecutive (“and we sinned”) must introduce an explanatory clause here (see Num 1:48 and Isa 39:1 for other examples of this relatively rare use of the vav [ו] consecutive). The final verb (if rendered positively) makes no sense in this context – God’s anger at their sin resulted in judgment, not deliverance. One of the alternatives involves an emendation to וַנִּרְשָׁע (vannirsha’, “and we were evil”; LXX, NRSV, TEV). The Vulgate and the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa support the MT reading. One can either accept an emendation or cast the statement as a question (as above).

147 tn Heb “and like a garment of menstruation [are] all our righteous acts”; KJV, NIV “filthy rags”; ASV “a polluted garment.”

148 tn Or “calls out in”; NASB, NIV, NRSV “calls on.”

149 tn Or “rouses himself”; NASB “arouses himself.”

150 tn Heb “for you have hidden your face from us.”

151 tc The Hebrew text reads literally, “and you caused us to melt in the hand of our sin.” The verb וַתְּמוּגֵנוּ (vattÿmugenu) is a Qal preterite 2nd person masculine singular with a 1st person common plural suffix from the root מוּג (mug, “melt”). However, elsewhere the Qal of this verb is intransitive. If the verbal root מוּג (mug) is retained here, the form should be emended to a Polel pattern (וַתְּמֹגְגֵנוּ, vattÿmogÿgenu). The translation assumes an emendation to וַתְּמַגְּנֵנוּ (vattÿmaggÿnenu, “and you handed us over”). This form is a Piel preterite 2nd person masculine singular with a 1st person common plural suffix from the verbal root מִגֵּן (miggen, “hand over, surrender”; see HALOT 545 s.v. מגן and BDB 171 s.v. מָגָן). The point is that God has abandoned them to their sinful ways and no longer seeks reconciliation.

152 tn On the force of וְעַתָּה (vÿattah) here, see HALOT 902 s.v. עַתָּה.

153 tn Heb “the work of your hand.”

154 tn Heb “do not remember sin continually.”

155 tn Heb “Look, gaze at your people, all of us.” Another option is to translate, “Take a good look! We are all your people.”

156 tn Heb “holy” (so KJV, NASB, NRSV, NLT); NIV “sacred.”

157 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

158 tn Heb “our source of pride.”

159 tn Or “all that we valued has become a ruin.”

160 tn Heb “because of these”; KJV, ASV “for these things.”

161 tn Heb “I allowed myself to be sought by those who did not ask.”

162 tn Heb “I allowed myself to be found by those who did not seek.”

163 tn Heb “call out in”; NASB, NIV, NRSV “call on.”

164 tn Heb “who walked [in] the way that is not good, after their thoughts.”

165 tn Heb “the people who provoke me to anger to my face continually.”

166 tn Or “gardens” (KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT).

167 tn Or perhaps, “on tiles.”

168 sn Perhaps the worship of underworld deities or dead spirits is in view.

169 tn The Hebrew text reads literally, “and in the watches they spend the night.” Some understand נְּצוּרִים (nÿtsurim) as referring to “secret places” or “caves,” while others emend the text to וּבֵין צוּרִים (uven tsurim, “between the rocky cliffs”).

170 tn Heb “the flesh of the pig”; KJV, NAB, NASB “swine’s flesh.”

171 tc The marginal reading (Qere), supported by the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa, reads מְרַק (mÿraq, “broth”), while the consonantal text (Kethib) has פְרַק (feraq, “fragment”).

172 tn Heb “Look, it is written before me.”

173 tn Heb “I will pay back into their lap.”

174 tn Heb “the iniquities of your fathers.”

175 tn Or perhaps, “taunted”; KJV “blasphemed”; NAB “disgraced”; NASB “scorned”; NIV “defied”; NRSV “reviled.”

176 tn Heb “I will measure out their pay [from the] beginning into their lap,” i.e., he will give them everything they have earned.

177 tn Heb “just as.” In the Hebrew text the statement is one long sentence, “Just as…, so I will do….”

178 tn Heb “for a blessing is in it.”

179 tn Heb “by not destroying everyone.”

180 tn Heb “it.” The third feminine singular pronominal suffix probably refers to the land which contains the aforementioned mountains.

181 sn Sharon was a plain located to the west, along the Mediterranean coast north of Joppa and south of Carmel.

182 sn The Valley of Achor (“Achor” means “trouble” in Hebrew) was the site of Achan’s execution. It was located to the east, near Jericho.

183 tn Heb “a resting place for cattle”; NASB, NIV “for herds.”

184 tn Heb “for my people who seek me.”

185 tn The Hebrew text has simply, “forget.” The words “about worshiping at” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

186 tn The Hebrew has לַגַּד (laggad, “for Gad”), the name of a pagan deity. See HALOT 176 s.v. II גַּד 2.

187 tn The Hebrew has לַמְנִי (lamni, “for Meni”), the name of a pagan deity. See HALOT 602 s.v. מְגִי.

188 tn Heb “I assign you to the sword.” Some emend the Qal verb form מָנִיתִי (maniti, “I assign”) to the Piel מִנִּיתִי (minniti, “ I ordain”). The verb sounds like the name of the god Meni (מְנִי, mÿni, “Destiny, Fate”). The sound play draws attention to the irony of the statement. The sinners among God’s people worship the god Meni, apparently in an effort to ensure a bright destiny for themselves. But the Lord is the one who really determines their destiny and he has decreed their demise.

189 tn Or “at the slaughter”; NIV “for the slaughter”; NLT “before the executioner.”

190 tn Heb “that which is evil in my eyes.”

191 tn Heb “from the good of the heart.”

192 tn Heb “from the pain of the heart.”

193 tn Heb “from the breaking of the spirit.”

194 tn Heb “you will leave your name for an oath to my chosen ones.”

sn For an example of such a curse formula see Jer 29:22.

195 tn Or “in the land” (NIV, NCV, NRSV). The same phrase occurs again later in this verse, with the same options.

196 tn Heb “will pronounce a blessing by the God of truth.”

197 tn Heb “will take an oath by the God of truth.”

198 tn Heb “for the former distresses will be forgotten, and they will be hidden from my eyes.”

199 sn This hyperbolic statement likens the coming transformation of Jerusalem (see vv. 18-19) to a new creation of the cosmos.

200 tn Or perhaps, “the former things” (so ASV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); TEV “The events of the past.”

201 tn Heb “and they will not come up on the mind.”

202 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

203 tn Heb “Jerusalem, joy.” The next verse suggests the meaning: The Lord will create Jerusalem to be a source of joy to himself.

204 tn Heb “her people, happiness.” See the preceding note.

205 tn Heb “and I will rejoice in Jerusalem, and be happy in my people.”

206 tn Heb “and there will not be from there again a nursing infant of days,” i.e., one that lives just a few days.

207 tn Heb “or an old [man] who does not fill out his days.”

208 tn Heb “for the child as a son of one hundred years will die.” The point seems to be that those who die at the age of a hundred will be considered children, for the average life span will be much longer than that. The category “child” will be redefined in light of the expanded life spans that will characterize this new era.

209 tn Heb “the one who misses.” חָטָא (khata’) is used here in its basic sense of “miss the mark.” See HALOT 305 s.v. חטא. Another option is to translate, “and the sinner who reaches the age of a hundred will be cursed.”

210 tn Heb “they will not build, and another live [in it].”

211 tn Heb “they will not plant, and another eat.”

212 tn Heb “for like the days of the tree [will be] the days of my people.”

213 tn Heb “the work of their hands” (so KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NLT “their hard-won gains.”

214 tn Heb “and they will not give birth to horror.”

215 tn Heb “for offspring blessed by the Lord they [will be], and their descendants along with them.”

216 tn The verb that introduces this verse serves as a discourse particle and is untranslated; see note on “in the future” in 2:2.

217 sn A similar statement appears in 11:6.

218 sn These words also appear in 11:7.

219 sn Some see an allusion to Gen 3:14 (note “you will eat dirt”). The point would be that even in this new era the snake (often taken as a symbol of Satan) remains under God’s curse. However, it is unlikely that such an allusion exists. Even if there is an echo of Gen 3:14, the primary allusion is to 11:8, where snakes are pictured as no longer dangerous. They will no longer attack other living creatures, but will be content to crawl along the ground. (The statement “you will eat dirt” in Gen 3:14 means “you will crawl on the ground.” In the same way the statement “dirt will be its food” in Isa 65:25 means “it will crawl on the ground.”)

220 tn Heb “in all my holy mountain.” These same words appear in 11:9. See the note there.

sn As in 11:1-9 the prophet anticipates a time when the categories predator-prey no longer exist. See the note at the end of 11:8.

221 tn Heb “all these.” The phrase refers to the heavens and earth, mentioned in the previous verse.

222 tn Heb “and all these were.” Some prefer to emend וַיִּהְיוּ (vayyihyu, “and they were”) to וְלִי הָיוּ (vÿli hayu, “and to me they were”), i.e., “and they belong to me.”

223 tn Heb “and to this one I look” (KJV and NASB both similar).

224 tn Heb “to the humble and the lowly in spirit and the one who trembles at my words.”

225 tn Heb “one who slaughters a bull, one who strikes down a man.” Some understand a comparison here and in the following lines. In God’s sight the one who sacrifices is like (i.e., regarded as) a murderer or one whose worship is ritually defiled or idolatrous. The translation above assumes that the language is not metaphorical, but descriptive of the sinners’ hypocritical behavior. (Note the last two lines of the verse, which suggests they are guilty of abominable practices.) On the one hand, they act pious and offer sacrifices; but at the same time they commit violent crimes against men, defile their sacrifices, and worship other gods.

226 tn Heb “one who sacrifices a lamb, one who breaks a dog’s neck.” Some understand a comparison, but see the previous note.

sn The significance of breaking a dog’s neck is uncertain, though the structure of the statement when compared to the preceding and following lines suggests the action is viewed in a negative light. According to Exod 13:13 and 34:20, one was to “redeem” a firstborn donkey by offering a lamb; if one did not “redeem” the firstborn donkey in this way, then its neck must be broken. According to Deut 21:1-9 a heifer’s neck was to be broken as part of the atonement ritual to purify the land from the guilt of bloodshed. It is not certain if these passages relate in any way to the action described in Isa 66:3.

227 tn Heb “one who offers an offering, pig’s blood.” Some understand a comparison, but see the note at the end of the first line.

228 tn Heb “one who offers incense as a memorial offering, one who blesses something false.” Some understand a comparison, but see the note at the end of the first line. אָוֶן (’aven), which has a wide variety of attested nuances, here refers metonymically to an idol. See HALOT 22 s.v. and BDB 20 s.v. 2.

229 tn Heb “also they have chosen their ways.”

230 tn Heb “their being [or “soul”] takes delight in their disgusting [things].”

231 tn The precise meaning of the noun is uncertain. It occurs only here and in 3:4 (but see the note there). It appears to be derived from the verbal root עָלַל (’alal), which can carry the nuance “deal severely.”

232 tn Heb “that which is evil in my eyes.”

233 tn Heb “who tremble at his word.”

234 tn Heb “brothers” (so NASB, NIV); NRSV “Your own people”; NLT “Your close relatives.”

235 tn Or “so that we might witness your joy.” The point of this statement is unclear.

236 tn Heb “land,” but here אֶרֶץ (’erets) stands metonymically for an organized nation (see the following line).

237 sn The rhetorical questions expect the answer, “Of course not!”

238 tn Or “in order that”; ASV, NRSV “that.”

239 tn Heb “you will suck and be satisfied, from her comforting breast.”

240 tn Heb “you will slurp and refresh yourselves from her heavy breast.”

sn Zion’s residents will benefit from and enjoy her great material prosperity. See v. 12.

241 tn Heb “Look, I am ready to extend to her like a river prosperity [or “peace”], and like an overflowing stream, the riches of nations.”

242 tn The words “from her breast” are supplied in the translation for clarification (see v. 11).

243 tn Heb “like a man whose mother comforts him.”

244 tn “and you will see and your heart will be happy.”

245 tn Heb “and your bones like grass will sprout.”

246 tn Heb “and the hand of the Lord will be made known to his servants, and anger to his enemies.”

247 sn Chariots are like a windstorm in their swift movement and in the way that they kick up dust.

248 tn Heb “to cause to return with the rage of his anger, and his battle cry [or “rebuke”] with flames of fire.”

249 tn Heb “flesh” (so KJV, NASB, NRSV); NIV “upon all men”; TEV “all the people of the world.”

250 tn Heb “many are the slain of the Lord.”

251 tn Heb “the ones who consecrate themselves and the ones who purify themselves toward the orchards [or “gardens”] after the one in the midst.” The precise meaning of the statement is unclear, though it is obvious that some form of idolatry is in view.

252 tn Heb “ones who eat the flesh of the pig and the disgusting thing and the mouse.”

253 tn Heb “together they will come to an end.”

254 tc The Hebrew text reads literally “and I, their deeds and their thoughts, am coming.” The syntax here is very problematic, suggesting that the text may have suffered corruption. Some suggest that the words “their deeds and their thoughts” have been displaced from v. 17. This line presents two primary challenges. In the first place, the personal pronoun “I” has no verb after it. Most translations insert “know” for the sake of clarity (NASB, NRSV, NLT, ESV). The NIV has “I, because of their actions and their imaginations…” Since God’s “knowledge” of Israel’s sin occasions judgment, the verb “hate” is an option as well (see above translation). The feminine form of the next verb (בָּאָה, baah) could be understood in one of two ways. One could provide an implied noun “time” (עֵת, ’et) and render the next line “the time is coming/has come” (NASB, ESV). One could also emend the feminine verb to the masculine בָּא (ba’) and have the “I” at the beginning of the line govern this verb as well (for the Lord is speaking here): “I am coming” (cf. NIV, NCV, NRSV, TEV, NLT).

255 tn Heb “and the tongues”; KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV “and tongues.”

256 tn Heb “and I will set a sign among them.” The precise meaning of this statement is unclear. Elsewhere “to set a sign” means “perform a mighty act” (Ps 78:43; Jer 32:20), “make [someone] an object lesson” (Ezek 14:8), and “erect a [literal] standard” (Ps 74:4).

257 tn Some prefer to read “Put” (i.e., Libya).

258 sn That is, Lydia (in Asia Minor).

259 tn Heb “drawers of the bow” (KJV and ASV both similar).

260 sn Javan is generally identified today as Greece (so NIV, NCV, NLT).

261 tn Or “islands” (NIV).

262 tn Heb “brothers” (so NIV); NCV “fellow Israelites.”

263 tn The words “they will bring them” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

264 tn The precise meaning of this word is uncertain. Some suggest it refers to “chariots.” See HALOT 498 s.v. *כִּרְכָּרָה.

265 tn Heb “new moon.” The verb that introduces this verse serves as a discourse particle and is untranslated; see note on “in the future” in 2:2.

266 tn Heb “all flesh” (so KJV, ASV, NRSV); NAB, NASB, NIV “all mankind”; NLT “All humanity.”

267 tn Or “bow down before” (NASB).

268 tn Heb “for their worm will not die.”

269 tn Heb “and their fire will not be extinguished.”

270 tn Heb “and they will be an abhorrence to all flesh.”

sn This verse depicts a huge mass burial site where the seemingly endless pile of maggot-infested corpses are being burned.



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