will be called “holy,” 3
all in Jerusalem who are destined to live. 4
he will rinse the bloodstains from Jerusalem’s midst, 8
as he comes to judge
and to bring devastation. 9
4:5 Then the Lord will create
over all of Mount Zion 10
and over its convocations
a cloud and smoke by day
and a bright flame of fire by night; 11
indeed a canopy will accompany the Lord’s glorious presence. 12
4:6 By day it will be a shelter to provide shade from the heat,
as well as safety and protection from the heavy downpour. 13
so the Lord who commands armies will protect Jerusalem. 15
He will protect and deliver it;
as he passes over 16 he will rescue it.
33:20 Look at Zion, the city where we hold religious festivals!
a peaceful settlement,
a tent that stays put; 19
its stakes will never be pulled up;
none of its ropes will snap in two.
Rivers and wide streams will flow through it; 21
no war galley will enter; 22
no large ships will sail through. 23
33:22 For the Lord, our ruler,
the Lord, our commander,
the Lord, our king –
he will deliver us.
the mast is not secured, 25
and the sail 26 is not unfurled,
at that time you will divide up a great quantity of loot; 27
even the lame will drag off plunder. 28
the people who live there will have their sin forgiven.
They will enter Zion with a happy shout.
Unending joy will crown them, 31
happiness and joy will overwhelm 32 them;
grief and suffering will disappear. 33
3 tn Or “set apart,” cf. CEV “special.”
4 tn Heb “all who are written down for life in Jerusalem.” A city register is envisioned; everyone whose name appears on the roll will be spared. This group comprises the remnant of the city referred to earlier in the verse.
5 tn Heb “when” (so KJV, NAB, NASB); CEV “after”; NRSV “once.”
6 tn The Hebrew term translated “sovereign master” here is אֲדֹנָי (’adonai).
7 tn The word refers elsewhere to vomit (Isa 28:8) and fecal material (Isa 36:12). Many English versions render this somewhat euphemistically as “filth” (e.g., NAB, NIV, NRSV). Ironically in God’s sight the beautiful jewelry described earlier is nothing but vomit and feces, for it symbolizes the moral decay of the city’s residents (cf. NLT “moral filth”).
9 tn Heb “by a spirit of judgment and by a spirit of burning.” The precise meaning of the second half of the verse is uncertain. רוּחַ (ruakh) can be understood as “wind” in which case the passage pictures the Lord using a destructive wind as an instrument of judgment. However, this would create a mixed metaphor, for the first half of the verse uses the imagery of washing and rinsing to depict judgment. Perhaps the image would be that of a windstorm accompanied by heavy rain. רוּחַ can also mean “spirit,” in which case the verse may be referring to the Lord’s Spirit or, more likely, to a disposition that the Lord brings to the task of judgment. It is also uncertain if בָּעַר (ba’ar) here means “burning” or “sweeping away, devastating.”
10 tn Heb “over all the place, Mount Zion.” Cf. NLT “Jerusalem”; CEV “the whole city.”
11 tn Heb “a cloud by day, and smoke, and brightness of fire, a flame by night.” Though the accents in the Hebrew text suggest otherwise, it might be preferable to take “smoke” with what follows, since one would expect smoke to accompany fire.
sn The imagery of the cloud by day and fire by night recalls the days of Moses, when a cloud and fire were tangible reminders that the Lord was guiding and protecting his people (Exod 13:21-22; 14:19, 24). In the future age envisioned in Isa 4, the Lord’s protective presence will be a reality.
13 tn Heb “a shelter it will be for shade by day from heat, and for a place of refuge and for a hiding place from cloudburst and rain.” Since both of the last nouns of this verse can mean rain, they can either refer to the rain storm and the rain as distinct items or together refer to a heavy downpour. Regardless, they do not represent unrelated phenomena.
14 tn Heb “just as birds fly.” The words “over a nest” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
16 tn The only other occurrence of this verb is in Exod 12:13, 23, 27, where the Lord “passes over” (i.e., “spares”) the Israelite households as he comes to judge their Egyptian oppressors. The noun פֶּסַח (pesakh, “Passover”) is derived from the verb. The use of the verb in Isa 31:5 is probably an intentional echo of the Exodus event. As in the days of Moses the Lord will spare his people as he comes to judge their enemies.
17 tn Heb “your eyes” (so NASB, NIV, NRSV).
19 tn Or “that does not travel”; NASB “which shall not be folded.”
20 tn Heb “But there [as] a mighty one [will be] the Lord for us.”
21 tn Heb “a place of rivers, streams wide of hands [i.e., on both sides].”
22 tn Heb “a ship of rowing will not go into it.”
23 tn Heb “and a mighty ship will not pass through it.”
24 tn The words “though at this time” are supplied in the translation for clarification. The first half of the verse is addressed to Judah and contrasts the nation’s present weakness with its future prosperity. Judah is compared to a ship that is incapable of sailing.
25 tn Heb “they do not fasten the base of their mast.” On כֵּן (ken, “base”) see BDB 487 s.v. III כֵּן and HALOT 483 s.v. III כֵּן.
26 tn Or perhaps, “flag.”
27 tn Heb “then there will be divided up loot of plunder [in] abundance.”
28 sn Judah’s victory over its enemies will be so thorough there will be more than enough plunder for everyone, even slow-moving lame men who would normally get left out in the rush to gather the loot.
29 tn The words “of Zion” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
30 tn Heb “and the redeemed will walk, the ransomed of the Lord will return.”
31 tn Heb “[will be] on their head[s].” “Joy” may be likened here to a crown (cf. 2 Sam 1:10). The statement may also be an ironic twist on the idiom “earth/dust on the head” (cf. 2 Sam 1:2; 13:19; 15:32; Job 2:12), referring to a mourning practice.
32 tn Heb “will overtake” (NIV); NLT “they will be overcome with.”
33 tn Heb “grief and groaning will flee”; KJV “sorrow and sighing shall flee away.”