1 tn The meaning of the verb אָשַׁשׁ (’ashash, which appears here in the Hitpolel stem) is uncertain. BDB 84 s.v. אשׁשׁ relates it to a root meaning “found, establish” in Arabic; HALOT 100 s.v. II אשׁשׁ gives the meaning “pluck up courage.” The imperative with vav (ו) may indicate purpose following the preceding imperative.
2 tn Heb “return [it], rebels, to heart”; NRSV “recall it to mind, you transgressors.”
3 tn Heb “remember the former things, from antiquity”; KJV, ASV “the former things of old.”
4 tn Heb “and there is no other” (so NASB, NIV, NRSV).