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Isaiah 44:28--45:6

Context

44:28 who commissions 1  Cyrus, the one I appointed as shepherd 2 

to carry out all my wishes 3 

and to decree concerning Jerusalem, ‘She will be rebuilt,’

and concerning the temple, ‘It will be reconstructed.’” 4 

45:1 This is what the Lord says to his chosen 5  one,

to Cyrus, whose right hand I hold 6 

in order to subdue nations before him,

and disarm kings, 7 

to open doors before him,

so gates remain unclosed:

45:2 “I will go before you

and level mountains. 8 

Bronze doors I will shatter

and iron bars 9  I will hack through.

45:3 I will give you hidden treasures, 10 

riches stashed away in secret places,

so you may recognize that I am the Lord,

the one who calls you by name, the God of Israel.

45:4 For the sake of my servant Jacob,

Israel, my chosen one,

I call you by name

and give you a title of respect, even though you do not recognize 11  me.

45:5 I am the Lord, I have no peer, 12 

there is no God but me.

I arm you for battle, 13  even though you do not recognize 14  me.

45:6 I do this 15  so people 16  will recognize from east to west

that there is no God but me;

I am the Lord, I have no peer.

Isaiah 46:11

Context

46:11 who summons an eagle 17  from the east,

from a distant land, one who carries out my plan.

Yes, I have decreed, 18 

yes, I will bring it to pass;

I have formulated a plan,

yes, I will carry it out.

Isaiah 48:14-16

Context

48:14 All of you, gather together and listen!

Who among them 19  announced these things?

The Lord’s ally 20  will carry out his desire against Babylon;

he will exert his power against the Babylonians. 21 

48:15 I, I have spoken –

yes, I have summoned him;

I lead him and he will succeed. 22 

48:16 Approach me! Listen to this!

From the very first I have not spoken in secret;

when it happens, 23  I am there.”

So now, the sovereign Lord has sent me, accompanied by his spirit. 24 

1 tn Heb “says to.” It is possible that the sentence is not completed, as the description of Cyrus and his God-given role is developed in the rest of the verse. 45:1 picks up where 44:28a leaves off with the Lord’s actual words to Cyrus finally being quoted in 45:2.

2 tn Heb “my shepherd.” The shepherd motif is sometimes applied, as here, to a royal figure who is responsible for the well-being of the people whom he rules.

3 tn Heb “that he might bring to completion all my desire.”

4 tn Heb “and [concerning the] temple, you will be founded.” The preposition -לְ (lÿ) is understood by ellipsis at the beginning of the second line. The verb תִּוָּסֵד (tivvased, “you will be founded”) is second masculine singular and is probably addressed to the personified temple (הֵיכָל [hekhal, “temple”] is masculine).

5 tn Heb “anointed” (so KJV, NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT); NCV “his appointed king.”

6 sn The “right hand” is a symbol of activity and strength; the Lord directs Cyrus’ activities and assures his success.

7 tn Heb “and the belts of kings I will loosen”; NRSV “strip kings of their robes”; NIV “strip kings of their armor.”

8 tc The form הֲדוּרִים (hadurim) makes little, if any, sense here. It is probably a corruption of an original הָרָרִים (hararim, “mountains”), the reduplicated form of הָר (har, “mountain”).

9 tn That is, on the gates. Cf. CEV “break the iron bars on bronze gates.”

10 tn Heb “treasures of darkness” (KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); TEV “treasures from dark, secret places.”

11 tn Or “know” (NCV, NRSV, TEV, NLT); NIV “acknowledge.”

12 tn Heb “and there is none besides.” On the use of עוֹד (’od) here, see BDB 729 s.v. 1.c.

13 tn Heb “gird you” (so NASB) or “strengthen you” (so NIV).

14 tn Or “know” (NAB, NCV, NRSV, TEV, CEV, NLT); NIV “have not acknowledged.”

15 tn The words “I do this” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

16 tn Heb “they” (so KJV, ASV); TEV, CEV “everyone”; NLT “all the world.”

17 tn Or, more generally, “a bird of prey” (so NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV; see 18:6).

18 tn Heb “spoken”; KJV “I have spoken it.”

19 sn This probably refers to the idol gods (see v. 5).

20 tn Or “friend,” or “covenant partner.”

sn The Lord’s ally is a reference to Cyrus.

21 tn Heb “and his arm [against] the Babylonians.”

22 tn Heb “and his way will be prosperous.”

23 tn Heb “from the time of its occurring.”

24 sn The speaker here is not identified specifically, but he is probably Cyrus, the Lord’s “ally” mentioned in vv. 14-15.



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