41:2 Who stirs up this one from the east? 1
Who 2 officially commissions him for service? 3
He hands nations over to him, 4
and enables him to subdue 5 kings.
He makes them like dust with his sword,
like windblown straw with his bow. 6
41:15 “Look, I am making you like 7 a sharp threshing sledge,
new and double-edged. 8
You will thresh the mountains and crush them;
you will make the hills like straw. 9
41:16 You will winnow them and the wind will blow them away;
the wind will scatter them.
You will rejoice in the Lord;
you will boast in the Holy One of Israel.
1 sn The expression this one from the east refers to the Persian conqueror Cyrus, as later texts indicate (see 44:28-45:6; 46:11; 48:14-16).
2 tn The interrogative particle is understood by ellipsis.
3 tn Heb “[in] righteousness called him to his foot.”
4 tn Heb “he [the Lord] places before him [Cyrus] nations.”
5 tn The verb יַרְדְּ (yardÿ) is an otherwise unattested Hiphil form from רָדָה (radah, “rule”). But the Hiphil makes no sense with “kings” as object; one must understand an ellipsis and supply “him” (Cyrus) as the object. The Qumran scroll 1QIsaa has יוֹרִד (yorid), which appears to be a Hiphil form from יָרַד (yarad, “go down”). Others suggest reading יָרֹד (yarod), a Qal form from רָדַד (radad, “beat down”).
6 sn The point is that they are powerless before Cyrus’ military power and scatter before him.
7 tn Heb “into” (so NIV); ASV “have made thee to be.”
8 tn Heb “owner of two-mouths,” i.e., double-edged.
9 sn The mountains and hills symbolize hostile nations that are obstacles to Israel’s restoration.