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Isaiah 40:1--66:24

Context
The Lord Returns to Jerusalem

40:1 “Comfort, comfort my people,”

says your 1  God.

40:2 “Speak kindly to 2  Jerusalem, 3  and tell her

that her time of warfare is over, 4 

that her punishment is completed. 5 

For the Lord has made her pay double 6  for all her sins.”

40:3 A voice cries out,

“In the wilderness clear a way for the Lord;

construct in the desert a road for our God.

40:4 Every valley must be elevated,

and every mountain and hill leveled.

The rough terrain will become a level plain,

the rugged landscape a wide valley.

40:5 The splendor 7  of the Lord will be revealed,

and all people 8  will see it at the same time.

For 9  the Lord has decreed it.” 10 

40:6 A voice says, “Cry out!”

Another asks, 11  “What should I cry out?”

The first voice responds: 12  “All people are like grass, 13 

and all their promises 14  are like the flowers in the field.

40:7 The grass dries up,

the flowers wither,

when the wind sent by the Lord 15  blows on them.

Surely humanity 16  is like grass.

40:8 The grass dries up,

the flowers wither,

but the decree of our God is forever reliable.” 17 

40:9 Go up on a high mountain, O herald Zion!

Shout out loudly, O herald Jerusalem! 18 

Shout, don’t be afraid!

Say to the towns of Judah,

“Here is your God!”

40:10 Look, the sovereign Lord comes as a victorious warrior; 19 

his military power establishes his rule. 20 

Look, his reward is with him;

his prize goes before him. 21 

40:11 Like a shepherd he tends his flock;

he gathers up the lambs with his arm;

he carries them close to his heart; 22 

he leads the ewes along.

The Lord is Incomparable

40:12 Who has measured out the waters 23  in the hollow of his hand,

or carefully 24  measured the sky, 25 

or carefully weighed 26  the soil of the earth,

or weighed the mountains in a balance,

or the hills on scales? 27 

40:13 Who comprehends 28  the mind 29  of the Lord,

or gives him instruction as his counselor? 30 

40:14 From whom does he receive directions? 31 

Who 32  teaches him the correct way to do things, 33 

or imparts knowledge to him,

or instructs him in skillful design? 34 

40:15 Look, the nations are like a drop in a bucket;

they are regarded as dust on the scales.

He lifts 35  the coastlands 36  as if they were dust.

40:16 Not even Lebanon could supply enough firewood for a sacrifice; 37 

its wild animals would not provide enough burnt offerings. 38 

40:17 All the nations are insignificant before him;

they are regarded as absolutely nothing. 39 

40:18 To whom can you compare God?

To what image can you liken him?

40:19 A craftsman casts 40  an idol;

a metalsmith overlays it with gold

and forges silver chains for it.

40:20 To make a contribution one selects wood that will not rot; 41 

he then seeks a skilled craftsman

to make 42  an idol that will not fall over.

40:21 Do you not know?

Do you not hear?

Has it not been told to you since the very beginning?

Have you not understood from the time the earth’s foundations were made?

40:22 He is the one who sits on the earth’s horizon; 43 

its inhabitants are like grasshoppers before him. 44 

He is the one who stretches out the sky like a thin curtain, 45 

and spreads it out 46  like a pitched tent. 47 

40:23 He is the one who reduces rulers to nothing;

he makes the earth’s leaders insignificant.

40:24 Indeed, they are barely planted;

yes, they are barely sown;

yes, they barely take root in the earth,

and then he blows on them, causing them to dry up,

and the wind carries them away like straw.

40:25 “To whom can you compare me? Whom do I resemble?”

says the Holy One. 48 

40:26 Look up at the sky! 49 

Who created all these heavenly lights? 50 

He is the one who leads out their ranks; 51 

he calls them all by name.

Because of his absolute power and awesome strength,

not one of them is missing.

40:27 Why do you say, Jacob,

Why do you say, Israel,

“The Lord is not aware of what is happening to me, 52 

My God is not concerned with my vindication”? 53 

40:28 Do you not know?

Have you not heard?

The Lord is an eternal God,

the creator of the whole earth. 54 

He does not get tired or weary;

there is no limit to his wisdom. 55 

40:29 He gives strength to those who are tired;

to the ones who lack power, he gives renewed energy.

40:30 Even youths get tired and weary;

even strong young men clumsily stumble. 56 

40:31 But those who wait for the Lord’s help 57  find renewed strength;

they rise up as if they had eagles’ wings, 58 

they run without growing weary,

they walk without getting tired.

The Lord Challenges the Nations

41:1 “Listen to me in silence, you coastlands! 59 

Let the nations find renewed strength!

Let them approach and then speak;

let us come together for debate! 60 

41:2 Who stirs up this one from the east? 61 

Who 62  officially commissions him for service? 63 

He hands nations over to him, 64 

and enables him to subdue 65  kings.

He makes them like dust with his sword,

like windblown straw with his bow. 66 

41:3 He pursues them and passes by unharmed; 67 

he advances with great speed. 68 

41:4 Who acts and carries out decrees? 69 

Who 70  summons the successive generations from the beginning?

I, the Lord, am present at the very beginning,

and at the very end – I am the one. 71 

41:5 The coastlands 72  see and are afraid;

the whole earth 73  trembles;

they approach and come.

41:6 They help one another; 74 

one says to the other, ‘Be strong!’

41:7 The craftsman encourages the metalsmith,

the one who wields the hammer encourages 75  the one who pounds on the anvil.

He approves the quality of the welding, 76 

and nails it down so it won’t fall over.”

The Lord Encourages His People

41:8 “You, my servant Israel,

Jacob whom I have chosen,

offspring of Abraham my friend, 77 

41:9 you whom I am bringing back 78  from the earth’s extremities,

and have summoned from the remote regions –

I told you, “You are my servant.”

I have chosen you and not rejected you.

41:10 Don’t be afraid, for I am with you!

Don’t be frightened, for I am your God! 79 

I strengthen you –

yes, I help you –

yes, I uphold you with my saving right hand! 80 

41:11 Look, all who were angry at you will be ashamed and humiliated;

your adversaries 81  will be reduced to nothing 82  and perish.

41:12 When you will look for your opponents, 83  you will not find them;

your enemies 84  will be reduced to absolutely nothing.

41:13 For I am the Lord your God,

the one who takes hold of your right hand,

who says to you, ‘Don’t be afraid, I am helping you.’

41:14 Don’t be afraid, despised insignificant Jacob, 85 

men of 86  Israel.

I am helping you,” says the Lord,

your protector, 87  the Holy One of Israel. 88 

41:15 “Look, I am making you like 89  a sharp threshing sledge,

new and double-edged. 90 

You will thresh the mountains and crush them;

you will make the hills like straw. 91 

41:16 You will winnow them and the wind will blow them away;

the wind will scatter them.

You will rejoice in the Lord;

you will boast in the Holy One of Israel.

41:17 The oppressed and the poor look for water, but there is none;

their tongues are parched from thirst.

I, the Lord, will respond to their prayers; 92 

I, the God of Israel, will not abandon them.

41:18 I will make streams flow down the slopes

and produce springs in the middle of the valleys.

I will turn the desert into a pool of water

and the arid land into springs.

41:19 I will make cedars, acacias, myrtles, and olive trees grow in the wilderness;

I will make evergreens, firs, and cypresses grow together in the desert.

41:20 I will do this so 93  people 94  will observe and recognize,

so they will pay attention and understand

that the Lord’s power 95  has accomplished this,

and that the Holy One of Israel has brought it into being.” 96 

The Lord Challenges the Pagan Gods

41:21 “Present your argument,” says the Lord.

“Produce your evidence,” 97  says Jacob’s king. 98 

41:22 “Let them produce evidence! Let them tell us what will happen!

Tell us about your earlier predictive oracles, 99 

so we may examine them 100  and see how they were fulfilled. 101 

Or decree for us some future events!

41:23 Predict how future events will turn out, 102 

so we might know you are gods.

Yes, do something good or bad,

so we might be frightened and in awe. 103 

41:24 Look, you are nothing, and your accomplishments are nonexistent;

the one who chooses to worship you is disgusting. 104 

41:25 I have stirred up one out of the north 105  and he advances,

one from the eastern horizon who prays in my name. 106 

He steps on 107  rulers as if they were clay,

like a potter treading the clay.

41:26 Who decreed this from the beginning, so we could know?

Who announced it 108  ahead of time, so we could say, ‘He’s correct’?

Indeed, none of them decreed it!

Indeed, none of them announced it!

Indeed, no one heard you say anything!

41:27 I first decreed to Zion, ‘Look, here’s what will happen!’ 109 

I sent a herald to Jerusalem. 110 

41:28 I look, but there is no one,

among them there is no one who serves as an adviser,

that I might ask questions and receive answers.

41:29 Look, all of them are nothing, 111 

their accomplishments are nonexistent;

their metal images lack any real substance. 112 

The Lord Commissions His Special Servant

42:1 113 “Here is my servant whom I support,

my chosen one in whom I take pleasure.

I have placed my spirit on him;

he will make just decrees 114  for the nations. 115 

42:2 He will not cry out or shout;

he will not publicize himself in the streets. 116 

42:3 A crushed reed he will not break,

a dim wick he will not extinguish; 117 

he will faithfully make just decrees. 118 

42:4 He will not grow dim or be crushed 119 

before establishing justice on the earth;

the coastlands 120  will wait in anticipation for his decrees.” 121 

42:5 This is what the true God, 122  the Lord, says –

the one who created the sky and stretched it out,

the one who fashioned the earth and everything that lives on it, 123 

the one who gives breath to the people on it,

and life to those who live on it: 124 

42:6 “I, the Lord, officially commission you; 125 

I take hold of your hand.

I protect you 126  and make you a covenant mediator for people, 127 

and a light 128  to the nations, 129 

42:7 to open blind eyes, 130 

to release prisoners 131  from dungeons,

those who live in darkness from prisons.

The Lord Intervenes

42:8 I am the Lord! That is my name!

I will not share my glory with anyone else,

or the praise due me with idols.

42:9 Look, my earlier predictive oracles have come to pass; 132 

now I announce new events.

Before they begin to occur,

I reveal them to you.” 133 

42:10 Sing to the Lord a brand new song!

Praise him 134  from the horizon of the earth,

you who go down to the sea, and everything that lives in it, 135 

you coastlands 136  and those who live there!

42:11 Let the desert and its cities shout out,

the towns where the nomads of Kedar live!

Let the residents of Sela shout joyfully;

let them shout loudly from the mountaintops.

42:12 Let them give the Lord the honor he deserves; 137 

let them praise his deeds in the coastlands. 138 

42:13 The Lord emerges like a hero,

like a warrior he inspires himself for battle; 139 

he shouts, yes, he yells,

he shows his enemies his power. 140 

42:14 “I have been inactive 141  for a long time;

I kept quiet and held back.

Like a woman in labor I groan;

I pant and gasp. 142 

42:15 I will make the trees on the mountains and hills wither up; 143 

I will dry up all their vegetation.

I will turn streams into islands, 144 

and dry up pools of water. 145 

42:16 I will lead the blind along an unfamiliar way; 146 

I will guide them down paths they have never traveled. 147 

I will turn the darkness in front of them into light,

and level out the rough ground. 148 

This is what I will do for them.

I will not abandon them.

42:17 Those who trust in idols

will turn back and be utterly humiliated, 149 

those who say to metal images, ‘You are our gods.’”

The Lord Reasons with His People

42:18 “Listen, you deaf ones!

Take notice, 150  you blind ones!

42:19 My servant is truly blind,

my messenger is truly deaf.

My covenant partner, 151  the servant of the Lord, is truly blind. 152 

42:20 You see 153  many things, but don’t comprehend; 154 

their ears are open, but do not hear.”

42:21 The Lord wanted to exhibit his justice

by magnifying his law and displaying it. 155 

42:22 But these people are looted and plundered;

all of them are trapped in pits 156 

and held captive 157  in prisons.

They were carried away as loot with no one to rescue them;

they were carried away as plunder, and no one says, “Bring that back!” 158 

42:23 Who among you will pay attention to this?

Who will listen attentively in the future? 159 

42:24 Who handed Jacob over to the robber?

Who handed Israel over to the looters? 160 

Was it not the Lord, against whom we sinned?

They refused to follow his commands;

they disobeyed his law. 161 

42:25 So he poured out his fierce anger on them,

along with the devastation 162  of war.

Its flames encircled them, but they did not realize it; 163 

it burned against them, but they did notice. 164 

The Lord Will Rescue His People

43:1 Now, this is what the Lord says,

the one who created you, O Jacob,

and formed you, O Israel:

“Don’t be afraid, for I will protect 165  you.

I call you by name, you are mine.

43:2 When you pass through the waters, I am with you;

when you pass 166  through the streams, they will not overwhelm you.

When you walk through the fire, you will not be burned;

the flames will not harm 167  you.

43:3 For I am the Lord your God,

the Holy One of Israel, 168  your deliverer.

I have handed over Egypt as a ransom price,

Ethiopia and Seba 169  in place of you.

43:4 Since you are precious and special in my sight, 170 

and I love you,

I will hand over people in place of you,

nations in place of your life.

43:5 Don’t be afraid, for I am with you.

From the east I will bring your descendants;

from the west I will gather you.

43:6 I will say to the north, ‘Hand them over!’

and to the south, ‘Don’t hold any back!’

Bring my sons from distant lands,

and my daughters from the remote regions of the earth,

43:7 everyone who belongs to me, 171 

whom I created for my glory,

whom I formed – yes, whom I made!

The Lord Declares His Sovereignty

43:8 Bring out the people who are blind, even though they have eyes,

those who are deaf, even though they have ears!

43:9 All nations gather together,

the peoples assemble.

Who among them announced this?

Who predicted earlier events for us? 172 

Let them produce their witnesses to testify they were right;

let them listen and affirm, ‘It is true.’

43:10 You are my witnesses,” says the Lord,

“my servant whom I have chosen,

so that you may consider 173  and believe in me,

and understand that I am he.

No god was formed before me,

and none will outlive me. 174 

43:11 I, I am the Lord,

and there is no deliverer besides me.

43:12 I decreed and delivered and proclaimed,

and there was no other god among you.

You are my witnesses,” says the Lord, “that I am God.

43:13 From this day forward I am he;

no one can deliver from my power; 175 

I will act, and who can prevent it?”

The Lord Will Do Something New

43:14 This is what the Lord says,

your protector, 176  the Holy One of Israel: 177 

“For your sake I send to Babylon

and make them all fugitives, 178 

turning the Babylonians’ joyful shouts into mourning songs. 179 

43:15 I am the Lord, your Holy One, 180 

the one who created Israel, your king.”

43:16 This is what the Lord says,

the one who made a road through the sea,

a pathway through the surging waters,

43:17 the one who led chariots and horses to destruction, 181 

together with a mighty army.

They fell down, 182  never to rise again;

they were extinguished, put out like a burning wick:

43:18 “Don’t remember these earlier events; 183 

don’t recall these former events.

43:19 “Look, I am about to do something new.

Now it begins to happen! 184  Do you not recognize 185  it?

Yes, I will make a road in the desert

and paths 186  in the wilderness.

43:20 The wild animals of the desert honor me,

the jackals and ostriches,

because I put water in the desert

and streams in the wilderness,

to quench the thirst of my chosen people,

43:21 the people whom I formed for myself,

so they might praise me.” 187 

The Lord Rebukes His People

43:22 “But you did not call for me, O Jacob;

you did not long 188  for me, O Israel.

43:23 You did not bring me lambs for your burnt offerings;

you did not honor me with your sacrifices.

I did not burden you with offerings;

I did not make you weary by demanding 189  incense.

43:24 You did not buy me aromatic reeds; 190 

you did not present to me 191  the fat of your sacrifices.

Yet you burdened me with your sins;

you made me weary with your evil deeds. 192 

43:25 I, I am the one who blots out your rebellious deeds for my sake;

your sins I do not remember.

43:26 Remind me of what happened! Let’s debate!

You, prove to me that you are right! 193 

43:27 The father of your nation 194  sinned;

your spokesmen 195  rebelled against me.

43:28 So I defiled your holy princes,

and handed Jacob over to destruction,

and subjected 196  Israel to humiliating abuse.”

The Lord Will Renew Israel

44:1 “Now, listen, Jacob my servant,

Israel whom I have chosen!”

44:2 This is what the Lord, the one who made you, says –

the one who formed you in the womb and helps you:

“Don’t be afraid, my servant Jacob,

Jeshurun, 197  whom I have chosen!

44:3 For I will pour water on the parched ground 198 

and cause streams to flow 199  on the dry land.

I will pour my spirit on your offspring

and my blessing on your children.

44:4 They will sprout up like a tree in the grass, 200 

like poplars beside channels of water.

44:5 One will say, ‘I belong to the Lord,’

and another will use 201  the name ‘Jacob.’

One will write on his hand, ‘The Lord’s,’

and use the name ‘Israel.’” 202 

The Absurdity of Idolatry

44:6 This is what the Lord, Israel’s king, says,

their protector, 203  the Lord who commands armies:

“I am the first and I am the last,

there is no God but me.

44:7 Who is like me? Let him make his claim! 204 

Let him announce it and explain it to me –

since I established an ancient people – 205 

let them announce future events! 206 

44:8 Don’t panic! Don’t be afraid! 207 

Did I not tell you beforehand and decree it?

You are my witnesses! Is there any God but me?

There is no other sheltering rock; 208  I know of none.

44:9 All who form idols are nothing;

the things in which they delight are worthless.

Their witnesses cannot see;

they recognize nothing, so they are put to shame.

44:10 Who forms a god and casts an idol

that will prove worthless? 209 

44:11 Look, all his associates 210  will be put to shame;

the craftsmen are mere humans. 211 

Let them all assemble and take their stand!

They will panic and be put to shame.

44:12 A blacksmith works with his tool 212 

and forges metal over the coals.

He forms it 213  with hammers;

he makes it with his strong arm.

He gets hungry and loses his energy; 214 

he drinks no water and gets tired.

44:13 A carpenter takes measurements; 215 

he marks out an outline of its form; 216 

he scrapes 217  it with chisels,

and marks it with a compass.

He patterns it after the human form, 218 

like a well-built human being,

and puts it in a shrine. 219 

44:14 He cuts down cedars

and acquires a cypress 220  or an oak.

He gets 221  trees from the forest;

he plants a cedar 222  and the rain makes it grow.

44:15 A man uses it to make a fire; 223 

he takes some of it and warms himself.

Yes, he kindles a fire and bakes bread.

Then he makes a god and worships it;

he makes an idol and bows down to it. 224 

44:16 Half of it he burns in the fire –

over that half he cooks 225  meat;

he roasts a meal and fills himself.

Yes, he warms himself and says,

‘Ah! I am warm as I look at the fire.’

44:17 With the rest of it he makes a god, his idol;

he bows down to it and worships it.

He prays to it, saying,

‘Rescue me, for you are my god!’

44:18 They do not comprehend or understand,

for their eyes are blind and cannot see;

their minds do not discern. 226 

44:19 No one thinks to himself,

nor do they comprehend or understand and say to themselves:

‘I burned half of it in the fire –

yes, I baked bread over the coals;

I roasted meat and ate it.

With the rest of it should I make a disgusting idol?

Should I bow down to dry wood?’ 227 

44:20 He feeds on ashes; 228 

his deceived mind misleads him.

He cannot rescue himself,

nor does he say, ‘Is this not a false god I hold in my right hand?’ 229 

44:21 Remember these things, O Jacob,

O Israel, for you are my servant.

I formed you to be my servant;

O Israel, I will not forget you! 230 

44:22 I remove the guilt of your rebellious deeds as if they were a cloud,

the guilt of your sins as if they were a cloud. 231 

Come back to me, for I protect 232  you.”

44:23 Shout for joy, O sky, for the Lord intervenes; 233 

shout out, you subterranean regions 234  of the earth.

O mountains, give a joyful shout;

you too, O forest and all your trees! 235 

For the Lord protects 236  Jacob;

he reveals his splendor through Israel. 237 

The Lord Empowers Cyrus

44:24 This is what the Lord, your protector, 238  says,

the one who formed you in the womb:

“I am the Lord, who made everything,

who alone stretched out the sky,

who fashioned the earth all by myself, 239 

44:25 who frustrates the omens of the empty talkers 240 

and humiliates 241  the omen readers,

who overturns the counsel of the wise men 242 

and makes their advice 243  seem foolish,

44:26 who fulfills the oracles of his prophetic servants 244 

and brings to pass the announcements 245  of his messengers,

who says about Jerusalem, 246  ‘She will be inhabited,’

and about the towns of Judah, ‘They will be rebuilt,

her ruins I will raise up,’

44:27 who says to the deep sea, ‘Be dry!

I will dry up your sea currents,’

44:28 who commissions 247  Cyrus, the one I appointed as shepherd 248 

to carry out all my wishes 249 

and to decree concerning Jerusalem, ‘She will be rebuilt,’

and concerning the temple, ‘It will be reconstructed.’” 250 

45:1 This is what the Lord says to his chosen 251  one,

to Cyrus, whose right hand I hold 252 

in order to subdue nations before him,

and disarm kings, 253 

to open doors before him,

so gates remain unclosed:

45:2 “I will go before you

and level mountains. 254 

Bronze doors I will shatter

and iron bars 255  I will hack through.

45:3 I will give you hidden treasures, 256 

riches stashed away in secret places,

so you may recognize that I am the Lord,

the one who calls you by name, the God of Israel.

45:4 For the sake of my servant Jacob,

Israel, my chosen one,

I call you by name

and give you a title of respect, even though you do not recognize 257  me.

45:5 I am the Lord, I have no peer, 258 

there is no God but me.

I arm you for battle, 259  even though you do not recognize 260  me.

45:6 I do this 261  so people 262  will recognize from east to west

that there is no God but me;

I am the Lord, I have no peer.

45:7 I am 263  the one who forms light

and creates darkness; 264 

the one who brings about peace

and creates calamity. 265 

I am the Lord, who accomplishes all these things.

45:8 O sky, rain down from above!

Let the clouds send down showers 266  of deliverance!

Let the earth absorb it 267  so salvation may grow, 268 

and deliverance may sprout up 269  along with it.

I, the Lord, create it. 270 

The Lord Gives a Warning

45:9 One who argues with his creator is in grave danger, 271 

one who is like a mere 272  shard among the other shards on the ground!

The clay should not say to the potter, 273 

“What in the world 274  are you doing?

Your work lacks skill!” 275 

45:10 Danger awaits one who says 276  to his father,

“What in the world 277  are you fathering?”

and to his mother,

“What in the world are you bringing forth?” 278 

45:11 This is what the Lord says,

the Holy One of Israel, 279  the one who formed him,

concerning things to come: 280 

“How dare you question me 281  about my children!

How dare you tell me what to do with 282  the work of my own hands!

45:12 I made the earth,

I created the people who live 283  on it.

It was me – my hands 284  stretched out the sky, 285 

I give orders to all the heavenly lights. 286 

45:13 It is me – I stir him up and commission him; 287 

I will make all his ways level.

He will rebuild my city;

he will send my exiled people home,

but not for a price or a bribe,”

says the Lord who commands armies.

The Lord is the Nations’ Only Hope

45:14 This is what the Lord says:

“The profit 288  of Egypt and the revenue 289  of Ethiopia,

along with the Sabeans, those tall men,

will be brought to you 290  and become yours.

They will walk behind you, coming along in chains. 291 

They will bow down to you

and pray to you: 292 

‘Truly God is with 293  you; he has no peer; 294 

there is no other God!’”

45:15 Yes, you are a God who keeps hidden,

O God of Israel, deliverer!

45:16 They will all be ashamed and embarrassed;

those who fashion idols will all be humiliated. 295 

45:17 Israel will be delivered once and for all by the Lord; 296 

you will never again be ashamed or humiliated. 297 

45:18 For this is what the Lord says,

the one who created the sky –

he is the true God, 298 

the one who formed the earth and made it;

he established it,

he did not create it without order, 299 

he formed it to be inhabited –

“I am the Lord, I have no peer.

45:19 I have not spoken in secret,

in some hidden place. 300 

I did not tell Jacob’s descendants,

‘Seek me in vain!’ 301 

I am the Lord,

the one who speaks honestly,

who makes reliable announcements. 302 

45:20 Gather together and come!

Approach together, you refugees from the nations!

Those who carry wooden idols know nothing,

those who pray to a god that cannot deliver.

45:21 Tell me! Present the evidence! 303 

Let them consult with one another!

Who predicted this in the past?

Who announced it beforehand?

Was it not I, the Lord?

I have no peer, there is no God but me,

a God who vindicates and delivers; 304 

there is none but me.

45:22 Turn to me so you can be delivered, 305 

all you who live in the earth’s remote regions!

For I am God, and I have no peer.

45:23 I solemnly make this oath 306 

what I say is true and reliable: 307 

‘Surely every knee will bow to me,

every tongue will solemnly affirm; 308 

45:24 they will say about me,

“Yes, the Lord is a powerful deliverer.”’” 309 

All who are angry at him will cower before him. 310 

45:25 All the descendants of Israel will be vindicated by the Lord

and will boast in him. 311 

The Lord Carries His People

46:1 Bel 312  kneels down,

Nebo 313  bends low.

Their images weigh down animals and beasts. 314 

Your heavy images are burdensome to tired animals. 315 

46:2 Together they bend low and kneel down;

they are unable to rescue the images; 316 

they themselves 317  head off into captivity. 318 

46:3 “Listen to me, O family of Jacob, 319 

all you who are left from the family of Israel, 320 

you who have been carried from birth, 321 

you who have been supported from the time you left the womb. 322 

46:4 Even when you are old, I will take care of you, 323 

even when you have gray hair, I will carry you.

I made you and I will support you;

I will carry you and rescue you. 324 

46:5 To whom can you compare and liken me?

Tell me whom you think I resemble, so we can be compared!

46:6 Those who empty out gold from a purse

and weigh out silver on the scale 325 

hire a metalsmith, who makes it into a god.

They then bow down and worship it.

46:7 They put it on their shoulder and carry it;

they put it in its place and it just stands there;

it does not 326  move from its place.

Even when someone cries out to it, it does not reply;

it does not deliver him from his distress.

46:8 Remember this, so you can be brave! 327 

Think about it, you rebels! 328 

46:9 Remember what I accomplished in antiquity! 329 

Truly I am God, I have no peer; 330 

I am God, and there is none like me,

46:10 who announces the end from the beginning

and reveals beforehand 331  what has not yet occurred,

who says, ‘My plan will be realized,

I will accomplish what I desire,’

46:11 who summons an eagle 332  from the east,

from a distant land, one who carries out my plan.

Yes, I have decreed, 333 

yes, I will bring it to pass;

I have formulated a plan,

yes, I will carry it out.

46:12 Listen to me, you stubborn people, 334 

you who distance yourself from doing what is right. 335 

46:13 I am bringing my deliverance near, it is not far away;

I am bringing my salvation near, 336  it does not wait.

I will save Zion; 337 

I will adorn Israel with my splendor.” 338 

Babylon Will Fall

47:1 “Fall down! Sit in the dirt,

O virgin 339  daughter Babylon!

Sit on the ground, not on a throne,

O daughter of the Babylonians!

Indeed, 340  you will no longer be called delicate and pampered.

47:2 Pick up millstones and grind flour!

Remove your veil,

strip off your skirt,

expose your legs,

cross the streams!

47:3 Let your private parts be exposed!

Your genitals will be on display! 341 

I will get revenge;

I will not have pity on anyone,” 342 

47:4 says our protector –

the Lord who commands armies is his name,

the Holy One of Israel. 343 

47:5 “Sit silently! Go to a hiding place, 344 

O daughter of the Babylonians!

Indeed, 345  you will no longer be called ‘Queen of kingdoms.’

47:6 I was angry at my people;

I defiled my special possession

and handed them over to you.

You showed them no mercy; 346 

you even placed a very heavy burden on old people. 347 

47:7 You said,

‘I will rule forever as permanent queen!’ 348 

You did not think about these things; 349 

you did not consider how it would turn out. 350 

47:8 So now, listen to this,

O one who lives so lavishly, 351 

who lives securely,

who says to herself, 352 

‘I am unique! No one can compare to me! 353 

I will never have to live as a widow;

I will never lose my children.’ 354 

47:9 Both of these will come upon you

suddenly, in one day!

You will lose your children and be widowed. 355 

You will be overwhelmed by these tragedies, 356 

despite 357  your many incantations

and your numerous amulets. 358 

47:10 You were complacent in your evil deeds; 359 

you thought, 360  ‘No one sees me.’

Your self-professed 361  wisdom and knowledge lead you astray,

when you say, ‘I am unique! No one can compare to me!’ 362 

47:11 Disaster will overtake you;

you will not know how to charm it away. 363 

Destruction will fall on you;

you will not be able to appease it.

Calamity will strike you suddenly,

before you recognize it. 364 

47:12 Persist 365  in trusting 366  your amulets

and your many incantations,

which you have faithfully recited 367  since your youth!

Maybe you will be successful 368 

maybe you will scare away disaster. 369 

47:13 You are tired out from listening to so much advice. 370 

Let them take their stand –

the ones who see omens in the sky,

who gaze at the stars,

who make monthly predictions –

let them rescue you from the disaster that is about to overtake you! 371 

47:14 Look, they are like straw,

which the fire burns up;

they cannot rescue themselves

from the heat 372  of the flames.

There are no coals to warm them,

no firelight to enjoy. 373 

47:15 They will disappoint you, 374 

those you have so faithfully dealt with since your youth. 375 

Each strays off in his own direction, 376 

leaving no one to rescue you.”

The Lord Appeals to the Exiles

48:1 Listen to this, O family of Jacob, 377 

you who are called by the name ‘Israel,’

and are descended from Judah, 378 

who take oaths in the name of the Lord,

and invoke 379  the God of Israel –

but not in an honest and just manner. 380 

48:2 Indeed, they live in the holy city; 381 

they trust in 382  the God of Israel,

whose name is the Lord who commands armies.

48:3 “I announced events beforehand, 383 

I issued the decrees and made the predictions; 384 

suddenly I acted and they came to pass.

48:4 I did this 385  because I know how stubborn you are.

Your neck muscles are like iron

and your forehead like bronze. 386 

48:5 I announced them to you beforehand;

before they happened, I predicted them for you,

so you could never say,

‘My image did these things,

my idol, my cast image, decreed them.’

48:6 You have heard; now look at all the evidence! 387 

Will you not admit that what I say is true? 388 

From this point on I am announcing to you new events

that are previously unrevealed and you do not know about. 389 

48:7 Now they come into being, 390  not in the past;

before today you did not hear about them,

so you could not say,

‘Yes, 391  I know about them.’

48:8 You did not hear,

you do not know,

you were not told beforehand. 392 

For I know that you are very deceitful; 393 

you were labeled 394  a rebel from birth.

48:9 For the sake of my reputation 395  I hold back my anger;

for the sake of my prestige 396  I restrain myself from destroying you. 397 

48:10 Look, I have refined you, but not as silver;

I have purified you 398  in the furnace of misery.

48:11 For my sake alone 399  I will act,

for how can I allow my name to be defiled? 400 

I will not share my glory with anyone else! 401 

48:12 Listen to me, O Jacob,

Israel, whom I summoned!

I am the one;

I am present at the very beginning

and at the very end. 402 

48:13 Yes, my hand founded the earth;

my right hand spread out the sky.

I summon them;

they stand together.

48:14 All of you, gather together and listen!

Who among them 403  announced these things?

The Lord’s ally 404  will carry out his desire against Babylon;

he will exert his power against the Babylonians. 405 

48:15 I, I have spoken –

yes, I have summoned him;

I lead him and he will succeed. 406 

48:16 Approach me! Listen to this!

From the very first I have not spoken in secret;

when it happens, 407  I am there.”

So now, the sovereign Lord has sent me, accompanied by his spirit. 408 

48:17 This is what the Lord, your protector, 409  says,

the Holy One of Israel: 410 

“I am the Lord your God,

who teaches you how to succeed,

who leads you in the way you should go.

48:18 If only you had obeyed my 411  commandments,

prosperity would have flowed to you like a river, 412 

deliverance would have come to you like the waves of the sea. 413 

48:19 Your descendants would have been as numerous as sand, 414 

and your children 415  like its granules.

Their name would not have been cut off

and eliminated from my presence. 416 

48:20 Leave Babylon!

Flee from the Babylonians!

Announce it with a shout of joy!

Make this known!

Proclaim it throughout the earth! 417 

Say, ‘The Lord protects 418  his servant Jacob.

48:21 They do not thirst as he leads them through dry regions;

he makes water flow out of a rock for them;

he splits open a rock and water flows out.’ 419 

48:22 There will be no prosperity for the wicked,” says the Lord.

Ideal Israel Delivers the Exiles

49:1 Listen to me, you coastlands! 420 

Pay attention, you people who live far away!

The Lord summoned me from birth; 421 

he commissioned me when my mother brought me into the world. 422 

49:2 He made my mouth like a sharp sword,

he hid me in the hollow of his hand;

he made me like a sharpened 423  arrow,

he hid me in his quiver. 424 

49:3 He said to me, “You are my servant,

Israel, through whom I will reveal my splendor.” 425 

49:4 But I thought, 426  “I have worked in vain;

I have expended my energy for absolutely nothing.” 427 

But the Lord will vindicate me;

my God will reward me. 428 

49:5 So now the Lord says,

the one who formed me from birth 429  to be his servant –

he did this 430  to restore Jacob to himself,

so that Israel might be gathered to him;

and I will be honored 431  in the Lord’s sight,

for my God is my source of strength 432 

49:6 he says, “Is it too insignificant a task for you to be my servant,

to reestablish the tribes of Jacob,

and restore the remnant 433  of Israel? 434 

I will make you a light to the nations, 435 

so you can bring 436  my deliverance to the remote regions of the earth.”

49:7 This is what the Lord,

the protector 437  of Israel, their Holy One, 438  says

to the one who is despised 439  and rejected 440  by nations, 441 

a servant of rulers:

“Kings will see and rise in respect, 442 

princes will bow down,

because of the faithful Lord,

the Holy One of Israel who has chosen you.”

49:8 This is what the Lord says:

“At the time I decide to show my favor, I will respond to you;

in the day of deliverance I will help you;

I will protect you 443  and make you a covenant mediator for people, 444 

to rebuild 445  the land 446 

and to reassign the desolate property.

49:9 You will say 447  to the prisoners, ‘Come out,’

and to those who are in dark dungeons, 448  ‘Emerge.’ 449 

They will graze beside the roads;

on all the slopes they will find pasture.

49:10 They will not be hungry or thirsty;

the sun’s oppressive heat will not beat down on them, 450 

for one who has compassion on them will guide them;

he will lead them to springs of water.

49:11 I will make all my mountains into a road;

I will construct my roadways.”

49:12 Look, they come from far away!

Look, some come from the north and west,

and others from the land of Sinim! 451 

49:13 Shout for joy, O sky! 452 

Rejoice, O earth!

Let the mountains give a joyful shout!

For the Lord consoles his people

and shows compassion to the 453  oppressed.

The Lord Remembers Zion

49:14 “Zion said, ‘The Lord has abandoned me,

the sovereign master 454  has forgotten me.’

49:15 Can a woman forget her baby who nurses at her breast? 455 

Can she withhold compassion from the child she has borne? 456 

Even if mothers 457  were to forget,

I could never forget you! 458 

49:16 Look, I have inscribed your name 459  on my palms;

your walls are constantly before me.

49:17 Your children hurry back,

while those who destroyed and devastated you depart.

49:18 Look all around you! 460 

All of them gather to you.

As surely as I live,” says the Lord,

“you will certainly wear all of them like jewelry;

you will put them on as if you were a bride.

49:19 Yes, your land lies in ruins;

it is desolate and devastated. 461 

But now you will be too small to hold your residents,

and those who devoured you will be far away.

49:20 Yet the children born during your time of bereavement

will say within your hearing,

‘This place is too cramped for us, 462 

make room for us so we can live here.’ 463 

49:21 Then you will think to yourself, 464 

‘Who bore these children for me?

I was bereaved and barren,

dismissed and divorced. 465 

Who raised these children?

Look, I was left all alone;

where did these children come from?’”

49:22 This is what the sovereign Lord says:

“Look I will raise my hand to the nations;

I will raise my signal flag to the peoples.

They will bring your sons in their arms

and carry your daughters on their shoulders.

49:23 Kings will be your children’s 466  guardians;

their princesses will nurse your children. 467 

With their faces to the ground they will bow down to you

and they will lick the dirt on 468  your feet.

Then you will recognize that I am the Lord;

those who wait patiently for me are not put to shame.

49:24 Can spoils be taken from a warrior,

or captives be rescued from a conqueror? 469 

49:25 Indeed,” says the Lord,

“captives will be taken from a warrior;

spoils will be rescued from a conqueror.

I will oppose your adversary

and I will rescue your children.

49:26 I will make your oppressors eat their own flesh;

they will get drunk on their own blood, as if it were wine. 470 

Then all humankind 471  will recognize that

I am the Lord, your deliverer,

your protector, 472  the powerful ruler of Jacob.” 473 

50:1 This is what the Lord says:

“Where is your mother’s divorce certificate

by which I divorced her?

Or to which of my creditors did I sell you? 474 

Look, you were sold because of your sins; 475 

because of your rebellious acts I divorced your mother. 476 

50:2 Why does no one challenge me when I come?

Why does no one respond when I call? 477 

Is my hand too weak 478  to deliver 479  you?

Do I lack the power to rescue you?

Look, with a mere shout 480  I can dry up the sea;

I can turn streams into a desert,

so the fish rot away and die

from lack of water. 481 

50:3 I can clothe the sky in darkness;

I can cover it with sackcloth.”

The Servant Perseveres

50:4 The sovereign Lord has given me the capacity to be his spokesman, 482 

so that I know how to help the weary. 483 

He wakes me up every morning;

he makes me alert so I can listen attentively as disciples do. 484 

50:5 The sovereign Lord has spoken to me clearly; 485 

I have not rebelled,

I have not turned back.

50:6 I offered my back to those who attacked, 486 

my jaws to those who tore out my beard;

I did not hide my face

from insults and spitting.

50:7 But the sovereign Lord helps me,

so I am not humiliated.

For that reason I am steadfastly resolved; 487 

I know I will not be put to shame.

50:8 The one who vindicates me is close by.

Who dares to argue with me? Let us confront each other! 488 

Who is my accuser? 489  Let him challenge me! 490 

50:9 Look, the sovereign Lord helps me.

Who dares to condemn me?

Look, all of them will wear out like clothes;

a moth will eat away at them.

50:10 Who among you fears the Lord?

Who obeys 491  his servant?

Whoever walks in deep darkness, 492 

without light,

should trust in the name of the Lord

and rely on his God.

50:11 Look, all of you who start a fire

and who equip yourselves with 493  flaming arrows, 494 

walk 495  in the light 496  of the fire you started

and among the flaming arrows you ignited! 497 

This is what you will receive from me: 498 

you will lie down in a place of pain. 499 

There is Hope for the Future

51:1 “Listen to me, you who pursue godliness, 500 

who seek the Lord!

Look at the rock from which you were chiseled,

at the quarry 501  from which you were dug! 502 

51:2 Look at Abraham, your father,

and Sarah, who gave you birth. 503 

When I summoned him, he was a lone individual, 504 

but I blessed him 505  and gave him numerous descendants. 506 

51:3 Certainly the Lord will console Zion;

he will console all her ruins.

He will make her wilderness like Eden,

her desert like the Garden of the Lord.

Happiness and joy will be restored to 507  her,

thanksgiving and the sound of music.

51:4 Pay attention to me, my people!

Listen to me, my people!

For 508  I will issue a decree, 509 

I will make my justice a light to the nations. 510 

51:5 I am ready to vindicate, 511 

I am ready to deliver, 512 

I will establish justice among the nations. 513 

The coastlands 514  wait patiently for me;

they wait in anticipation for the revelation of my power. 515 

51:6 Look up at the sky!

Look at the earth below!

For the sky will dissipate 516  like smoke,

and the earth will wear out like clothes;

its residents will die like gnats.

But the deliverance I give 517  is permanent;

the vindication I provide 518  will not disappear. 519 

51:7 Listen to me, you who know what is right,

you people who are aware of my law! 520 

Don’t be afraid of the insults of men;

don’t be discouraged because of their abuse!

51:8 For a moth will eat away at them like clothes;

a clothes moth will devour them like wool.

But the vindication I provide 521  will be permanent;

the deliverance I give will last.”

51:9 Wake up! Wake up!

Clothe yourself with strength, O arm of the Lord! 522 

Wake up as in former times, as in antiquity!

Did you not smash 523  the Proud One? 524 

Did you not 525  wound the sea monster? 526 

51:10 Did you not dry up the sea,

the waters of the great deep?

Did you not make 527  a path through the depths of the sea,

so those delivered from bondage 528  could cross over?

51:11 Those whom the Lord has ransomed will return;

they will enter Zion with a happy shout.

Unending joy will crown them, 529 

happiness and joy will overwhelm 530  them;

grief and suffering will disappear. 531 

51:12 “I, I am the one who consoles you. 532 

Why are you afraid of mortal men,

of mere human beings who are as short-lived as grass? 533 

51:13 Why do you forget 534  the Lord, who made you,

who stretched out the sky 535 

and founded the earth?

Why do you constantly tremble all day long 536 

at the anger of the oppressor,

when he makes plans to destroy?

Where is the anger of the oppressor? 537 

51:14 The one who suffers 538  will soon be released;

he will not die in prison, 539 

he will not go hungry. 540 

51:15 I am the Lord your God,

who churns up the sea so that its waves surge.

The Lord who commands armies is his name!

Zion’s Time to Celebrate

51:16 I commission you 541  as my spokesman; 542 

I cover you with the palm of my hand, 543 

to establish 544  the sky and to found the earth,

to say to Zion, ‘You are my people.’” 545 

51:17 Wake up! Wake up!

Get up, O Jerusalem!

You drank from the cup the Lord passed to you,

which was full of his anger! 546 

You drained dry

the goblet full of intoxicating wine. 547 

51:18 There was no one to lead her

among all the children she bore;

there was no one to take her by the hand

among all the children she raised.

51:19 These double disasters confronted you.

But who feels sorry for you?

Destruction and devastation,

famine and sword.

But who consoles you? 548 

51:20 Your children faint;

they lie at the head of every street

like an antelope in a snare.

They are left in a stupor by the Lord’s anger,

by the battle cry of your God. 549 

51:21 So listen to this, oppressed one,

who is drunk, but not from wine!

51:22 This is what your sovereign master, 550  the Lord your God, says:

“Look, I have removed from your hand

the cup of intoxicating wine, 551 

the goblet full of my anger. 552 

You will no longer have to drink it.

51:23 I will put it into the hand of your tormentors 553 

who said to you, ‘Lie down, so we can walk over you.’

You made your back like the ground,

and like the street for those who walked over you.”

52:1 Wake up! Wake up!

Clothe yourself with strength, O Zion!

Put on your beautiful clothes,

O Jerusalem, 554  holy city!

For uncircumcised and unclean pagans

will no longer invade you.

52:2 Shake off the dirt! 555 

Get up, captive 556  Jerusalem!

Take off the iron chains around your neck,

O captive daughter Zion!

52:3 For this is what the Lord says:

“You were sold for nothing,

and you will not be redeemed for money.”

52:4 For this is what the sovereign Lord says:

“In the beginning my people went to live temporarily in Egypt;

Assyria oppressed them for no good reason.

52:5 And now, what do we have here?” 557  says the Lord.

“Indeed my people have been carried away for nothing,

those who rule over them taunt,” 558  says the Lord,

“and my name is constantly slandered 559  all day long.

52:6 For this reason my people will know my name,

for this reason they will know 560  at that time 561  that I am the one who says,

‘Here I am.’”

52:7 How delightful it is to see approaching over the mountains 562 

the feet of a messenger who announces peace,

a messenger who brings good news, who announces deliverance,

who says to Zion, “Your God reigns!” 563 

52:8 Listen, 564  your watchmen shout;

in unison they shout for joy,

for they see with their very own eyes 565 

the Lord’s return to Zion.

52:9 In unison give a joyful shout,

O ruins of Jerusalem!

For the Lord consoles his people;

he protects 566  Jerusalem.

52:10 The Lord reveals 567  his royal power 568 

in the sight of all the nations;

the entire 569  earth sees

our God deliver. 570 

52:11 Leave! Leave! Get out of there!

Don’t touch anything unclean!

Get out of it!

Stay pure, you who carry the Lord’s holy items! 571 

52:12 Yet do not depart quickly

or leave in a panic. 572 

For the Lord goes before you;

the God of Israel is your rear guard.

The Lord Will Vindicate His Servant

52:13 “Look, my servant will succeed! 573 

He will be elevated, lifted high, and greatly exalted 574 

52:14 (just as many were horrified by the sight of you) 575 

he was so disfigured 576  he no longer looked like a man; 577 

52:15 his form was so marred he no longer looked human 578 

so now 579  he will startle 580  many nations.

Kings will be shocked by his exaltation, 581 

for they will witness something unannounced to them,

and they will understand something they had not heard about.

53:1 Who would have believed 582  what we 583  just heard? 584 

When 585  was the Lord’s power 586  revealed through him?

53:2 He sprouted up like a twig before God, 587 

like a root out of parched soil; 588 

he had no stately form or majesty that might catch our attention, 589 

no special appearance that we should want to follow him. 590 

53:3 He was despised and rejected by people, 591 

one who experienced pain and was acquainted with illness;

people hid their faces from him; 592 

he was despised, and we considered him insignificant. 593 

53:4 But he lifted up our illnesses,

he carried our pain; 594 

even though we thought he was being punished,

attacked by God, and afflicted for something he had done. 595 

53:5 He was wounded because of 596  our rebellious deeds,

crushed because of our sins;

he endured punishment that made us well; 597 

because of his wounds we have been healed. 598 

53:6 All of us had wandered off like sheep;

each of us had strayed off on his own path,

but the Lord caused the sin of all of us to attack him. 599 

53:7 He was treated harshly and afflicted, 600 

but he did not even open his mouth.

Like a lamb led to the slaughtering block,

like a sheep silent before her shearers,

he did not even open his mouth. 601 

53:8 He was led away after an unjust trial 602 

but who even cared? 603 

Indeed, he was cut off from the land of the living; 604 

because of the rebellion of his own 605  people he was wounded.

53:9 They intended to bury him with criminals, 606 

but he ended up in a rich man’s tomb, 607 

because 608  he had committed no violent deeds,

nor had he spoken deceitfully.

53:10 Though the Lord desired to crush him and make him ill,

once restitution is made, 609 

he will see descendants and enjoy long life, 610 

and the Lord’s purpose will be accomplished through him.

53:11 Having suffered, he will reflect on his work,

he will be satisfied when he understands what he has done. 611 

“My servant 612  will acquit many, 613 

for he carried their sins. 614 

53:12 So I will assign him a portion with the multitudes, 615 

he will divide the spoils of victory with the powerful, 616 

because he willingly submitted 617  to death

and was numbered with the rebels,

when he lifted up the sin of many

and intervened 618  on behalf of the rebels.”

Zion Will Be Secure

54:1 “Shout for joy, O barren one who has not given birth!

Give a joyful shout and cry out, you who have not been in labor!

For the children of the desolate one are more numerous

than the children of the married woman,” says the Lord.

54:2 Make your tent larger,

stretch your tent curtains farther out! 619 

Spare no effort,

lengthen your ropes,

and pound your stakes deep. 620 

54:3 For you will spread out to the right and to the left;

your children will conquer 621  nations

and will resettle desolate cities.

54:4 Don’t be afraid, for you will not be put to shame!

Don’t be intimidated, 622  for you will not be humiliated!

You will forget about the shame you experienced in your youth;

you will no longer remember the disgrace of your abandonment. 623 

54:5 For your husband is the one who made you –

the Lord who commands armies is his name.

He is your protector, 624  the Holy One of Israel. 625 

He is called “God of the entire earth.”

54:6 “Indeed, the Lord will call you back

like a wife who has been abandoned and suffers from depression, 626 

like a young wife when she has been rejected,” says your God.

54:7 “For a short time I abandoned 627  you,

but with great compassion I will gather you.

54:8 In a burst 628  of anger I rejected you 629  momentarily,

but with lasting devotion I will have compassion on you,”

says your protector, 630  the Lord.

54:9 “As far as I am concerned, this is like in Noah’s time, 631 

when I vowed that the waters of Noah’s flood 632  would never again cover the earth.

In the same way I have vowed that I will not be angry at you or shout at you.

54:10 Even if the mountains are removed

and the hills displaced,

my devotion will not be removed from you,

nor will my covenant of friendship 633  be displaced,”

says the Lord, the one who has compassion on you.

54:11 “O afflicted one, driven away, 634  and unconsoled!

Look, I am about to set your stones in antimony

and I lay your foundation with lapis-lazuli.

54:12 I will make your pinnacles out of gems, 635 

your gates out of beryl, 636 

and your outer wall 637  out of beautiful 638  stones.

54:13 All your children will be followers of the Lord,

and your children will enjoy great prosperity. 639 

54:14 You will be reestablished when I vindicate you. 640 

You will not experience oppression; 641 

indeed, you will not be afraid.

You will not be terrified, 642 

for nothing frightening 643  will come near you.

54:15 If anyone dares to 644  challenge you, it will not be my doing!

Whoever tries to challenge you will be defeated. 645 

54:16 Look, I create the craftsman,

who fans the coals into a fire

and forges a weapon. 646 

I create the destroyer so he might devastate.

54:17 No weapon forged to be used against you will succeed;

you will refute everyone who tries to accuse you. 647 

This is what the Lord will do for his servants –

I will vindicate them,” 648 

says the Lord.

The Lord Gives an Invitation

55:1 “Hey, 649  all who are thirsty, come to the water!

You who have no money, come!

Buy and eat!

Come! Buy wine and milk

without money and without cost! 650 

55:2 Why pay money for something that will not nourish you? 651 

Why spend 652  your hard-earned money 653  on something that will not satisfy?

Listen carefully 654  to me and eat what is nourishing! 655 

Enjoy fine food! 656 

55:3 Pay attention and come to me!

Listen, so you can live! 657 

Then I will make an unconditional covenantal promise to 658  you,

just like the reliable covenantal promises I made to David. 659 

55:4 Look, I made him a witness to nations, 660 

a ruler and commander of nations.”

55:5 Look, you will summon nations 661  you did not previously know;

nations 662  that did not previously know you will run to you,

because of the Lord your God,

the Holy One of Israel, 663 

for he bestows honor on you.

55:6 Seek the Lord while he makes himself available; 664 

call to him while he is nearby!

55:7 The wicked need to abandon their lifestyle 665 

and sinful people their plans. 666 

They should return 667  to the Lord, and he will show mercy to them, 668 

and to their God, for he will freely forgive them. 669 

55:8 “Indeed, 670  my plans 671  are not like 672  your plans,

and my deeds 673  are not like 674  your deeds,

55:9 for just as the sky 675  is higher than the earth,

so my deeds 676  are superior to 677  your deeds

and my plans 678  superior to your plans.

55:10 679 The rain and snow fall from the sky

and do not return,

but instead water the earth

and make it produce and yield crops,

and provide seed for the planter and food for those who must eat.

55:11 In the same way, the promise that I make

does not return to me, having accomplished nothing. 680 

No, it is realized as I desire

and is fulfilled as I intend.” 681 

55:12 Indeed you will go out with joy;

you will be led along in peace;

the mountains and hills will give a joyful shout before you,

and all the trees in the field will clap their hands.

55:13 Evergreens will grow in place of thorn bushes,

firs will grow in place of nettles;

they will be a monument to the Lord, 682 

a permanent reminder that will remain. 683 

The Lord Invites Outsiders to Enter

56:1 This is what the Lord says,

“Promote 684  justice! Do what is right!

For I am ready to deliver you;

I am ready to vindicate you openly. 685 

56:2 The people who do this will be blessed, 686 

the people who commit themselves to obedience, 687 

who observe the Sabbath and do not defile it,

who refrain from doing anything that is wrong. 688 

56:3 No foreigner who becomes a follower of 689  the Lord should say,

‘The Lord will certainly 690  exclude me from his people.’

The eunuch should not say,

‘Look, I am like a dried-up tree.’”

56:4 For this is what the Lord says:

“For the eunuchs who observe my Sabbaths

and choose what pleases me

and are faithful to 691  my covenant,

56:5 I will set up within my temple and my walls a monument 692 

that will be better than sons and daughters.

I will set up a permanent monument 693  for them that will remain.

56:6 As for foreigners who become followers of 694  the Lord and serve him,

who love the name of the Lord and want to be his servants –

all who observe the Sabbath and do not defile it,

and who are faithful to 695  my covenant –

56:7 I will bring them to my holy mountain;

I will make them happy in the temple where people pray to me. 696 

Their burnt offerings and sacrifices will be accepted on my altar,

for my temple will be known as a temple where all nations may pray.” 697 

56:8 The sovereign Lord says this,

the one who gathers the dispersed of Israel:

“I will still gather them up.” 698 

The Lord Denounces Israel’s Paganism

56:9 All you wild animals in the fields, come and devour,

all you wild animals in the forest!

56:10 All their watchmen 699  are blind,

they are unaware. 700 

All of them are like mute dogs,

unable to bark.

They pant, 701  lie down,

and love to snooze.

56:11 The dogs have big appetites;

they are never full. 702 

They are shepherds who have no understanding;

they all go their own way,

each one looking for monetary gain. 703 

56:12 Each one says, 704 

‘Come on, I’ll get some wine!

Let’s guzzle some beer!

Tomorrow will be just like today!

We’ll have everything we want!’ 705 

57:1 The godly 706  perish,

but no one cares. 707 

Honest people disappear, 708 

when no one 709  minds 710 

that the godly 711  disappear 712  because of 713  evil. 714 

57:2 Those who live uprightly enter a place of peace;

they rest on their beds. 715 

57:3 But approach, you sons of omen readers,

you offspring of adulteresses and prostitutes! 716 

57:4 At whom are you laughing?

At whom are you opening your mouth

and sticking out your tongue?

You are the children of rebels,

the offspring of liars, 717 

57:5 you who practice ritual sex 718  under the oaks and every green tree,

who slaughter children near the streams under the rocky overhangs. 719 

57:6 Among the smooth stones of the stream are the idols you love;

they, they are the object of your devotion. 720 

You pour out liquid offerings to them,

you make an offering.

Because of these things I will seek vengeance. 721 

57:7 On every high, elevated hill you prepare your bed;

you go up there to offer sacrifices.

57:8 Behind the door and doorpost you put your symbols. 722 

Indeed, 723  you depart from me 724  and go up

and invite them into bed with you. 725 

You purchase favors from them, 726 

you love their bed,

and gaze longingly 727  on their genitals. 728 

57:9 You take olive oil as tribute 729  to your king, 730 

along with many perfumes. 731 

You send your messengers to a distant place;

you go all the way to Sheol. 732 

57:10 Because of the long distance you must travel, you get tired, 733 

but you do not say, ‘I give up.’ 734 

You get renewed energy, 735 

so you don’t collapse. 736 

57:11 Whom are you worried about?

Whom do you fear, that you would act so deceitfully

and not remember me

or think about me? 737 

Because I have been silent for so long, 738 

you are not afraid of me. 739 

57:12 I will denounce your so-called righteousness and your deeds, 740 

but they will not help you.

57:13 When you cry out for help, let your idols 741  help you!

The wind blows them all away, 742 

a breeze carries them away. 743 

But the one who looks to me for help 744  will inherit the land

and will have access to 745  my holy mountain.”

57:14 He says, 746 

“Build it! Build it! Clear a way!

Remove all the obstacles out of the way of my people!”

57:15 For this is what the high and exalted one says,

the one who rules 747  forever, whose name is holy:

“I dwell in an exalted and holy place,

but also with the discouraged and humiliated, 748 

in order to cheer up the humiliated

and to encourage the discouraged. 749 

57:16 For I will not be hostile 750  forever

or perpetually angry,

for then man’s spirit would grow faint before me, 751 

the life-giving breath I created.

57:17 I was angry because of their sinful greed;

I attacked them and angrily rejected them, 752 

yet they remained disobedient and stubborn. 753 

57:18 I have seen their behavior, 754 

but I will heal them and give them rest,

and I will once again console those who mourn. 755 

57:19 I am the one who gives them reason to celebrate. 756 

Complete prosperity 757  is available both to those who are far away and those who are nearby,”

says the Lord, “and I will heal them.

57:20 But the wicked are like a surging sea

that is unable to be quiet;

its waves toss up mud and sand.

57:21 There will be no prosperity,” says my God, “for the wicked.”

The Lord Desires Genuine Devotion

58:1 “Shout loudly! Don’t be quiet!

Yell as loud as a trumpet!

Confront my people with their rebellious deeds; 758 

confront Jacob’s family with their sin! 759 

58:2 They seek me day after day;

they want to know my requirements, 760 

like a nation that does what is right

and does not reject the law of their God.

They ask me for just decrees;

they want to be near God.

58:3 They lament, 761  ‘Why don’t you notice when we fast?

Why don’t you pay attention when we humble ourselves?’

Look, at the same time you fast, you satisfy your selfish desires, 762 

you oppress your workers. 763 

58:4 Look, your fasting is accompanied by 764  arguments, brawls,

and fistfights. 765 

Do not fast as you do today,

trying to make your voice heard in heaven.

58:5 Is this really the kind of fasting I want? 766 

Do I want a day when people merely humble themselves, 767 

bowing their heads like a reed

and stretching out 768  on sackcloth and ashes?

Is this really what you call a fast,

a day that is pleasing to the Lord?

58:6 No, this is the kind of fast I want. 769 

I want you 770  to remove the sinful chains,

to tear away the ropes of the burdensome yoke,

to set free the oppressed, 771 

and to break every burdensome yoke.

58:7 I want you 772  to share your food with the hungry

and to provide shelter for homeless, oppressed people. 773 

When you see someone naked, clothe him!

Don’t turn your back on your own flesh and blood! 774 

58:8 Then your light will shine like the sunrise; 775 

your restoration will quickly arrive; 776 

your godly behavior 777  will go before you,

and the Lord’s splendor will be your rear guard. 778 

58:9 Then you will call out, and the Lord will respond;

you will cry out, and he will reply, ‘Here I am.’

You must 779  remove the burdensome yoke from among you

and stop pointing fingers and speaking sinfully.

58:10 You must 780  actively help the hungry

and feed the oppressed. 781 

Then your light will dispel the darkness, 782 

and your darkness will be transformed into noonday. 783 

58:11 The Lord will continually lead you;

he will feed you even in parched regions. 784 

He will give you renewed strength, 785 

and you will be like a well-watered garden,

like a spring that continually produces water.

58:12 Your perpetual ruins will be rebuilt; 786 

you will reestablish the ancient foundations.

You will be called, ‘The one who repairs broken walls,

the one who makes the streets inhabitable again.’ 787 

58:13 You must 788  observe the Sabbath 789 

rather than doing anything you please on my holy day. 790 

You must look forward to the Sabbath 791 

and treat the Lord’s holy day with respect. 792 

You must treat it with respect by refraining from your normal activities,

and by refraining from your selfish pursuits and from making business deals. 793 

58:14 Then you will find joy in your relationship to the Lord, 794 

and I will give you great prosperity, 795 

and cause crops to grow on the land I gave to your ancestor Jacob.” 796 

Know for certain that the Lord has spoken. 797 

Injustice Brings Alienation from God

59:1 Look, the Lord’s hand is not too weak 798  to deliver you;

his ear is not too deaf to hear you. 799 

59:2 But your sinful acts have alienated you from your God;

your sins have caused him to reject you and not listen to your prayers. 800 

59:3 For your hands are stained with blood

and your fingers with sin;

your lips speak lies,

your tongue utters malicious words.

59:4 No one is concerned about justice; 801 

no one sets forth his case truthfully.

They depend on false words 802  and tell lies;

they conceive of oppression 803 

and give birth to sin.

59:5 They hatch the eggs of a poisonous snake

and spin a spider’s web.

Whoever eats their eggs will die,

a poisonous snake is hatched. 804 

59:6 Their webs cannot be used for clothing;

they cannot cover themselves with what they make.

Their deeds are sinful;

they commit violent crimes. 805 

59:7 They are eager to do evil, 806 

quick to shed innocent blood. 807 

Their thoughts are sinful;

they crush and destroy. 808 

59:8 They are unfamiliar with peace;

their deeds are unjust. 809 

They use deceitful methods,

and whoever deals with them is unfamiliar with peace. 810 

Israel Confesses its Sin

59:9 For this reason deliverance 811  is far from us 812 

and salvation does not reach us.

We wait for light, 813  but see only darkness; 814 

we wait for 815  a bright light, 816  but live 817  in deep darkness. 818 

59:10 We grope along the wall like the blind,

we grope like those who cannot see; 819 

we stumble at noontime as if it were evening.

Though others are strong, we are like dead men. 820 

59:11 We all growl like bears,

we coo mournfully like doves;

we wait for deliverance, 821  but there is none,

for salvation, but it is far from us.

59:12 For you are aware of our many rebellious deeds, 822 

and our sins testify against us;

indeed, we are aware of our rebellious deeds;

we know our sins all too well. 823 

59:13 We have rebelled and tried to deceive the Lord;

we turned back from following our God.

We stir up 824  oppression and rebellion;

we tell lies we concocted in our minds. 825 

59:14 Justice is driven back;

godliness 826  stands far off.

Indeed, 827  honesty stumbles in the city square

and morality is not even able to enter.

59:15 Honesty has disappeared;

the one who tries to avoid evil is robbed.

The Lord watches and is displeased, 828 

for there is no justice.

The Lord Intervenes

59:16 He sees there is no advocate; 829 

he is shocked 830  that no one intervenes.

So he takes matters into his own hands; 831 

his desire for justice drives him on. 832 

59:17 He wears his desire for justice 833  like body armor, 834 

and his desire to deliver is like a helmet on his head. 835 

He puts on the garments of vengeance 836 

and wears zeal like a robe.

59:18 He repays them for what they have done,

dispensing angry judgment to his adversaries

and punishing his enemies. 837 

He repays the coastlands. 838 

59:19 In the west, people respect 839  the Lord’s reputation; 840 

in the east they recognize his splendor. 841 

For he comes like a rushing 842  stream

driven on by wind sent from the Lord. 843 

59:20 “A protector 844  comes to Zion,

to those in Jacob who repent of their rebellious deeds,” 845  says the Lord.

59:21 “As for me, this is my promise to 846  them,” says the Lord. “My spirit, who is upon you, and my words, which I have placed in your mouth, will not depart from your mouth or from the mouths of your children and descendants from this time forward,” 847  says the Lord.

Zion’s Future Splendor

60:1 “Arise! Shine! For your light arrives!

The splendor 848  of the Lord shines on you!

60:2 For, look, darkness covers the earth

and deep darkness covers 849  the nations,

but the Lord shines on you;

his splendor 850  appears over you.

60:3 Nations come to your light,

kings to your bright light.

60:4 Look all around you! 851 

They all gather and come to you –

your sons come from far away

and your daughters are escorted by guardians.

60:5 Then you will look and smile, 852 

you will be excited and your heart will swell with pride. 853 

For the riches of distant lands 854  will belong to you

and the wealth of nations will come to you.

60:6 Camel caravans will cover your roads, 855 

young camels from Midian and Ephah.

All the merchants of Sheba 856  will come,

bringing gold and incense

and singing praises to the Lord. 857 

60:7 All the sheep of Kedar will be gathered to you;

the rams of Nebaioth will be available to you as sacrifices. 858 

They will go up on my altar acceptably, 859 

and I will bestow honor on my majestic temple.

60:8 Who are these who float along 860  like a cloud,

who fly like doves to their shelters? 861 

60:9 Indeed, the coastlands 862  look eagerly for me,

the large ships 863  are in the lead,

bringing your sons from far away,

along with their silver and gold,

to honor the Lord your God, 864 

the Holy One of Israel, 865  for he has bestowed honor on you.

60:10 Foreigners will rebuild your walls;

their kings will serve you.

Even though I struck you down in my anger,

I will restore my favor and have compassion on you. 866 

60:11 Your gates will remain open at all times;

they will not be shut during the day or at night,

so that the wealth of nations may be delivered,

with their kings leading the way. 867 

60:12 Indeed, 868  nations or kingdoms that do not serve you will perish;

such nations will be totally destroyed. 869 

60:13 The splendor of Lebanon will come to you,

its evergreens, firs, and cypresses together,

to beautify my palace; 870 

I will bestow honor on my throne room. 871 

60:14 The children of your oppressors will come bowing to you;

all who treated you with disrespect will bow down at your feet.

They will call you, ‘The City of the Lord,

Zion of the Holy One of Israel.’ 872 

60:15 You were once abandoned

and despised, with no one passing through,

but I will make you 873  a permanent source of pride

and joy to coming generations.

60:16 You will drink the milk of nations;

you will nurse at the breasts of kings. 874 

Then you will recognize that I, the Lord, am your deliverer,

your protector, 875  the powerful ruler of Jacob. 876 

60:17 Instead of bronze, I will bring you gold,

instead of iron, I will bring you silver,

instead of wood, I will bring you 877  bronze,

instead of stones, I will bring you 878  iron.

I will make prosperity 879  your overseer,

and vindication your sovereign ruler. 880 

60:18 Sounds of violence 881  will no longer be heard in your land,

or the sounds of 882  destruction and devastation within your borders.

You will name your walls, ‘Deliverance,’

and your gates, ‘Praise.’

60:19 The sun will no longer supply light for you by day,

nor will the moon’s brightness shine on you;

the Lord will be your permanent source of light –

the splendor of your God will shine upon you. 883 

60:20 Your sun will no longer set;

your moon will not disappear; 884 

the Lord will be your permanent source of light;

your time 885  of sorrow will be over.

60:21 All of your people will be godly; 886 

they will possess the land permanently.

I will plant them like a shoot;

they will be the product of my labor,

through whom I reveal my splendor. 887 

60:22 The least of you will multiply into 888  a thousand;

the smallest of you will become a large nation.

When the right time comes, I the Lord will quickly do this!” 889 

The Lord Will Rejuvenate His People

61:1 The spirit of the sovereign Lord is upon me,

because the Lord has chosen 890  me. 891 

He has commissioned 892  me to encourage 893  the poor,

to help 894  the brokenhearted,

to decree the release of captives,

and the freeing of prisoners,

61:2 to announce the year when the Lord will show his favor,

the day when our God will seek vengeance, 895 

to console all who mourn,

61:3 to strengthen those who mourn in Zion,

by giving them a turban, instead of ashes,

oil symbolizing joy, 896  instead of mourning,

a garment symbolizing praise, 897  instead of discouragement. 898 

They will be called oaks of righteousness, 899 

trees planted by the Lord to reveal his splendor. 900 

61:4 They will rebuild the perpetual ruins

and restore the places that were desolate; 901 

they will reestablish the ruined cities,

the places that have been desolate since ancient times.

61:5 902 “Foreigners will take care of 903  your sheep;

foreigners will work in your fields and vineyards.

61:6 You will be called, ‘the Lord’s priests,

servants of our God.’ 904 

You will enjoy 905  the wealth of nations

and boast about 906  the riches you receive from them. 907 

61:7 Instead of shame, you will get a double portion; 908 

instead of humiliation, they will rejoice over the land they receive. 909 

Yes, 910  they will possess a double portion in their land

and experience lasting joy.

61:8 For I, the Lord, love justice

and hate robbery and sin.

I will repay them because of my faithfulness; 911 

I will make a permanent covenant with them.

61:9 Their descendants will be known among the nations,

their offspring among the peoples.

All who see them will recognize that

the Lord has blessed them.” 912 

61:10 I 913  will greatly rejoice 914  in the Lord;

I will be overjoyed because of my God. 915 

For he clothes me in garments of deliverance;

he puts on me a robe symbolizing vindication. 916 

I look like a bridegroom when he wears a turban as a priest would;

I look like a bride when she puts on her jewelry. 917 

61:11 For just as the ground produces its crops

and a garden yields its produce,

so the sovereign Lord will cause deliverance 918  to grow,

and give his people reason to praise him in the sight of all the nations. 919 

The Lord Takes Delight in Zion

62:1 “For the sake of Zion I will not be silent;

for the sake of Jerusalem 920  I will not be quiet,

until her vindication shines brightly 921 

and her deliverance burns like a torch.”

62:2 Nations will see your vindication,

and all kings your splendor.

You will be called by a new name

that the Lord himself will give you. 922 

62:3 You will be a majestic crown in the hand of the Lord,

a royal turban in the hand of your God.

62:4 You will no longer be called, “Abandoned,”

and your land will no longer be called “Desolate.”

Indeed, 923  you will be called “My Delight is in Her,” 924 

and your land “Married.” 925 

For the Lord will take delight in you,

and your land will be married to him. 926 

62:5 As a young man marries a young woman,

so your sons 927  will marry you.

As a bridegroom rejoices over a bride,

so your God will rejoice over you.

62:6 I 928  post watchmen on your walls, O Jerusalem;

they should keep praying all day and all night. 929 

You who pray to 930  the Lord, don’t be silent!

62:7 Don’t allow him to rest until he reestablishes Jerusalem, 931 

until he makes Jerusalem the pride 932  of the earth.

62:8 The Lord swears an oath by his right hand,

by his strong arm: 933 

“I will never again give your grain

to your enemies as food,

and foreigners will not drink your wine,

which you worked hard to produce.

62:9 But those who harvest the grain 934  will eat it,

and will praise the Lord.

Those who pick the grapes will drink the wine 935 

in the courts of my holy sanctuary.”

62:10 Come through! Come through the gates!

Prepare the way for the people!

Build it! Build the roadway!

Remove the stones!

Lift a signal flag for the nations!

62:11 Look, the Lord announces to the entire earth: 936 

“Say to Daughter Zion,

‘Look, your deliverer comes!

Look, his reward is with him

and his reward goes before him!’” 937 

62:12 They will be called, “The Holy People,

the Ones Protected 938  by the Lord.”

You will be called, “Sought After,

City Not Abandoned.”

The Victorious Divine Warrior

63:1 Who is this who comes from Edom, 939 

dressed in bright red, coming from Bozrah? 940 

Who 941  is this one wearing royal attire, 942 

who marches confidently 943  because of his great strength?

“It is I, the one who announces vindication,

and who is able to deliver!” 944 

63:2 Why are your clothes red?

Why do you look like someone who has stomped on grapes in a vat? 945 

63:3 “I have stomped grapes in the winepress all by myself;

no one from the nations joined me.

I stomped on them 946  in my anger;

I trampled them down in my rage.

Their juice splashed on my garments,

and stained 947  all my clothes.

63:4 For I looked forward to the day of vengeance,

and then payback time arrived. 948 

63:5 I looked, but there was no one to help;

I was shocked because there was no one offering support. 949 

So my right arm accomplished deliverance;

my raging anger drove me on. 950 

63:6 I trampled nations in my anger,

I made them drunk 951  in my rage,

I splashed their blood on the ground.” 952 

A Prayer for Divine Intervention

63:7 I will tell of the faithful acts of the Lord,

of the Lord’s praiseworthy deeds.

I will tell about all 953  the Lord did for us,

the many good things he did for the family of Israel, 954 

because of 955  his compassion and great faithfulness.

63:8 He said, “Certainly they will be my people,

children who are not disloyal.” 956 

He became their deliverer.

63:9 Through all that they suffered, he suffered too. 957 

The messenger sent from his very presence 958  delivered them.

In his love and mercy he protected 959  them;

he lifted them up and carried them throughout ancient times. 960 

63:10 But they rebelled and offended 961  his holy Spirit, 962 

so he turned into an enemy

and fought against them.

63:11 His people remembered the ancient times. 963 

Where is the one who brought them up out of the sea,

along with the shepherd of 964  his flock?

Where is the one who placed his holy Spirit among them, 965 

63:12 the one who made his majestic power available to Moses, 966 

who divided the water before them,

gaining for himself a lasting reputation, 967 

63:13 who led them through the deep water?

Like a horse running on flat land 968  they did not stumble.

63:14 Like an animal that goes down into a valley to graze, 969 

so the Spirit of the Lord granted them rest.

In this way 970  you guided your people,

gaining for yourself an honored reputation. 971 

63:15 Look down from heaven and take notice,

from your holy, majestic palace!

Where are your zeal 972  and power?

Do not hold back your tender compassion! 973 

63:16 For you are our father,

though Abraham does not know us

and Israel does not recognize us.

You, Lord, are our father;

you have been called our protector from ancient times. 974 

63:17 Why, Lord, do you make us stray 975  from your ways, 976 

and make our minds stubborn so that we do not obey you? 977 

Return for the sake of your servants,

the tribes of your inheritance!

63:18 For a short time your special 978  nation possessed a land, 979 

but then our adversaries knocked down 980  your holy sanctuary.

63:19 We existed from ancient times, 981 

but you did not rule over them,

they were not your subjects. 982 

64:1 (63:19b) 983  If only you would tear apart the sky 984  and come down!

The mountains would tremble 985  before you!

64:2 (64:1) As when fire ignites dry wood,

or fire makes water boil,

let your adversaries know who you are, 986 

and may the nations shake at your presence!

64:3 When you performed awesome deeds that took us by surprise, 987 

you came down, and the mountains trembled 988  before you.

64:4 Since ancient times no one has heard or perceived, 989 

no eye has seen any God besides you,

who intervenes for those who wait for him.

64:5 You assist 990  those who delight in doing what is right, 991 

who observe your commandments. 992 

Look, you were angry because we violated them continually.

How then can we be saved? 993 

64:6 We are all like one who is unclean,

all our so-called righteous acts are like a menstrual rag in your sight. 994 

We all wither like a leaf;

our sins carry us away like the wind.

64:7 No one invokes 995  your name,

or makes an effort 996  to take hold of you.

For you have rejected us 997 

and handed us over to our own sins. 998 

64:8 Yet, 999  Lord, you are our father.

We are the clay, and you are our potter;

we are all the product of your labor. 1000 

64:9 Lord, do not be too angry!

Do not hold our sins against us continually! 1001 

Take a good look at your people, at all of us! 1002 

64:10 Your chosen 1003  cities have become a desert;

Zion has become a desert,

Jerusalem 1004  is a desolate ruin.

64:11 Our holy temple, our pride and joy, 1005 

the place where our ancestors praised you,

has been burned with fire;

all our prized possessions have been destroyed. 1006 

64:12 In light of all this, 1007  how can you still hold back, Lord?

How can you be silent and continue to humiliate us?

The Lord Will Distinguish Between Sinners and the Godly

65:1 “I made myself available to those who did not ask for me; 1008 

I appeared to those who did not look for me. 1009 

I said, ‘Here I am! Here I am!’

to a nation that did not invoke 1010  my name.

65:2 I spread out my hands all day long

to my rebellious people,

who lived in a way that is morally unacceptable,

and who did what they desired. 1011 

65:3 These people continually and blatantly offend me 1012 

as they sacrifice in their sacred orchards 1013 

and burn incense on brick altars. 1014 

65:4 They sit among the tombs 1015 

and keep watch all night long. 1016 

They eat pork, 1017 

and broth 1018  from unclean sacrificial meat is in their pans.

65:5 They say, ‘Keep to yourself!

Don’t get near me, for I am holier than you!’

These people are like smoke in my nostrils,

like a fire that keeps burning all day long.

65:6 Look, I have decreed: 1019 

I will not keep silent, but will pay them back;

I will pay them back exactly what they deserve, 1020 

65:7 for your sins and your ancestors’ sins,” 1021  says the Lord.

“Because they burned incense on the mountains

and offended 1022  me on the hills,

I will punish them in full measure.” 1023 

65:8 This is what the Lord says:

“When 1024  juice is discovered in a cluster of grapes,

someone says, ‘Don’t destroy it, for it contains juice.’ 1025 

So I will do for the sake of my servants –

I will not destroy everyone. 1026 

65:9 I will bring forth descendants from Jacob,

and from Judah people to take possession of my mountains.

My chosen ones will take possession of the land; 1027 

my servants will live there.

65:10 Sharon 1028  will become a pasture for sheep,

and the Valley of Achor 1029  a place where cattle graze; 1030 

they will belong to my people, who seek me. 1031 

65:11 But as for you who abandon the Lord

and forget about worshiping at 1032  my holy mountain,

who prepare a feast for the god called ‘Fortune,’ 1033 

and fill up wine jugs for the god called ‘Destiny’ 1034 

65:12 I predestine you to die by the sword, 1035 

all of you will kneel down at the slaughtering block, 1036 

because I called to you, and you did not respond,

I spoke and you did not listen.

You did evil before me; 1037 

you chose to do what displeases me.”

65:13 So this is what the sovereign Lord says:

“Look, my servants will eat, but you will be hungry!

Look, my servants will drink, but you will be thirsty!

Look, my servants will rejoice, but you will be humiliated!

65:14 Look, my servants will shout for joy as happiness fills their hearts! 1038 

But you will cry out as sorrow fills your hearts; 1039 

you will wail because your spirits will be crushed. 1040 

65:15 Your names will live on in the curse formulas of my chosen ones. 1041 

The sovereign Lord will kill you,

but he will give his servants another name.

65:16 Whoever pronounces a blessing in the earth 1042 

will do so in the name of the faithful God; 1043 

whoever makes an oath in the earth

will do so in the name of the faithful God. 1044 

For past problems will be forgotten;

I will no longer think about them. 1045 

65:17 For look, I am ready to create

new heavens and a new earth! 1046 

The former ones 1047  will not be remembered;

no one will think about them anymore. 1048 

65:18 But be happy and rejoice forevermore

over what I am about to create!

For look, I am ready to create Jerusalem 1049  to be a source of joy, 1050 

and her people to be a source of happiness. 1051 

65:19 Jerusalem will bring me joy,

and my people will bring me happiness. 1052 

The sound of weeping or cries of sorrow

will never be heard in her again.

65:20 Never again will one of her infants live just a few days 1053 

or an old man die before his time. 1054 

Indeed, no one will die before the age of a hundred, 1055 

anyone who fails to reach 1056  the age of a hundred will be considered cursed.

65:21 They will build houses and live in them;

they will plant vineyards and eat their fruit.

65:22 No longer will they build a house only to have another live in it, 1057 

or plant a vineyard only to have another eat its fruit, 1058 

for my people will live as long as trees, 1059 

and my chosen ones will enjoy to the fullest what they have produced. 1060 

65:23 They will not work in vain,

or give birth to children that will experience disaster. 1061 

For the Lord will bless their children

and their descendants. 1062 

65:24 Before they even call out, 1063  I will respond;

while they are still speaking, I will hear.

65:25 A wolf and a lamb will graze together; 1064 

a lion, like an ox, will eat straw, 1065 

and a snake’s food will be dirt. 1066 

They will no longer injure or destroy

on my entire royal mountain,” 1067  says the Lord.

66:1 This is what the Lord says:

“The heavens are my throne

and the earth is my footstool.

Where then is the house you will build for me?

Where is the place where I will rest?

66:2 My hand made them; 1068 

that is how they came to be,” 1069  says the Lord.

I show special favor 1070  to the humble and contrite,

who respect what I have to say. 1071 

66:3 The one who slaughters a bull also strikes down a man; 1072 

the one who sacrifices a lamb also breaks a dog’s neck; 1073 

the one who presents an offering includes pig’s blood with it; 1074 

the one who offers incense also praises an idol. 1075 

They have decided to behave this way; 1076 

they enjoy these disgusting practices. 1077 

66:4 So I will choose severe punishment 1078  for them;

I will bring on them what they dread,

because I called, and no one responded,

I spoke and they did not listen.

They did evil before me; 1079 

they chose to do what displeases me.”

66:5 Hear the word of the Lord,

you who respect what he has to say! 1080 

Your countrymen, 1081  who hate you

and exclude you, supposedly for the sake of my name,

say, “May the Lord be glorified,

then we will witness your joy.” 1082 

But they will be put to shame.

66:6 The sound of battle comes from the city;

the sound comes from the temple!

It is the sound of the Lord paying back his enemies.

66:7 Before she goes into labor, she gives birth!

Before her contractions begin, she delivers a boy!

66:8 Who has ever heard of such a thing?

Who has ever seen this?

Can a country 1083  be brought forth in one day?

Can a nation be born in a single moment?

Yet as soon as Zion goes into labor she gives birth to sons!

66:9 “Do I bring a baby to the birth opening and then not deliver it?”

asks the Lord.

“Or do I bring a baby to the point of delivery and then hold it back?”

asks your God. 1084 

66:10 Be happy for Jerusalem

and rejoice with her, all you who love her!

Share in her great joy,

all you who have mourned over her!

66:11 For 1085  you will nurse from her satisfying breasts and be nourished; 1086 

you will feed with joy from her milk-filled breasts. 1087 

66:12 For this is what the Lord says:

“Look, I am ready to extend to her prosperity that will flow like a river,

the riches of nations will flow into her like a stream that floods its banks. 1088 

You will nurse from her breast 1089  and be carried at her side;

you will play on her knees.

66:13 As a mother consoles a child, 1090 

so I will console you,

and you will be consoled over Jerusalem.”

66:14 When you see this, you will be happy, 1091 

and you will be revived. 1092 

The Lord will reveal his power to his servants

and his anger to his enemies. 1093 

66:15 For look, the Lord comes with fire,

his chariots come like a windstorm, 1094 

to reveal his raging anger,

his battle cry, and his flaming arrows. 1095 

66:16 For the Lord judges all humanity 1096 

with fire and his sword;

the Lord will kill many. 1097 

66:17 “As for those who consecrate and ritually purify themselves so they can follow their leader and worship in the sacred orchards, 1098  those who eat the flesh of pigs and other disgusting creatures, like mice 1099  – they will all be destroyed together,” 1100  says the Lord. 66:18 “I hate their deeds and thoughts! So I am coming 1101  to gather all the nations and ethnic groups; 1102  they will come and witness my splendor. 66:19 I will perform a mighty act among them 1103  and then send some of those who remain to the nations – to Tarshish, Pul, 1104  Lud 1105  (known for its archers 1106 ), Tubal, Javan, 1107  and to the distant coastlands 1108  that have not heard about me or seen my splendor. They will tell the nations of my splendor. 66:20 They will bring back all your countrymen 1109  from all the nations as an offering to the Lord. They will bring them 1110  on horses, in chariots, in wagons, on mules, and on camels 1111  to my holy hill Jerusalem,” says the Lord, “just as the Israelites bring offerings to the Lord’s temple in ritually pure containers. 66:21 And I will choose some of them as priests and Levites,” says the Lord. 66:22 “For just as the new heavens and the new earth I am about to make will remain standing before me,” says the Lord, “so your descendants and your name will remain. 66:23 From one month 1112  to the next and from one Sabbath to the next, all people 1113  will come to worship me,” 1114  says the Lord. 66:24 “They will go out and observe the corpses of those who rebelled against me, for the maggots that eat them will not die, 1115  and the fire that consumes them will not die out. 1116  All people will find the sight abhorrent.” 1117 

1 tn The pronominal suffix is second masculine plural. The identity of the addressee is uncertain: (1) God’s people may be addressed, or (2) the unidentified heralds commanded to comfort Jerusalem.

2 tn Heb “speak to the heart of Jerusalem.” Jerusalem is personified as a woman.

3 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

4 tn Heb “that she is filled [with] her warfare.” Some understand צָבָא (tsavah, “warfare”) as meaning “hard service” or “compulsory labor” in this context.

5 tn Heb “that her punishment is accepted [as satisfactory].”

6 tn Heb “for she has received from the hand of the Lord double.” The principle of the double portion in punishment is also seen in Jer 16:18; 17:18 and Rev 18:6. For examples of the double portion in Israelite law, see Exod 22:4, 7, 9 (double restitution by a thief) and Deut 21:17 (double inheritance portion for the firstborn).

7 tn Or “glory.” The Lord’s “glory” is his theophanic radiance and royal splendor (see Isa 6:3; 24:23; 35:2; 60:1; 66:18-19).

8 tn Heb “flesh” (so KJV, ASV, NASB); NAB, NIV “mankind”; TEV “the whole human race.”

9 tn Or “indeed.”

10 tn Heb “the mouth of the Lord has spoken” (so NASB, NIV, NRSV).

11 tn Heb “and he says.” Apparently a second “voice” responds to the command of the first “voice.”

12 tn The words “the first voice responds” are supplied in the translation for clarification. The first voice tells the second one what to declare.

13 tn Heb “all flesh is grass.” The point of the metaphor is explained in v. 7.

14 tn Heb “and all his loyalty.” The antecedent of the third masculine suffix is בָּשָׂר (basar, “flesh”), which refers collectively to mankind. The LXX, apparently understanding the antecedent as “grass,” reads “glory,” but חֶסֶד (khesed) rarely, if ever, has this nuance. The normal meaning of חֶסֶד (“faithfulness, loyalty, devotion”) fits very well in the argument. Human beings and their faithfulness (verbal expressions of faithfulness are specifically in view; cf. NRSV “constancy”) are short-lived and unreliable, in stark contrast to the decrees and promises of the eternal God.

15 tn The Hebrew text has רוּחַ יְהוָה (ruakh yehvah), which in this context probably does not refer to the Lord’s personal Spirit. The phrase is better translated “the breath of the Lord,” or “the wind of [i.e., sent by] the Lord.” The Lord’s sovereign control over nature, including the hot desert winds that dry up vegetation, is in view here (cf. Ps 147:18; Isa 59:19).

16 tn Heb “the people” (so KJV, ASV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV).

17 tn Heb “but the word of our God stands forever.” In this context the divine “word” specifically refers to his decreed promise assuring Jerusalem that her suffering is over and his glorious return imminent (vv. 1-5).

18 tn The second feminine singular imperatives are addressed to personified Zion/Jerusalem, who is here told to ascend a high hill and proclaim the good news of the Lord’s return to the other towns of Judah. Isa 41:27 and 52:7 speak of a herald sent to Zion, but the masculine singular form מְבַשֵּׂר (mÿvaser) is used in these verses, in contrast to the feminine singular form מְבַשֶּׂרֶת (mÿvaseret) employed in 40:9, where Zion is addressed as a herald.

19 tn Heb “comes as a strong one”; ASV “will come as a mighty one.” The preposition בְּ (bet) here carries the nuance “in the capacity of.” It indicates that the Lord possesses the quality expressed by the noun. See GKC 379 §119.i and HALOT 104 s.v. בְּ.

20 tn Heb “his arm rules for him” (so NIV, NRSV). The Lord’s “arm” symbolizes his military power (see Isa 51:9-10; 63:5).

21 tn As the Lord returns to Jerusalem as a victorious warrior, he brings with him the spoils of victory, called here his “reward” and “prize.” These terms might also be translated “wages” and “recompense.” Verse 11 indicates that his rescued people, likened to a flock of sheep, are his reward.

22 tn Heb “in his bosom” (so KJV, NAB, NASB, NRSV), an expression which reflects closeness and protective care.

23 tn The Qumran scroll 1QIsaa has מי ים (“waters of the sea”), a reading followed by NAB.

24 tn Heb “with a span.” A “span” was the distance between the ends of the thumb and the little finger of the spread hand” (BDB 285 s.v. זֶרֶת).

25 tn Or “the heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavens” or “sky” depending on the context.

26 tn Heb “or weighed by a third part [of a measure].”

27 sn The implied answer to the rhetorical questions of v. 12 is “no one but the Lord. The Lord, and no other, created the world. Like a merchant weighing out silver or commodities on a scale, the Lord established the various components of the physical universe in precise proportions.

28 tn Perhaps the verb is used metonymically here in the sense of “advises” (note the following line).

29 tn In this context רוּחַ (ruakh) likely refers to the Lord’s “mind,” or mental faculties, rather than his personal Spirit (see BDB 925 s.v.).

30 tn Heb “or [as] the man of his counsel causes him to know?”

31 tn Heb “With whom did he consult, so that he gave discernment to him?”

32 tn Heb “and taught him.” The vav (ו) consecutive with prefixed verbal form continues the previous line. The translation employs an interrogative pronoun for stylistic reasons.

33 tn The phrase אֹרַח מִשְׁפָּט (’orakh mishpat) could be translated “path of justice” (so NASB, NRSV), but in this context, where creative ability and skill is in view, the phrase is better understood in the sense of “the way that is proper or fitting” (see BDB 1049 s.v. מִשְׁפָּט 6); cf. NIV, NCV “the right way.”

34 tn Heb “or the way of understanding causes him to know?”

sn The implied answer to the rhetorical questions in vv. 13-14 is, “No one.” In contrast to Marduk, the creator-god of Mesopotamian myths who receives help from the god of wisdom, the Lord neither needs nor receives any such advice or help. See R. Whybray, Heavenly Counsellor (SOTSMS), 64-77.

35 tn Or “weighs” (NIV); NLT “picks up.”

36 tn Or “islands” (NASB, NIV, NLT).

37 tn The words “for a sacrifice” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

38 sn The point is that not even the Lebanon forest could supply enough wood and animals for an adequate sacrifice to the Lord.

39 tn Heb “[as derived] from nothing and unformed.”

40 tn Heb “pours out”; KJV “melteth.”

41 tn The first two words of the verse (הַמְסֻכָּן תְּרוּמָה, hamsukan tÿrumah) are problematic. Some take מְסֻכָּן as an otherwise unattested Pual participle from סָכַן (sakhan, “be poor”) and translate “the one who is impoverished.” תְּרוּמָה (tÿrumah, “contribution”) can then be taken as an adverbial accusative, “with respect to a contribution,” and the entire line translated, “the one who is too impoverished for such a contribution [i.e., the metal idol of v. 19?] selects wood that will not rot.” However, מְסֻכָּן is probably the name of a tree used in idol manufacturing (cognate with Akkadian musukkanu, cf. H. R. Cohen, Biblical Hapax Legomena [SBLDS], 133). מְסֻכָּן may be a scribal interpretive addition attempting to specify עֵץ (’ets) or עֵץ may be a scribal attempt to categorize מְסֻכָּן. How an idol constitutes a תְּרוּמָה (“contribution”) is not entirely clear.

42 tn Or “set up” (ASV, NAB, NIV, NRSV); KJV, NASB “to prepare.”

43 tn Heb “the circle of the earth” (so KJV, NIV, NRSV, NLT).

44 tn The words “before him” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

45 tn The otherwise unattested noun דֹּק (doq), translated here “thin curtain,” is apparently derived from the verbal root דקק (“crush”) from which is derived the adjective דַּק (daq, “thin”; see HALOT 229 s.v. דקק). The nuance “curtain” is implied from the parallelism (see “tent” in the next line).

46 tn The meaning of the otherwise unattested verb מָתַח (matakh, “spread out”) is determined from the parallelism (note the corresponding verb “stretch out” in the previous line) and supported by later Hebrew and Aramaic cognates. See HALOT 654 s.v. *מתה.

47 tn Heb “like a tent [in which] to live”; NAB, NASB “like a tent to dwell (live NIV, NRSV) in.”

48 sn See the note on the phrase “the Holy One of Israel” in 1:4.

49 tn Heb “Lift on high your eyes and see.”

50 tn The words “heavenly lights” are supplied in the translation for clarification. See the following lines.

51 tn Heb “the one who brings out by number their host.” The stars are here likened to a huge army that the Lord leads out. Perhaps the next line pictures God calling roll. If so, the final line may be indicating that none of them dares “go AWOL.” (“AWOL” is a military acronym for “absent without leave.”)

52 tn Heb “my way is hidden from the Lord” (so NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV).

53 tn Heb “and from my God my justice passes away”; NRSV “my right is disregarded by my God.”

54 tn Heb “the ends of the earth,” but this is a merism, where the earth’s extremities stand for its entirety, i.e., the extremities and everything in between them.

55 sn Exiled Israel’s complaint (v. 27) implies that God might be limited in some way. Perhaps he, like so many of the pagan gods, has died. Or perhaps his jurisdiction is limited to Judah and does not include Babylon. Maybe he is unable to devise an adequate plan to rescue his people, or is unable to execute it. But v. 28 affirms that he is not limited temporally or spatially nor is his power and wisdom restricted in any way. He can and will deliver his people, if they respond in hopeful faith (v. 31a).

56 tn Heb “stumbling they stumble.” The verbal idea is emphasized by the infinitive absolute.

57 tn The words “for the Lord’s help” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

58 tn Heb “they rise up [on] wings like eagles” (TEV similar).

59 tn Or “islands” (KJV, NIV, CEV); TEV “distant lands”; NLT “lands beyond the sea.”

60 tn The Hebrew term מִשְׁפָּט (mishpat) could be translated “judgment,” but here it seems to refer to the dispute or debate between the Lord and the nations.

61 sn The expression this one from the east refers to the Persian conqueror Cyrus, as later texts indicate (see 44:28-45:6; 46:11; 48:14-16).

62 tn The interrogative particle is understood by ellipsis.

63 tn Heb “[in] righteousness called him to his foot.”

64 tn Heb “he [the Lord] places before him [Cyrus] nations.”

65 tn The verb יַרְדְּ (yardÿ) is an otherwise unattested Hiphil form from רָדָה (radah, “rule”). But the Hiphil makes no sense with “kings” as object; one must understand an ellipsis and supply “him” (Cyrus) as the object. The Qumran scroll 1QIsaa has יוֹרִד (yorid), which appears to be a Hiphil form from יָרַד (yarad, “go down”). Others suggest reading יָרֹד (yarod), a Qal form from רָדַד (radad, “beat down”).

66 sn The point is that they are powerless before Cyrus’ military power and scatter before him.

67 tn Heb “[in] peace”; KJV, ASV “safely”; NASB “in safety”; NIV “unscathed.”

68 tn Heb “a way with his feet he does not come [or “enter”].” One could translate, “by a way he was not [previously] entering with his feet.” This would mean that he is advancing into new territory and expanding his conquests. The present translation assumes this is a hyperbolic description to his speedy advance. He moves so quickly he does not enter the way with his feet, i.e., his feet don’t even touch the ground. See C. R. North, Second Isaiah, 94.

69 tn Heb “Who acts and accomplishes?”; NASB “Who has performed and accomplished it.”

70 tn The interrogative particle is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).

71 tn Heb “I, the Lord, [am with] the first, and with the last ones I [am] he.”

72 tn Or “islands” (NIV, CEV); NCV “faraway places”; NLT “lands beyond the sea.”

73 tn Heb “the ends of the earth,” but this is a merism, where the earth’s extremities stand for its entirety, i.e., the extremities and everything in between them.

74 tn Heb “each his neighbor helps”; NCV “The workers help each other.”

75 tn The verb “encourages” is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).

76 tn Heb “saying of the welding, ‘It is good.’”

77 tn Or perhaps, “covenantal partner” (see 1 Kgs 5:15 HT [5:1 ET]; 2 Chr 20:7).

78 tn Heb “whom I have taken hold of [i.e., to lead back].”

79 tn According to BDB (1043 s.v. שָׁעָה), the verb תִּשְׁתָּע (tishta’) in the second line of the poetic couplet is a Hitpael form from the root שָׁעָה (shaah, “gaze,” with metathesis of the stem prefix and the first root letter). Taking the Hitpael as iterative, one may then translate “do not anxiously look about.” However, the alleged Hitpael form of שָׁעָה (shaah) only occurs here and in verse 23. HALOT 1671 s.v. שׁתע proposes that the verb is instead a Qal form from the root שׁתע (“fear”) which is attested in cognate Semitic languages, including Ugaritic (discovered after the publishing of BDB), suggests the existence of this root. The poetic structure of v. 10 also supports the proposal, for the form in question is in synonymous parallelism to יָרֵא (yare’, “fear”).

80 tn The “right hand” is a symbol of the Lord’s power to deliver (Exod 15:6, 12) and protect (Ps 63:9 HT [63:8 ET]). Here צֶדֶק (tsedeq) has its well-attested nuance of “vindicated righteousness,” i.e., “victory, deliverance” (see 45:8; 51:5, and BDB 841-42 s.v.).

81 tn Heb “the men of your strife”; NASB “those who contend with you.”

82 tn Heb “like nothing”; NAB “come to nought.”

83 tn Heb “the men of your struggle”; NASB “those who quarrel with you.”

84 tn Heb “the men of your battle”; NAB “who do battle with you.”

85 tn Heb “O worm Jacob” (NAB, NIV). The worm metaphor suggests that Jacob is insignificant and despised.

86 tn On the basis of the parallelism (note “worm”) and an alleged Akkadian cognate, some read “louse” or “weevil.” Cf. NAB “O maggot Israel”; NRSV “you insect Israel.”

87 tn Heb “your kinsman redeemer.” A גָּאַל (gaal, “kinsman redeemer”) was a protector of the extended family’s interests.

88 sn See the note on the phrase “the Holy One of Israel” in 1:4.

89 tn Heb “into” (so NIV); ASV “have made thee to be.”

90 tn Heb “owner of two-mouths,” i.e., double-edged.

91 sn The mountains and hills symbolize hostile nations that are obstacles to Israel’s restoration.

92 tn Heb “will answer them” (so ASV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT).

93 tn The words “I will do this” are supplied in the translation for clarification. The Hebrew text has here simply, “in order that.”

94 tn Heb “they”; NAB, NRSV “that all may see”; CEV, NLT “Everyone will see.”

95 tn Heb “hand” (so KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV).

96 tn Or “created it” (KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV); TEV “has made it happen.”

97 tn Heb “strong [words],” see HALOT 870 s.v. *עֲצֻמוֹת.

98 sn Apparently this challenge is addressed to the pagan idol gods, see vv. 23-24.

99 tn Heb “As for the former things, tell us what they are!”

100 tn Heb “so we might set [them to] our heart.”

101 tn Heb “and might know their outcome.”

102 tn Heb “Declare the coming things, with respect to the end.”

103 tc The translation assumes the Qere (וְנִרְאֶה [vÿnireh], from יָרֵא [yare’], “be afraid”).

tn Heb “so we might be frightened and afraid together.” On the meaning of the verb שָׁתָע (shata’), see the note at v. 10.

104 tn Heb “an object of disgust [is he who] chooses you.”

105 sn That is, Cyrus the Persian. See the note at v. 2.

106 tn Heb “[one] from the rising of the sun [who] calls in my name.”

107 tn The Hebrew text has וְיָבֹא (vÿyavo’, “and he comes”), but this is likely a corruption of an original וַיָּבָס (vayyavas), from בּוּס (bus, “step on”).

108 tn The words “who announced it” are supplied in the translation for clarification. The interrogative particle and verb are understood by ellipsis (see the preceding line).

109 tn The Hebrew text reads simply, “First to Zion, ‘Look here they are!’” The words “I decreed” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

110 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

111 tc The Hebrew text has אָוֶן (’aven, “deception,” i.e., “false”), but the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa has אין (“nothing”), which forms a better parallel with אֶפֶס (’efes, “nothing”) in the next line. See also 40:17 and 41:12.

112 tn Heb “their statues are wind and nothing”; NASB “wind and emptiness”; NIV “wind and confusion.”

113 sn Verses 1-7 contain the first of Isaiah’s “servant songs,” which describe the ministry of a special, ideal servant who accomplishes God’s purposes for Israel and the nations. This song depicts the servant as a just king who brings justice to the earth and relief for the oppressed. The other songs appear in 49:1-13; 50:4-11; and 52:13-53:12.

114 tn Heb “he will bring out justice” (cf. ASV, NASB, NRSV).

115 sn Like the ideal king portrayed in Isa 11:1-9, the servant is energized by the divine spirit and establishes justice on the earth.

116 tn Heb “he will not cause his voice to be heard in the street.”

117 sn The “crushed reed” and “dim wick” symbolize the weak and oppressed who are on the verge of extinction.

118 tn Heb “faithfully he will bring out justice” (cf. NASB, NRSV).

119 tn For rhetorical effect the terms used to describe the “crushed (רָצַץ, ratsats) reed” and “dim (כָּהָה, kahah) wick” in v. 3 are repeated here.

120 tn Or “islands” (NIV); NLT “distant lands beyond the sea.”

121 tn Or “his law” (KJV, ASV, NASB, NIV) or “his instruction” (NLT).

122 tn Heb “the God.” The definite article here indicates distinctiveness or uniqueness.

123 tn Heb “and its offspring” (so NASB); NIV “all that comes out of it.”

124 tn Heb “and spirit [i.e., “breath”] to the ones walking in it” (NAB, NASB, and NRSV all similar).

125 tn Heb “call you in righteousness.” The pronoun “you” is masculine singular, referring to the servant. See the note at 41:2.

126 tn The translation assumes the verb is derived from the root נָצַר (natsar, “protect”). Some prefer to derive it from the root יָצַר (yatsar, “form”).

127 tn Heb “a covenant of people.” A person cannot literally be a covenant; בְּרִית (bÿrit) is probably metonymic here, indicating a covenant mediator. The precise identity of עָם (’am, “people”) is uncertain. In v. 5 עָם refers to mankind, and the following reference to “nations” also favors this. But in 49:8, where the phrase בְּרִית עָם occurs again, Israel seems to be in view.

128 sn Light here symbolizes deliverance from bondage and oppression; note the parallelism in 49:6b and in 51:4-6.

129 tn Or “the Gentiles” (so KJV, ASV, NIV); the same Hebrew word can be translated “nations” or “Gentiles” depending on the context.

130 sn This does not refer to literal physical healing of the blind. As the next two lines suggest, this refers metonymically to freeing captives from their dark prisons where their eyes have grown unaccustomed to light.

131 sn This does not refer to hardened, dangerous criminals, who would have been executed for their crimes in ancient Near Eastern society. This verse refers to political prisoners or victims of social injustice.

132 tn Heb “the former things, look, they have come.”

133 tn Heb “before they sprout up, I cause you to hear.” The pronoun “you” is plural, referring to the people of Israel. In this verse “the former things” are the Lord’s earlier predictive oracles which have come to pass, while “the new things” are predicted events that have not yet begun to take place. “The former things” are earlier events in Israel’s history which God announced beforehand, such as the Exodus (see 43:16-18). “The new things” are the predictions about the servant (42:1-7). and may also include Cyrus’ conquests (41:25-27).

134 tn Heb “his praise.” The phrase stands parallel to “new song” in the previous line.

135 tn Heb “and its fullness”; NASB, NIV “and all that is in it.”

136 tn Or “islands” (NASB, NIV); NLT “distant coastlands.”

137 tn Heb “Let them ascribe to the Lord glory.”

138 tn Heb “and his praise in the coastlands [or “islands”] let them declare.”

139 tn Heb “like a man of war he stirs up zeal” (NIV similar).

140 tn Or perhaps, “he triumphs over his enemies” (cf. NIV); NLT “will crush all his enemies.”

141 tn Heb “silent” (so NASB, NIV, TEV, NLT); CEV “have held my temper.”

142 sn The imagery depicts the Lord as a warrior who is eager to fight and can no longer hold himself back from the attack.

143 tn Heb “I will dry up the mountains and hills.” The “mountains and hills” stand by synecdoche for the trees that grow on them. Some prefer to derive the verb from a homonymic root and translate, “I will lay waste.”

144 tc The Hebrew text reads, “I will turn streams into coastlands [or “islands”].” Scholars who believe that this reading makes little sense have proposed an emendation of אִיִּים (’iyyim, “islands”) to צִיּוֹת (tsiyyot, “dry places”; cf. NCV, NLT, TEV). However, since all the versions support the MT reading, there is insufficient grounds for an emendation here. Although the imagery of changing rivers into islands is somewhat strange, J. N. Oswalt describes this imagery against the backdrop of rivers of the Near East. The receding of these rivers at times occasioned the appearance of previously submerged islands (Isaiah [NICOT], 2:126).

145 sn The imagery of this verse, which depicts the Lord bringing a curse of infertility to the earth, metaphorically describes how the Lord will destroy his enemies.

146 tn Heb “a way they do not know” (so NASB); NRSV “a road they do not know.”

147 tn Heb “in paths they do not know I will make them walk.”

148 tn Heb “and the rough ground into a level place.”

149 tn Heb “be ashamed with shame”; ASV, NASB “be utterly put to shame.”

150 tn Heb “look to see”; NAB, NCV “look and see”; NRSV “look up and see.”

151 tc The precise meaning of מְשֻׁלָּם (mÿshullam) in this context is uncertain. In later biblical Hebrew the form (which appears to be a Pual participle from the root שָׁלַם, shalam) occurs as a proper name, Meshullam. The Pual of שָׁלַם (“be complete”) is attested with the meaning “repaid, requited,” but that makes little sense here. BDB 1023 s.v. שָׁלַם relates the form to the denominative verb שָׁלַם (“be at peace”) and paraphrases “one in a covenant of peace” (J. N. Oswalt suggests “the covenanted one”; Isaiah [NICOT], 2:128, n. 59) Some emend the form to מֹשְׁלָם (moshÿlam, “their ruler”) or to מְשֻׁלָּחִי (mÿshullakhi, “my sent [or “commissioned”] one”), which fits nicely in the parallelism (note “my messenger” in the previous line). The translation above assumes an emendation to כְּמוֹ שֹׁלְמִי (kÿmo sholÿmi, “like my ally”). Isaiah uses כְּמוֹ in 30:22 and perhaps 51:5; for שֹׁלְמי (“my ally”) see Ps 7:5 HT (7:4 ET).

152 tn Heb “Who is blind but my servant, and deaf like my messenger I send? Who is blind like my commissioned one, blind like the servant of the Lord?” The point of the rhetorical questions is that no one is as blind/deaf as this servant. In this context the Lord’s “servant” is exiled Israel (cf. 41:8-9), which is spiritually blind and deaf and has failed to fulfill God’s purpose for it. This servant stands in contrast to the ideal “Israel” of the servant songs.

153 tn The consonantal text (Kethib) has a perfect, 2nd person masculine singular; the marginal reading (Qere) has an infinitive absolute, which functions here as a finite verb.

154 tn Heb “but you do not guard [i.e., retain in your memory]”; NIV “but have paid no attention.”

155 tn Heb “The Lord was pleased for the sake of his righteousness [or “justice”], he was magnifying [the] law and was making [it] glorious.” The Lord contrasts his good intentions for the people with their present crisis (v. 22). To demonstrate his just character and attract the nations, the Lord wanted to showcase his law among and through Israel (Deut 4:5-8). But Israel disobeyed (v. 24) and failed to carry out their commission.

156 tc The Hebrew text has בַּחוּרִים (bakhurim, “young men”), but the text should be emended to בְּהוֹרִים (bÿhorim, “in holes”).

157 tn Heb “and made to be hidden”; NAB, NASB, NIV, TEV “hidden away in prisons.”

158 tn Heb “they became loot and there was no one rescuing, plunder and there was no one saying, ‘Bring back’.”

159 tn The interrogative particle is understood in the second line by ellipsis (note the preceding line).

160 tn Heb “Who gave to the robber Jacob, and Israel to the looters?” In the first line the consonantal text (Kethib) has מְשׁוֹסֶה (mÿshoseh), a Polel participle from שָׁסָה (shasah, “plunder”). The marginal reading (Qere) is מְשִׁיסָּה (mÿshissah), a noun meaning “plunder.” In this case one could translate “Who handed Jacob over as plunder?”

161 tn Heb “they were not willing in his ways to walk, and they did not listen to his law.”

162 tn Heb “strength” (so KJV, NASB); NAB “fury”; NASB “fierceness”; NIV “violence.”

163 tn Heb “and it blazed against him all around, but he did not know.” The subject of the third feminine singular verb “blazed” is the divine חֵמָה (khemah, “anger”) mentioned in the previous line.

164 tn Heb “and it burned against him, but he did not set [it] upon [the] heart.”

165 tn Or “redeem.” See the note at 41:14. Cf. NCV “saved you”; CEV “rescued you”; NLT “ransomed you.”

166 tn The verb is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).

167 tn Heb “burn” (so NASB); NAB, NRSV, NLT “consume”; NIV “set you ablaze.”

168 sn See the note on the phrase “the Holy One of Israel” in 1:4.

169 sn Seba is not the same as Sheba in southern Arabia; cf. Gen 1:10; 1 Chr 1:9.

170 tn Heb “Since you are precious in my eyes and you are honored.”

171 tn Heb “everyone who is called by my name” (so NASB, NIV, NRSV).

172 tn Heb “and the former things was causing us to hear?”

173 tn Or “know” (KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV).

174 tn Heb “and after me, there will not be”; NASB “there will be none after Me.”

175 tn Heb “hand” (so KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NLT “No one can oppose what I do.”

176 tn Or “kinsman redeemer.” See the note at 41:14.

177 sn See the note on the phrase “the Holy One of Israel” in 1:4.

178 tn Heb “and I bring down [as] fugitives all of them.”

179 tn The Hebrew text reads literally, “as for the Babylonians, in ships their joyful shout.” This might be paraphrased, “even the Babylonians in the ships [over which] they joyfully shouted.” The point would be that the Lord caused the Babylonians to flee for safety in the ships in which they took such great pride. A slight change in vocalization yields the reading “into mourning songs,” which provides a good contrast with “joyful shout.” The prefixed bet (בְּ) would indicate identity.

180 sn See the note on the phrase “the Holy One of Israel” in 1:4.

181 tn Heb “led out chariots and horses.” The words “to destruction” are supplied in the translation for clarification. The verse refers to the destruction of the Egyptians at the Red Sea.

182 tn Heb “lay down”; NAB “lie prostrate together”; CEV “lie dead”; NRSV “they lie down.”

183 tn Heb “the former things” (so KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NLT “forget all that.”

184 tn Heb “sprouts up”; NASB “will spring forth.”

185 tn Or “know” (KJV, ASV); NASB “be aware of”; NAB, NIV, NRSV “perceive.”

186 tn The Hebrew texts has “streams,” probably under the influence of v. 20. The Qumran scroll 1QIsaa has נתיבות (“paths”).

187 tn Heb “[so] they might declare my praise.”

188 tn Or “strive”; KJV, ASV, NRSV “been weary of me.”

189 tn Heb “with.” The words “by demanding” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

190 tn That is, “calamus” (so NIV); NCV, TEV, NLT “incense”; CEV “spices.”

191 tn Heb “you did not saturate me”; NASB “Neither have you filled Me.”

192 sn In vv. 22-24 the Lord appears to be condemning his people for failure to bring the proper sacrifices. However, this is problematic. If this refers to the nation’s behavior while in exile, such cultic service was impossible and could hardly be expected by the Lord. If this refers to the nation’s conduct before the exile, it contradicts other passages that depict Israel as bringing excessive sacrifices (see, e.g., Isa 1:11-14; Jer 6:20; Amos 4:4-5, 5:21-23). Rather than being a condemnation of Israel’s failure to bring sacrifices, these verses are better taken as a highly rhetorical comment on the worthlessness of Israel’s religious ritual. They may have brought sacrifices, but not to the Lord, for he did not accept them or even want them. See C. R. North, Second Isaiah, 127, and R. Whybray, Isaiah 40-66 (NCBC), 91.

193 tn Heb “you, tell in order that you may be right”; NAB “prove your innocence.”

194 tn Heb “your first father.” This could refer to Abraham (see 51:2), but elsewhere in Isaiah he does not appear in a negative light (see 29:22; 41:8; 63:16). A more likely candidate is Jacob/Israel, also referred to as the nation’s “father” elsewhere (see 58:14; 63:16).

195 tn On the meaning of the term לִיץ (lits), see HALOT 590 s.v. מֵלִיץ. This may refer to the nation’s prophets, priests, and/or kings.

196 tn The word “subjected” is supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

197 sn Jeshurun is a poetic name for Israel; it occurs here and in Deut 32:15; 33:5, 26.

198 tn Heb “the thirsty.” Parallelism suggests that dry ground is in view (see “dry land” in the next line.)

199 tn Heb “and streams”; KJV “floods.” The verb “cause…to flow” is supplied in the second line for clarity and for stylistic reasons.

200 tn The Hebrew term בֵין (ven) is usually taken as a preposition, in which case one might translate, “among the grass.” But בֵין is probably the name of a tree (cf. C. R. North, Second Isaiah, 133). If one alters the preposition bet (בְּ) to kaf (כְּ), one can then read, “like a binu-tree.” (The Qumran scroll 1QIsaa supports this reading.) This forms a nice parallel to “like poplars” in the next line. חָצִיר (khatsir) is functioning as an adverbial accusative of location.

201 tn The Hebrew text has a Qal verb form, “and another will call by the name of Jacob.” With support from Symmachus (an ancient Greek textual witness), some read the Niphal, “and another will be called by the name of Jacob.”

202 tn Heb “and by the name of Israel he will title.” Some, with support from several ancient versions, prefer to change the Piel (active) verb form to a Pual (passive), “and he will be titled by the name of Israel.”

203 tn Heb “his kinsman redeemer.” See the note at 41:14.

204 tn Heb “let him call” or “let him proclaim” (so NASB, NIV, NRSV); NAB “Let him stand up and speak.”

205 tc The Hebrew text reads, “from (the time) I established an ancient people, and the coming things.” Various emendations have been proposed. One of the options assumes the reading מַשְׁמִיעִים מֵעוֹלָם אוֹתִיּוֹת (mashmiim meolamotiyyot); This literally reads “the ones causing to hear from antiquity coming things,” but more idiomatically would read “as for those who predict from antiquity what will happen” (cf. NAB, NEB, REB). The emendation directs the attention of the reader to those who claim to be able to predict the future, challenging them to actually do what they claim they can do. The MT presents Yahweh as an example to whom these alleged “predictors of the future” can compare themselves. Since the ancient versions are unanimous in their support of the MT, the emendations should be set aside.

206 tn Heb and those things which are coming let them declare for themselves.”

207 tn BDB 923 s.v. רָהָה derives this verb from an otherwise unattested root, while HALOT 403 s.v. יָרָה defines it as “be stupefied” on the basis of an Arabic cognate. The form is likely a corruption of תיראו, the reading attested in the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa.

208 tn Heb “rock” or “rocky cliff,” a title that depicts God as a protective refuge in his role as sovereign king; thus the translation “sheltering rock.”

209 tn The rhetorical question is sarcastic. The sense is, “Who is foolish enough…?”

210 tn The pronoun “his” probably refers to the one who forms/casts an idol (v. 10), in which case it refers to the craftsman’s associates in the idol-manufacturing guild.

211 sn The point seems to be this: If the idols are the mere products of human hands, then those who trust in them will be disappointed, for man-made gods are incapable of helping their “creators.”

212 tn The noun מַעֲצָד (maatsad), which refers to some type of tool used for cutting, occurs only here and in Jer 10:3. See HALOT 615 s.v. מַעֲצָד.

213 tn Some English versions take the pronoun “it” to refer to an idol being fashioned by the blacksmith (cf. NIV, NCV, CEV). NLT understands the referent to be “a sharp tool,” which is then used by the carpenter in the following verse to carve an idol from wood.

214 tn Heb “and there is no strength”; NASB “his strength fails.”

215 tn Heb “stretches out a line” (ASV similar); NIV “measures with a line.”

216 tn Heb “he makes an outline with the [?].” The noun שֶׂרֶד (shered) occurs only here; it apparently refers to some type of tool or marker. Cf. KJV “with a line”; ASV “with a pencil”; NAB, NRSV “with a stylus”; NASB “with red chalk”; NIV “with a marker.”

217 tn Heb “works” (so NASB) or “fashions” (so NRSV); NIV “he roughs it out.”

218 tn Heb “he makes it like the pattern of a man”; NAB “like a man in appearance.”

219 tn Heb “like the glory of man to sit [in] a house”; NIV “that it may dwell in a shrine.”

220 tn It is not certain what type of tree this otherwise unattested noun refers to. Cf. ASV “a holm-tree” (NRSV similar).

221 tn Heb “strengthens for himself,” i.e., “secures for himself” (see BDB 55 s.v. אָמֵץ Pi.2).

222 tn Some prefer to emend אֹרֶן (’oren) to אֶרֶז (’erez, “cedar”), but the otherwise unattested noun appears to have an Akkadian cognate, meaning “cedar.” See H. R. Cohen, Biblical Hapax Legomena (SBLDS), 44-45. HALOT 90 s.v. I אֹרֶן offers the meaning “laurel.”

223 tn Heb “and it becomes burning [i.e., firewood] for a man”; NAB “to serve man for fuel.”

224 tn Or perhaps, “them.”

225 tn Heb “eats” (so NASB); NAB, NRSV “roasts.”

226 tn Heb “for their eyes are smeared over so they cannot see, so their heart cannot be wise.”

227 tn There is no formal interrogative sign here, but the context seems to indicate these are rhetorical questions. See GKC 473 §150.a.

228 tn Or perhaps, “he eats on an ash heap.”

229 tn Heb “Is it not a lie in my right hand?”

230 tc The verb in the Hebrew text is a Niphal imperfect with a pronominal suffix. Although the Niphal ordinarily has the passive sense, it can have a reflexive nuance as well (see above translation). Some have suggested an emendation to a Qal form: “Do not forget me” (all the ancient versions, NEB, REB; see GKC 369 §117.x). “Do not forget me” would make a good parallel with “remember these things” in the first line. Since the MT is the harder reading and fits with Israel’s complaint that God had forgotten her (Isa 40:27), the MT reading should be retained (NASB, NKJV, NRSV, ESV). The passive has been rendered as an active in the translation in keeping with contemporary English style (so also NIV, NCV, TEV, NLT).

231 tn Heb “I blot out like a cloud your rebellious deeds, and like a cloud your sins.” “Rebellious deeds” and “sins” stand by metonymy for the guilt they produce. Both עָב (’av) and עָנָן (’anan) refer to the clouds in the sky. It is tempting for stylistic purposes to translate the second with “fog” or “mist” (cf. NAB, NRSV “cloud…mist”; NIV “cloud…morning mist”; NLT “morning mists…clouds”), but this distinction between the synonyms is unwarranted here. The point of the simile seems to be this: The Lord forgives their sins, causing them to vanish just as clouds disappear from the sky (see Job 7:9; 30:15).

232 tn Heb “redeem.” See the note at 41:14.

233 tn Heb “acts”; NASB, NRSV “has done it”; NLT “has done this wondrous thing.”

234 tn Heb “lower regions.” This refers to Sheol and forms a merism with “sky” in the previous line. See Pss 63:9; 71:20.

235 tn Heb “O forest and all the trees in it”; NASB, NRSV “and every tree in it.”

236 tn Heb “redeems.” See the note at 41:14.

237 tn That is, by delivering Israel. Cf. NCV “showed his glory when he saved Israel”; TEV “has shown his greatness by saving his people Israel.”

238 tn Heb “your redeemer.” See the note at 41:14.

239 tn The consonantal text (Kethib) has “Who [was] with me?” The marginal reading (Qere) is “from with me,” i.e., “by myself.” See BDB 87 s.v. II אֵת 4.c.

240 tc The Hebrew text has בַּדִּים (baddim), perhaps meaning “empty talkers” (BDB 95 s.v. III בַּד). In the four other occurrences of this word (Job 11:3; Isa 16:6; Jer 48:30; 50:36) the context does not make the meaning of the term very clear. Its primary point appears to be that the words spoken are meaningless or false. In light of its parallelism with “omen readers,” some have proposed an emendation to בָּרִים (barim, “seers”). The Mesopotamian baru-priests were divination specialists who played an important role in court life. See R. Wilson, Prophecy and Society in Ancient Israel, 93-98. Rather than supporting an emendation, J. N. Oswalt (Isaiah [NICOT], 2:189, n. 79) suggests that Isaiah used בַּדִּים purposively as a derisive wordplay on the Akkadian word baru (in light of the close similarity of the d and r consonants).

241 tn Or “makes fools of” (NIV, NRSV); NAB and NASB both similar.

242 tn Heb “who turns back the wise” (so NRSV); NIV “overthrows the learning of the wise”; TEV “The words of the wise I refute.”

243 tn Heb “their knowledge” (so KJV, NAB, NASB, NRSV).

244 tn Heb “the word of his servant.” The following context indicates that the Lord’s prophets are in view.

245 tn Heb “counsel.” The Hebrew term עֵצָה (’etsah) probably refers here to the divine plan as announced by the prophets. See HALOT 867 s.v. I עֵצָה.

246 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

247 tn Heb “says to.” It is possible that the sentence is not completed, as the description of Cyrus and his God-given role is developed in the rest of the verse. 45:1 picks up where 44:28a leaves off with the Lord’s actual words to Cyrus finally being quoted in 45:2.

248 tn Heb “my shepherd.” The shepherd motif is sometimes applied, as here, to a royal figure who is responsible for the well-being of the people whom he rules.

249 tn Heb “that he might bring to completion all my desire.”

250 tn Heb “and [concerning the] temple, you will be founded.” The preposition -לְ (lÿ) is understood by ellipsis at the beginning of the second line. The verb תִּוָּסֵד (tivvased, “you will be founded”) is second masculine singular and is probably addressed to the personified temple (הֵיכָל [hekhal, “temple”] is masculine).

251 tn Heb “anointed” (so KJV, NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT); NCV “his appointed king.”

252 sn The “right hand” is a symbol of activity and strength; the Lord directs Cyrus’ activities and assures his success.

253 tn Heb “and the belts of kings I will loosen”; NRSV “strip kings of their robes”; NIV “strip kings of their armor.”

254 tc The form הֲדוּרִים (hadurim) makes little, if any, sense here. It is probably a corruption of an original הָרָרִים (hararim, “mountains”), the reduplicated form of הָר (har, “mountain”).

255 tn That is, on the gates. Cf. CEV “break the iron bars on bronze gates.”

256 tn Heb “treasures of darkness” (KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); TEV “treasures from dark, secret places.”

257 tn Or “know” (NCV, NRSV, TEV, NLT); NIV “acknowledge.”

258 tn Heb “and there is none besides.” On the use of עוֹד (’od) here, see BDB 729 s.v. 1.c.

259 tn Heb “gird you” (so NASB) or “strengthen you” (so NIV).

260 tn Or “know” (NAB, NCV, NRSV, TEV, CEV, NLT); NIV “have not acknowledged.”

261 tn The words “I do this” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

262 tn Heb “they” (so KJV, ASV); TEV, CEV “everyone”; NLT “all the world.”

263 tn The words “I am” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons. In the Hebrew text the participle at the beginning of v. 7 stands in apposition to “the Lord” in v. 6.

264 tn On the surface v. 7a appears to describe God’s sovereign control over the cycle of day and night, but the following statement suggests that “light” and “darkness” symbolize “deliverance” and “judgment.”

265 sn This verses affirms that God is ultimately sovereign over his world, including mankind and nations. In accordance with his sovereign will, he can cause wars to cease and peace to predominate (as he was about to do for his exiled people through Cyrus), or he can bring disaster and judgment on nations (as he was about to do to Babylon through Cyrus).

266 tn Heb “let the clouds drip with”; KJV “let the skies pour down.”

267 tn Heb “open up” (so NASB); NIV, NLT “open wide.”

268 tc The plural verb should be emended to a singular form. The vav (ו) ending is probably virtually dittographic (note the yod at the beginning of the following word).

269 tc The Hiphil verb form (תַצְמִיחַ, tatsmiakh) should probably be emended to a Qal (תִצְמַח, titsmakh). The יח sequence at the end of the form is probably due to dittography (note the following יַחַד, yakhad).

270 tn The masculine singular pronominal suffix probably refers back to יָשַׁע (yasha’, “salvation”).

271 tn Heb “Woe [to] the one who argues with the one who formed him.”

272 tn The words “one who is like a mere” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons and clarification.

273 tn Heb “Should the clay say to the one who forms it?” The rhetorical question anticipates a reply, “Of course not!”

274 tn The words “in the world” are supplied in the translation to approximate in English idiom the force of the sarcastic question.

275 tn Heb “your work, there are no hands for it,” i.e., “your work looks like something made by a person who has no hands.”

276 tn Heb “Woe [to] one who says” (NASB and NIV both similar); NCV “How terrible it will be.”

277 tn See the note at v. 9. This phrase occurs a second time later in this verse.

278 sn Verses 9-10 may allude to the exiles’ criticism that the Lord does not appear to know what he is doing.

279 sn See the note on the phrase “the Holy One of Israel” in 1:4.

280 tc The Hebrew text reads “the one who formed him, the coming things.” Among various suggestions, some have proposed an emendation of יֹצְרוֹ (yotsÿro, “the one who formed him”) to יֹצֵר (yotser, “the one who forms”; the suffixed form in the Hebrew text may be influenced by vv. 9-10, where the same form appears twice) and takes “coming things” as the object of the participle (either objective genitive or accusative): “the one who brings the future into being.”

281 tn Heb “Ask me” The rhetorical command sarcastically expresses the Lord’s disgust with those who question his ways.

282 tn Heb “Do you command me about…?” The rhetorical question sarcastically expresses the Lord’s disgust with those who question his ways.

283 tn The words “who live” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

284 tn Heb “I, even my hands”; NASB “I stretched out…with My hands”; NRSV “it was my hands that stretched out.” The same construction occurs at the beginning of v. 13.

285 tn Or “the heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavens” or “sky” depending on the context.

286 tn Heb “and to all their host I commanded.” See the notes at 40:26.

287 tn Heb “I stir him up in righteousness”; NASB “I have aroused him.” See the note at 41:2. Cyrus (cf. 44:28) is in view here.

288 tn Heb “labor,” which stands metonymically for the fruits of labor, either “monetary profit,” or “products.”

289 tn Or perhaps, “merchandise” (so KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NAB “the gain of Ethiopia”; CEV “the treasures of Ethiopia.”

290 tn Heb “they will pass over to you”; NASB, NIV “will come over to you”; CEV “will belong to you.”

291 sn Restored Israel is depicted here in typical ancient Near Eastern fashion as an imperial power that receives riches and slaves as tribute.

292 sn Israel’s vassals are portrayed as so intimidated and awed that they treat Israel as an intermediary to God or sub-deity.

293 tn Or perhaps, “among.” Cf. KJV, ASV “Surely God is in thee.”

294 tn Heb “there is no other” (so NIV, NRSV). The same phrase occurs at the end of v. 18, in v. 21, and at the end of v. 22.

295 tn “together they will walk in humiliation, the makers of images.”

296 tn Heb “Israel will be delivered by the Lord [with] a permanent deliverance.”

297 tn Heb “you will not be ashamed and you will not be humiliated for ages of future time.”

298 tn Heb “he [is] the God.” The article here indicates uniqueness.

299 tn Or “unformed.” Gen 1:2 describes the world as “unformed” (תֹהוּ, tohu) prior to God’s creative work, but God then formed the world and made it fit for habitation.

300 tn Heb “in a place of a land of darkness” (ASV similar); NASB “in some dark land.”

301 tn “In vain” translates תֹהוּ (tohu), used here as an adverbial accusative: “for nothing.”

302 tn The translation above assumes that צֶדֶק (tsedeq) and מֵישָׁרִים (mesharim) are adverbial accusatives (see 33:15). If they are taken as direct objects, indicating the content of what is spoken, one might translate, “who proclaims deliverance, who announces justice.”

303 tn Heb “Declare! Bring near!”; NASB “Declare and set forth your case.” See 41:21.

304 tn Or “a righteous God and deliverer”; NASB, NIV, NRSV “a righteous God and a Savior.”

305 tn The Niphal imperative with prefixed vav (ו) indicates purpose after the preceding imperative. The Niphal probably has a tolerative sense, “allow yourselves to be delivered, accept help.”

306 tn Heb “I swear by myself”; KJV, NASB “have sworn.”

307 tn Heb “a word goes out from my mouth [in] truth and will not return.”

308 tn Heb “swear” (so KJV, NAB, NIV, NRSV); NLT “confess allegiance.”

309 tn Heb “‘Yes, in the Lord,’ one says about me, ‘is deliverance and strength.’”

310 tn Heb “will come to him and be ashamed.”

311 tn Heb “In the Lord all the offspring of Israel will be vindicated and boast.”

312 sn Bel was the name of a Babylonian god. The name was originally associated with Enlil, but later was applied to Marduk. See HALOT 132 s.v. בֵּל.

313 sn Nebo is a variation of the name of the Babylonian god Nabu.

314 tn Heb “their images belong to animals and beasts”; NIV “their idols are borne by beasts of burden”; NLT “are being hauled away.”

315 tn Heb “your loads are carried [as] a burden by a weary [animal].”

316 tn Heb “[the] burden,” i.e., their images, the heavy burden carried by the animals.

317 tn נַפְשָׁם (nafsham, “their souls/lives”) is equivalent here to a third masculine plural suffix, but the third feminine singular verb הָלָכָה (halakhah, “they go”) agrees with the feminine noun נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “soul, life”).

318 sn The downfall of Babylon is depicted here. The idols are carried off by the victorious enemy; the gods are likened to defeated captives who cower before the enemy and are taken into exile.

319 tn Heb “house of Jacob”; TEV “descendants of Jacob.”

320 tn Heb “and all the remnant of the house of Israel.”

321 tn Heb “from the womb” (so NRSV); KJV “from the belly”; NAB “from your infancy.”

322 tn Heb “who have been lifted up from the womb.”

323 tn Heb “until old age, I am he” (NRSV similar); NLT “I will be your God throughout your lifetime.”

324 sn Unlike the weary idol gods, whose images must be carried by animals, the Lord carries his weary people.

325 tn Heb “the reed,” probably referring to the beam of a scales. See BDB 889 s.v. קָנֶה 4.c.

326 tn Or perhaps, “cannot,” here and in the following two lines. The imperfect forms can indicate capability.

327 tn The meaning of the verb אָשַׁשׁ (’ashash, which appears here in the Hitpolel stem) is uncertain. BDB 84 s.v. אשׁשׁ relates it to a root meaning “found, establish” in Arabic; HALOT 100 s.v. II אשׁשׁ gives the meaning “pluck up courage.” The imperative with vav (ו) may indicate purpose following the preceding imperative.

328 tn Heb “return [it], rebels, to heart”; NRSV “recall it to mind, you transgressors.”

329 tn Heb “remember the former things, from antiquity”; KJV, ASV “the former things of old.”

330 tn Heb “and there is no other” (so NASB, NIV, NRSV).

331 tn Or “from long ago”; KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV “from ancient times.”

332 tn Or, more generally, “a bird of prey” (so NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV; see 18:6).

333 tn Heb “spoken”; KJV “I have spoken it.”

334 tn Heb “strong of heart [or, mind]”; KJV “stouthearted”; NAB “fainthearted”; NIV “stubborn-hearted.”

335 tn Heb “who are far from righteousness [or perhaps, “deliverance”].”

336 tn Heb “my salvation.” The verb “I am bringing near” is understood by ellipsis (note the previous line).

337 tn Heb “I will place in Zion salvation”; NASB “I will grant salvation in Zion.”

338 tn Heb “to Israel my splendor”; KJV, ASV “for Israel my glory.”

339 tn בְּתוּלַה (bÿtulah) often refers to a virgin, but the phrase “virgin daughter” is apparently stylized (see also 23:12; 37:22). In the extended metaphor of this chapter, where Babylon is personified as a queen (vv. 5, 7), she is depicted as being both a wife and mother (vv. 8-9).

340 tn Or “For” (NASB, NRSV).

341 tn Heb “Your shame will be seen.” In this context “shame” is a euphemism referring to the genitals.

342 tn Heb “I will not meet a man.” The verb פָּגַע (pagah) apparently carries the nuance “meet with kindness” here (cf. 64:5, and see BDB 803 s.v. Qal.2).

343 tc The Hebrew text reads, “Our redeemer – the Lord who commands armies [traditionally, the Lord of hosts] is his name, the Holy One of Israel.” The ancient Greek version adds “says” before “our redeemer.” אָמַר (’amar) may have accidentally dropped from the text by virtual haplography. Note that the preceding word אָדָם (’adam) is graphically similar.

sn See the note on the phrase “the Holy One of Israel” in 1:4.

344 tn Heb “darkness,” which may indicate a place of hiding where a fugitive would seek shelter and protection.

345 tn Or “For” (NASB, NRSV).

346 tn Or “compassion.”

347 tn Heb “on the old you made very heavy your yoke.”

348 tn Heb “Forever I [will be] permanent queen”; NIV “the eternal queen”; CEV “queen forever.”

349 tn Heb “you did not set these things upon your heart [or “mind”].”

350 tn Heb “you did not remember its outcome”; NAB “you disregarded their outcome.”

351 tn Or perhaps, “voluptuous one” (NAB); NAB “you sensual one”; NLT “You are a pleasure-crazy kingdom.”

352 tn Heb “the one who says in her heart.”

353 tn Heb “I [am], and besides me there is no other.” See Zeph 2:15.

354 tn Heb “I will not live [as] a widow, and I will not know loss of children.”

355 tn Heb “loss of children and widowhood.” In the Hebrew text the phrase is in apposition to “both of these” in line 1.

356 tn Heb “according to their fullness, they will come upon you.”

357 tn For other examples of the preposition bet (בְּ) having the sense of “although, despite,” see BDB 90 s.v. III.7.

358 sn Reference is made to incantations and amulets, both of which were important in Mesopotamian religion. They were used to ward off danger and demons.

359 tn Heb “you trusted in your evil”; KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV “wickedness.”

360 tn Or “said”; NAB “said to yourself”’ NASB “said in your heart.”

361 tn The words “self-professed” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

362 tn See the note at v. 8.

363 tc The Hebrew text has שַׁחְרָהּ (shakhrah), which is either a suffixed noun (“its dawning,” i.e., origin) or infinitive (“to look early for it”). Some have suggested an emendation to שַׁחֲדָהּ (shakhadah), a suffixed infinitive from שָׁחַד (shakhad, “[how] to buy it off”; see BDB 1005 s.v. שָׁחַד). This forms a nice parallel with the following couplet. The above translation is based on a different etymology of the verb in question. HALOT 1466 s.v. III שׁחר references a verbal root with these letters (שׁחד) that refers to magical activity.

364 tn Heb “you will not know”; NIV “you cannot foresee.”

365 tn Heb “stand” (so KJV, ASV); NASB, NRSV “Stand fast.”

366 tn The word “trusting” is supplied in the translation for clarification. See v. 9.

367 tn Heb “in that which you have toiled.”

368 tn Heb “maybe you will be able to profit.”

369 tn Heb “maybe you will cause to tremble.” The object “disaster” is supplied in the translation for clarification. See the note at v. 9.

370 tn Heb “you are tired because of the abundance of your advice.”

371 tn Heb “let them stand and rescue you – the ones who see omens in the sky, who gaze at the stars, who make known by months – from those things which are coming upon you.”

372 tn Heb “hand,” here a metaphor for the strength or power of the flames.

373 tn The Hebrew text reads literally, “there is no coal [for?] their food, light to sit before it.” Some emend לַחְמָם (lakhmam, “their food”) to לְחֻמָּם (lÿkhummam, “to warm them”; see HALOT 328 s.v. חמם). This statement may allude to Isa 44:16, where idolaters are depicted warming themselves over a fire made from wood, part of which was used to form idols. The fire of divine judgment will be no such campfire; its flames will devour and destroy.

374 tn Heb “So they will be to you”; NIV “That is all they can do for you.”

375 tn Heb “that for which you toiled, your traders from your youth.” The omen readers and star gazers are likened to merchants with whom Babylon has had an ongoing economic relationship.

376 tn Heb “each to his own side, they err.”

377 tn Heb “house of Jacob”; TEV, CEV “people of Israel.”

378 tc The Hebrew text reads literally “and from the waters of Judah came out.” מִמֵּי (mimme) could be a corruption of מִמְּעֵי (mimmÿe, “from the inner parts of”; cf. NASB, NIV, NLT, NRSV) as suggested in the above translation. Some translations (ESV, NKJV) retain the MT reading because the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa, which corrects a similar form to “from inner parts of” in 39:7, does not do it here.

379 tn Heb “cause to remember”; KJV, ASV “make mention of.”

380 tn Heb “not in truth and not in righteousness.”

381 tn Heb “they call themselves [or “are called”] from the holy city.” The precise meaning of the statement is uncertain. The Niphal of קָרָא (qara’) is combined with the preposition מִן (min) only here. When the Qal of קָרָא is used with מִן, the preposition often indicates the place from which one is summoned (see 46:11). So one could translate, “from the holy city they are summoned,” meaning that they reside there.

382 tn Heb “lean on” (so NASB, NRSV); NAB, NIV “rely on.”

383 tn Heb “the former things beforehand I declared.”

384 tn Heb “and from my mouth they came forth and I caused them to be heard.”

385 tn The words “I did this” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons. In the Hebrew text v. 4 is subordinated to v. 3.

386 sn The image is that of a person who has tensed the muscles of the face and neck as a sign of resolute refusal.

387 tn Heb “gaze [at] all of it”; KJV “see all this.”

388 tn Heb “[as for] you, will you not declare?”

389 tn Heb “and hidden things, and you do not know them.”

390 tn Heb “are created” (so KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NLT “They are brand new.”

391 tn Heb “look”; KJV, NASB “Behold.”

392 tn Heb “beforehand your ear did not open.”

393 tn Heb “deceiving, you deceive.” The infinitive absolute precedes the finite verb for emphasis.

394 tn Or “called” (KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV).

395 tn Heb “for the sake of my name” (so NAB, NASB); NLT “for my own sake.”

396 tn Heb “and my praise.” לְמַעַן (lÿmaan, “for the sake of”) is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).

397 tn Heb “I restrain [myself] concerning you not to cut you off.”

398 tc The Hebrew text has בְּחַרְתִּיךָ (bÿkhartikha, “I have chosen you”), but the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa reads correctly בחנתיכה (“I have tested you”). The metallurgical background of the imagery suggests that purification through testing is the idea.

399 tn The Hebrew text repeats לְמַעֲנִי (lÿmaani, “for my sake”) for emphasis.

400 tn The Hebrew text reads literally, “for how can it be defiled?” The subject of the verb is probably “name” (v. 9).

401 sn See 42:8.

402 tn Heb “I [am] he, I [am the] first, also I [am the] last.”

403 sn This probably refers to the idol gods (see v. 5).

404 tn Or “friend,” or “covenant partner.”

sn The Lord’s ally is a reference to Cyrus.

405 tn Heb “and his arm [against] the Babylonians.”

406 tn Heb “and his way will be prosperous.”

407 tn Heb “from the time of its occurring.”

408 sn The speaker here is not identified specifically, but he is probably Cyrus, the Lord’s “ally” mentioned in vv. 14-15.

409 tn Heb “your redeemer.” See the note at 41:14.

410 sn See the note on the phrase “the Holy One of Israel” in 1:4.

411 tn Heb “paid attention to” (so NASB, NIV, NRSV); TEV “had listened to.”

412 tn Heb “like a river your peace would have been.” שָׁלוֹם (shalom) probably refers here to the peace and prosperity which God promised in return for obedience to the covenant.

413 tn Heb “and your righteousness like the waves of the sea.” צְדָקָה (tsÿdaqah) probably refers here to divine deliverance from enemies. See v. 19.

414 tn Heb “like sand”; NCV “as many as the grains of sand.”

415 tn Heb “and the issue from your inner parts.”

416 tn Heb “and his name would not be cut off and would not be destroyed from before me.”

417 tn Heb “to the end of the earth” (so KJV, NASB, NRSV).

418 tn Heb “redeems.” See the note at 41:14.

419 sn The translation above (present tense) assumes that this verse describes God’s provision for returning Babylonian exiles (see v. 20; 35:6; 49:10) in terms reminiscent of the Exodus from Egypt (see Exod 17:6).

420 tn Or “islands” (NASB, NIV); NLT “in far-off lands.”

sn The Lord’s special servant, introduced in chap. 42, speaks here of his commission.

421 tn Heb “called me from the womb.”

422 tn Heb “from the inner parts of my mother he mentioned my name.”

423 tn Or perhaps, “polished” (so KJV, ASV, NAB, NIV, NRSV); NASB “a select arrow.”

424 sn The figurative language emphasizes the servant’s importance as the Lord’s effective instrument. The servant’s mouth, which stands metonymically for his words, is compared to a sharp sword because he will be an effective spokesman on God’s behalf (see 50:4). The Lord holds his hand on the servant, ready to draw and use him at the appropriate time. The servant is like a sharpened arrow reserved in a quiver for just the right moment.

425 sn This verse identifies the servant as Israel. This seems to refer to the exiled nation (cf. 41:8-9; 44:1-2, 21; 45:4; 48:20), but in vv. 5-6 this servant says he has been commissioned to reconcile Israel to God, so he must be distinct from the exiled nation. This servant is an ideal “Israel” who, like Moses of old, mediates a covenant for the nation (see v. 8), leads them out of bondage (v. 9a), and carries out God’s original plan for Israel by positively impacting the pagan nations (see v. 6b). By living according to God’s law, Israel was to be a model of God’s standards of justice to the surrounding nations (Deut 4:6-8). The sinful nation failed, but the servant, the ideal “Israel,” will succeed by establishing justice throughout the earth.

426 tn Or “said” (KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NLT “I replied.”

427 tn Heb “for nothing and emptiness.” Synonyms are combined to emphasize the common idea.

428 tn Heb “But my justice is with the Lord, and my reward [or “wage”] with my God.”

429 tn Heb “from the womb” (so KJV, NASB).

430 tn The words “he did this” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons. In the Hebrew text the infinitive construct of purpose is subordinated to the previous statement.

431 tn The vav (ו) + imperfect is translated here as a result clause; one might interpret it as indicating purpose, “and so I might be honored.”

432 tn Heb “and my God is [perhaps, “having been”] my strength.” The disjunctive structure (vav [ו] + subject + verb) is interpreted here as indicating a causal circumstantial clause.

433 tn Heb “the protected [or “preserved”] ones.”

434 sn The question is purely rhetorical; it does not imply that the servant was dissatisfied with his commission or that he minimized the restoration of Israel.

435 tn See the note at 42:6.

436 tn Heb “be” (so KJV, ASV); CEV “you must take.”

437 tn Heb “redeemer.” See the note at 41:14.

438 sn See the note on the phrase “the Holy One of Israel” in 1:4.

439 tc The Hebrew text reads literally “to [one who] despises life.” It is preferable to read with the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa לבזוי, which should be vocalized as a passive participle, לִבְזוּי (livzuy, “to the one despised with respect to life” [נֶפֶשׁ is a genitive of specification]). The consonantal sequence וי was probably misread as ה in the MT tradition. The contextual argument favors the 1QIsaa reading. As J. N. Oswalt (Isaiah [NICOT], 2:294) points out, the three terse phrases “convey a picture of lowliness, worthlessness, and helplessness.”

440 tn MT’s Piel participle (“to the one who rejects”) does not fit contextually. The form should be revocalized as a Pual, “to the one rejected.”

441 tn Parallelism (see “rulers,” “kings,” “princes”) suggests that the singular גּוֹי (goy) be emended to a plural or understood in a collective sense (see 55:5).

442 tn For this sense of קוּם (qum), see Gen 19:1; 23:7; 33:10; Lev 19:32; 1 Sam 20:41; 25:41; 1 Kgs 2:19; Job 29:8.

443 tn The translation assumes the verb is derived from the root נָצָר (natsar, “protect”). Some prefer to derive it from the root יָצָר (yatsar, “form”).

444 tn Heb “a covenant of people.” A person cannot literally be a covenant; בְּרִית (bÿrit) is probably metonymic here, indicating a covenant mediator. Here עָם (’am, “people”) appears to refer to Israel. See the note at 42:6.

445 tn The Hiphil of קוּם (qum, “arise”) is probably used here in the sense of “rebuild.”

446 tn The “land” probably stands by metonymy for the ruins within it.

447 tn Heb “to say.” In the Hebrew text the infinitive construct is subordinated to what precedes.

448 tn Heb “in darkness” (so KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NLT “the prisoners of darkness.”

449 tn Heb “show yourselves” (so ASV, NAB, NASB).

450 tn Heb “and the heat and the sun will not strike them.” In Isa 35:7, its only other occurrence in the OT, שָׁרָב (sharav) stands parallel to “parched ground” and in contrast to “pool.” In later Hebrew and Aramaic it refers to “dry heat, heat of the sun” (Jastrow 1627 s.v.). Here it likely has this nuance and forms a hendiadys with “sun.”

451 tc The MT reads “Sinim” here; the Dead Sea Scrolls read “Syene,” a location in Egypt associated with modern Aswan. A number of recent translations adopt this reading: “Syene” (NAB, NRSV); “Aswan” (NIV); “Egypt” (NLT).

sn The precise location of the land of Sinim is uncertain, but since the north and west are mentioned in the previous line, it was a probably located in the distant east or south.

452 tn Or “O heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavens” or “sky” depending on the context.

453 tn Heb “his” (so KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV).

454 tn The Hebrew term translated “sovereign master” here is אֲדֹנָי (’adonay).

455 tn Heb “her suckling”; NASB “her nursing child.”

456 tn Heb “so as not to have compassion on the son of her womb?”

457 tn Heb “these” (so ASV, NASB).

458 sn The argument of v. 15 seems to develop as follows: The Lord has an innate attachment to Zion, just like a mother does for her infant child. But even if mothers were to suddenly abandon their children, the Lord would never forsake Zion. In other words, the Lord’s attachment to Zion is like a mother’s attachment to her infant child, but even stronger.

459 tn Heb “you.” Here the pronoun is put by metonymy for the person’s name.

460 tn Heb “Lift up around your eyes and see.”

461 tn Heb “Indeed your ruins and your desolate places, and the land of your destruction.” This statement is abruptly terminated in the Hebrew text and left incomplete.

462 tn Heb “me.” The singular is collective.

463 tn Heb “draw near to me so I can dwell.”

464 tn Heb “and you will say in your heart.”

465 tn Or “exiled and thrust away”; NIV “exiled and rejected.”

466 tn Heb “your,” but Zion here stands by metonymy for her children (see v. 22b).

467 tn Heb “you.” See the preceding note.

468 tn Or “at your feet” (NAB, NIV); NLT “from your feet.”

469 tc The Hebrew text has צָדִיק (tsadiq, “a righteous [one]”), but this makes no sense in the parallelism. The Qumran scroll 1QIsaa reads correctly עריץ (“violent [one], tyrant”; see v. 25).

470 sn Verse 26a depicts siege warfare and bloody defeat. The besieged enemy will be so starved they will their own flesh. The bloodstained bodies lying on the blood-soaked battle site will look as if they collapsed in drunkenness.

471 tn Heb “flesh” (so KJV, NASB).

472 tn Heb “your redeemer.” See the note at 41:14.

473 tn Heb “the powerful [one] of Jacob.” See 1:24.

474 sn The Lord challenges the exiles (Zion’s children) to bring incriminating evidence against him. The rhetorical questions imply that Israel accused the Lord of divorcing his wife (Zion) and selling his children (the Israelites) into slavery to pay off a debt.

475 sn The Lord admits that he did sell the Israelites, but it was because of their sins, not because of some debt he owed. If he had sold them to a creditor, they ought to be able to point him out, but the preceding rhetorical question implies they would not be able to do so.

476 sn The Lord admits he did divorce Zion, but that too was the result of the nation’s sins. The force of the earlier rhetorical question comes into clearer focus now. The question does not imply that a certificate does not exist and that no divorce occurred. Rather, the question asks for the certificate to be produced so the accuser can see the reason for the divorce in black and white. The Lord did not put Zion away arbitrarily.

477 sn The present tense translation of the verbs assumes that the Lord is questioning why Israel does not attempt to counter his arguments. Another possibility is to take the verbs as referring to past events: “Why did no one meet me when I came? Why did no one answer when I called?” In this case the Lord might be asking why Israel rejected his calls to repent and his offer to deliver them.

478 tn Heb “short” (so NAB, NASB, NIV).

479 tn Or “ransom” (NAB, NASB, NIV).

480 tn Heb “with my rebuke.”

481 tn Heb “the fish stink from lack of water and die from thirst.”

482 tn Heb “has given to me a tongue of disciples.”

sn Verses 4-11 contain the third of the so-called servant songs, which depict the career of the Lord’s special servant, envisioned as an ideal Israel (49:3) who rescues the exiles and fulfills God’s purposes for the world. Here the servant alludes to opposition (something hinted at in 49:4), but also expresses his determination to persevere with the Lord’s help.

483 tc Heb “to know [?] the weary with a word.” Comparing it with Arabic and Aramaic cognates yields the meaning of “help, sustain.” Nevertheless, the meaning of עוּת (’ut) is uncertain. The word occurs only here in the OT (see BDB 736 s.v.). Various scholars have suggested an emendation to עָנוֹת (’anot) from עָנָה (’anah, “answer”): “so that I know how to respond kindly to the weary.” Since the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa and the Vulgate support the MT reading, that reading is retained.

484 tn Heb “he arouses for me an ear, to hear like disciples.”

485 tn Or perhaps, “makes me obedient.” The text reads literally, “has opened for me an ear.”

486 tn Or perhaps, “who beat [me].”

487 tn Heb “Therefore I set my face like flint.”

488 tn Heb “Let us stand together!”

489 tn Heb “Who is the master of my judgment?”

490 tn Heb “let him approach me”; NAB, NIV “Let him confront me.”

491 tn Heb “[who] listens to the voice of his servant?” The interrogative is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).

492 tn The plural indicates degree. Darkness may refer to exile and/or moral evil.

493 tc Several more recent commentators have proposed an emendation of מְאַזְּרֵי (mÿazzÿre, “who put on”) to מְאִירִי (mÿiri, “who light”). However, both Qumran scrolls of Isaiah and the Vulgate support the MT reading (cf. NIV, ESV).

494 tn On the meaning of זִיקוֹת (ziqot, “flaming arrows”), see HALOT 268 s.v. זִיקוֹת.

495 tn The imperative is probably rhetorical and has a predictive force.

496 tn Or perhaps, “flame” (so ASV).

497 sn Perhaps the servant here speaks to his enemies and warns them that they will self-destruct.

498 tn Heb “from my hand” (so NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV).

499 sn The imagery may be that of a person who becomes ill and is forced to lie down in pain on a sickbed. Some see this as an allusion to a fiery place of damnation because of the imagery employed earlier in the verse.

500 tn Or “righteousness” (KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NAB “justice”; NLT “hope for deliverance.”

501 tn Heb “the excavation of the hole.”

502 sn The “rock” and “quarry” refer here to Abraham and Sarah, the progenitors of the nation.

503 sn Although Abraham and Sarah are distant ancestors of the people the prophet is addressing, they are spoken of as the immediate parents.

504 tn Heb “one”; NLT “was alone”; TEV “was childless.”

505 tn “Bless” may here carry the sense of “endue with potency, reproductive power.” See Gen 1:28.

506 tn Heb “and I made him numerous.”

507 tn Heb “found in” (so NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV).

508 tn Or “certainly.”

509 tn Heb “instruction [or “a law”] will go out from me.”

510 tn Heb “and my justice for a light to the nations I will cause to rest.”

511 tn Heb “my righteousness [or “vindication”] is near.”

512 tn Heb “my deliverance goes forth.”

513 tn Heb “and my arms will judge [on behalf of] nations.”

514 tn Or “islands” (NIV); TEV “Distant lands.”

515 tn Heb “for my arm” (so NIV, NRSV).

516 tn Heb “will be torn in pieces.” The perfect indicates the certitude of the event, from the Lord’s rhetorical perspective.

517 tn Heb “my deliverance.” The same Hebrew word can also be translated “salvation” (so KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT); cf. CEV “victory.”

518 tn Heb “my righteousness [or “vindication”].”

519 tn Heb “will not be shattered [or “dismayed”].”

520 tn Heb “people (who have) my law in their heart.”

521 tn Heb “my vindication”; many English versions “my righteousness”; NRSV, TEV “my deliverance”; CEV “my victory.”

522 tn The arm of the Lord is a symbol of divine military power. Here it is personified and told to arouse itself from sleep and prepare for action.

523 tn Heb “Are you not the one who smashed?” The feminine singular forms agree grammatically with the feminine noun “arm.” The Hebrew text has ַהמַּחְצֶבֶת (hammakhtsevet), from the verbal root חָצַב (khatsav, “hew, chop”). The Qumran scroll 1QIsaa has, probably correctly, המחצת, from the verbal root מָחַץ (makhats, “smash”) which is used in Job 26:12 to describe God’s victory over “the Proud One.”

524 tn This title (רַהַב, rahav, “proud one”) is sometimes translated as a proper name: “Rahab” (cf. NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV). It is used here of a symbolic sea monster, known elsewhere in the Bible and in Ugaritic myth as Leviathan. This sea creature symbolizes the forces of chaos that seek to destroy the created order. In the Bible “the Proud One” opposes God’s creative work, but is defeated (see Job 26:12; Ps 89:10). Here the title refers to Pharaoh’s Egyptian army that opposed Israel at the Red Sea (see v. 10, and note also Isa 30:7 and Ps 87:4, where the title is used of Egypt).

525 tn The words “did you not” are understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line). The rhetorical questions here and in v. 10 expect the answer, “Yes, you certainly did!”

526 tn Hebrew תַּנִּין (tannin) is another name for the symbolic sea monster. See the note at 27:1. In this context the sea creature represents Egypt. See the note on the title “Proud One” earlier in this verse.

527 tn The Hebrew text reads literally, “Are you not the one who dried up the sea, the waters of the great deep, who made…?”

528 tn Heb “the redeemed” (so ASV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); KJV “the ransomed.”

529 tn Heb “[will be] on their head[s].” “Joy” may be likened here to a crown (cf. 2 Sam 1:10). The statement may also be an ironic twist on the idiom “earth/dust on the head” (cf. 2 Sam 1:2; 13:19; 15:32; Job 2:12), referring to a mourning practice.

530 tn Heb “overtake” (so NIV); NASB “they will obtain.”

531 tn Heb “grief and groaning will flee.”

532 tc The plural suffix should probably be emended to the second masculine singular (which is used in v. 13). The final mem (ם) is probably dittographic; note the mem at the beginning of the next word.

533 tn Heb “Who are you that you are afraid of man who dies, and of the son of man who [as] grass is given up?” The feminine singular forms should probably be emended to the masculine singular (see v. 13). They have probably been influenced by the construction אַתְּ־הִיא (’at-hi’) in vv. 9-10.

534 tn Heb “and that you forget.”

535 tn Or “the heavens” (also in v. 16). The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavens” or “sky” depending on the context.

536 tn Heb “and that you tremble constantly all the day.”

537 tn The question anticipates the answer, “Ready to disappear!” See v. 14.

538 tn Heb “who is stooped over” (under a burden).

539 tn Heb “the pit” (so KJV); ASV, NAB “die and go down into the pit”; NASB, NIV “dungeon”; NCV “prison.”

540 tn Heb “he will not lack his bread.”

541 tn The addressee (second masculine singular, as in vv. 13, 15) in this verse is unclear. The exiles are addressed in the immediately preceding verses (note the critical tone of vv. 12-13 and the reference to the exiles in v. 14). However, it seems unlikely that they are addressed in v. 16, for the addressee appears to be commissioned to tell Zion, who here represents the restored exiles, “you are my people.” The addressee is distinct from the exiles. The language of v. 16a is reminiscent of 49:2 and 50:4, where the Lord’s special servant says he is God’s spokesman and effective instrument. Perhaps the Lord, having spoken to the exiles in vv. 1-15, now responds to this servant, who spoke just prior to this in 50:4-11.

542 tn Heb “I place my words in your mouth.”

543 tn Heb “with the shadow of my hand.”

544 tc The Hebrew text has לִנְטֹעַ (lintoa’, “to plant”). Several scholars prefer to emend this form to לִנְטֹת (lintot) from נָטָה (natah, “to stretch out”); see v. 13, as well as 40:22; 42:5; 44:24; 45:12; cf. NAB, NCV, NRSV. However, since the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa, LXX (and Aquila and Symmachus), and Vulgate support the MT reading, there is no need to emend the form. The interpretation is clear enough: Yahweh fixed the sky in its place.

545 tn The infinitives in v. 16b are most naturally understood as indicating the purpose of the divine actions described in v. 16a. The relationship of the third infinitive to the commission is clear enough – the Lord has made the addressee (his special servant?) his spokesman so that the latter might speak encouraging words to those in Zion. But how do the first two infinitives relate? The text seems to indicate that the Lord has commissioned the addressee so that the latter might create the universe! Perhaps creation imagery is employed metaphorically here to refer to the transformation that Jerusalem will experience (see 65:17-18).

546 tn Heb “[you] who have drunk from the hand of the Lord the cup of his anger.”

547 tn Heb “the goblet, the cup [that causes] staggering, you drank, you drained.”

548 tc The Hebrew text has אֲנַחֲמֵךְ (’anakhamekh), a first person form, but the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa reads correctly יִנַחֲמֵךְ (yinakhamekh), a third person form.

549 tn Heb “those who are full of the anger of the Lord, the shout [or “rebuke”] of your God.”

550 tn The Hebrew term translated “sovereign master” here is אֲדֹנָי (’adonay).

551 tn Heb “the cup of [= that causes] staggering” (so ASV, NAB, NRSV); NASB “the cup of reeling.”

552 tn Heb “the goblet of the cup of my anger.”

553 tn That is, to make them drink it.

554 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

555 tn Heb “Shake yourself free from the dirt.”

556 tc The Hebrew text has שְּׂבִי (shÿvi), which some understand as a feminine singular imperative from יָשַׁב (yashav, “sit”). The LXX, Vulgate, Syriac, and the Targum support the MT reading (the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa does indirectly). Some interpret this to mean “take your throne”: The Lord exhorts Jerusalem to get up from the dirt and sit, probably with the idea of sitting in a place of honor (J. N. Oswalt, Isaiah [NICOT], 2:361). However, the form is likely a corruption of שְׁבִיָּה (shÿviyyah, “captive”), which appears in the parallel line.

557 tn Heb “and now what [following the marginal reading (Qere)] to me here?”

558 tn The verb appears to be a Hiphil form from the root יָלַל (yalal, “howl”), perhaps here in the sense of “mock.” Some emend the form to יְהוֹלָּלוֹ (yÿhollalo) and understand a Polel form of the root הָלַל meaning here “mock, taunt.”

559 tn The verb is apparently a Hitpolal form (with assimilated tav, ת) from the root נָאַץ (naats), but GKC 151-52 §55.b explains it as a mixed form, combining Pual and Hitpolel readings.

560 tn The verb is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).

561 tn Heb “in that day” (so KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV).

562 tn Heb “How delightful on the mountains.”

563 tn Or “has become king.” When a new king was enthroned, his followers would give this shout. For other examples of this enthronement formula (Qal perfect 3rd person masculine singular מָלַךְ [malakh], followed by the name of the king), see 2 Sam 15:10; 1 Kgs 1:11, 13, 18; 2 Kgs 9:13. The Lord is an eternal king, but here he is pictured as a victorious warrior who establishes his rule from Zion.

564 tn קוֹל (qol, “voice”) is used at the beginning of the verse as an interjection.

565 tn Heb “eye in eye”; KJV, ASV “eye to eye”; NAB “directly, before their eyes.”

566 tn Or “redeems.” See the note at 41:14.

567 tn Heb “lays bare”; NLT “will demonstrate.”

568 tn Heb “his holy arm.” This is a metonymy for his power.

569 tn Heb “the remote regions,” which here stand for the extremities and everything in between.

570 tn Heb “the deliverance of our God.” “God” is a subjective genitive here.

571 tn Heb “the vessels of the Lord” (so KJV, NAB).

572 tn Heb “or go in flight”; NAB “leave in headlong flight.”

573 tn Heb “act wisely,” which by metonymy means “succeed.”

574 tn This piling up of synonyms emphasizes the degree of the servant’s coming exaltation.

575 tn Some witnesses read “him,” which is more consistent with the context, where the servant is spoken about, not addressed. However, it is possible that the Lord briefly addresses the servant here. The present translation assumes the latter view and places the phrase in parentheses.

576 tn Heb “such was the disfigurement.” The noun מִשְׁחַת (mishkhat) occurs only here. It may be derived from the verbal root שָׁחַת (shakhat, “be ruined”; see BDB 1007-8 s.v. שָׁחַת). The construct form appears here before a prepositional phrase (cf. GKC 421 §130.a).

577 tn Heb “from a man his appearance.” The preposition מִן (min) here carries the sense “away from,” i.e., “so as not to be.” See BDB 583 s.v.

578 tn Heb “and his form from the sons of men.” The preposition מִן (min) here carries the sense “away from,” i.e., “so as not to be.”

579 tn This statement completes the sentence begun in v. 14a. The introductory כֵּן (ken) answers to the introductory כַּאֲשֶׁר (kaasher) of v. 14a. Verses 14b-15a are parenthetical, explaining why many were horrified.

580 tn Traditionally the verb יַזֶּה (yazzeh, a Hiphil stem) has been understood as a causative of נָזָה (nazah, “spurt, spatter”) and translated “sprinkle.” In this case the passage pictures the servant as a priest who “sprinkles” (or spiritually cleanses) the nations. Though the verb נָזָה does occur in the Hiphil with the meaning “sprinkle,” the usual interpretation is problematic. In all other instances where the object or person sprinkled is indicated, the verb is combined with a preposition. This is not the case in Isaiah 52:15, unless one takes the following עָלָיו (’alayv, “on him”) with the preceding line. But then one would have to emend the verb to a plural, make the nations the subject of the verb “sprinkle,” and take the servant as the object. Consequently some interpreters doubt the cultic idea of “sprinkling” is present here. Some emend the text; others propose a homonymic root meaning “spring, leap,” which in the Hiphil could mean “cause to leap, startle” and would fit the parallelism of the verse nicely.

581 tn Heb “Because of him kings will shut their mouths,” i.e., be speechless.

582 tn The perfect has a hypothetical force in this rhetorical question. For another example, see Gen 21:7.

583 sn The speaker shifts here from God to an unidentified group (note the first person plural pronouns throughout vv. 1-6). The content of the speech suggests that the prophet speaks here as representative of the sinful nation Israel. The group acknowledges its sin and recognizes that the servant suffered on their behalf.

584 tn The first half of v. 1 is traditionally translated, “Who has believed our report?” or “Who has believed our message?” as if the group speaking is lamenting that no one will believe what they have to say. But that doesn’t seem to be the point in this context. Here the group speaking does not cast itself in the role of a preacher or evangelist. No, they are repentant sinners, who finally see the light. The phrase “our report” can mean (1) the report which we deliver, or (2) the report which was delivered to us. The latter fits better here, where the report is most naturally taken as the announcement that has just been made in 52:13-15.

585 tn Heb “to whom” (so KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV).

586 tn Heb “the arm of the Lord.” The “arm of the Lord” is a metaphor of military power; it pictures the Lord as a warrior who bares his arm, takes up his weapon, and crushes his enemies (cf. 51:9-10; 63:5-6). But Israel had not seen the Lord’s military power at work in the servant.

587 tn Heb “before him.” Some suggest an emendation to “before us.” If the third singular suffix of the Hebrew text is retained, it probably refers to the Lord (see v. 1b). For a defense of this reading, see R. Whybray, Isaiah 40-66 (NCBC), 173-74.

588 sn The metaphor in this verse suggests insignificance.

589 tn Heb “that we might see him.” The vav conjunctive prefixed to the imperfect introduces a result clause here. See GKC 504-5 §166.a.

590 tn Heb “that we should desire him.” The vav conjunctive prefixed to the imperfect introduces a result clause here. See GKC 504-5 §166.a.

591 tn Heb “lacking of men.” If the genitive is taken as specifying (“lacking with respect to men”), then the idea is that he lacked company because he was rejected by people. Another option is to take the genitive as indicating genus or larger class (i.e., “one lacking among men”). In this case one could translate, “he was a transient” (cf. the use of חָדֵל [khadel] in Ps 39:5 HT [39:4 ET]).

592 tn Heb “like a hiding of the face from him,” i.e., “like one before whom the face is hidden” (see BDB 712 s.v. מַסְתֵּר).

593 sn The servant is likened to a seriously ill person who is shunned by others because of his horrible disease.

594 sn Illness and pain stand by metonymy (or perhaps as metaphors) for sin and its effects, as vv. 11-12 make clear.

595 tn The words “for something he had done” are supplied in the translation for clarification. The group now realizes he suffered because of his identification with them, not simply because he was a special target of divine anger.

596 tn The preposition מִן (min) has a causal sense (translated “because of”) here and in the following clause.

597 tn Heb “the punishment of our peace [was] on him.” שָׁלוֹם (shalom, “peace”) is here a genitive of result, i.e., “punishment that resulted in our peace.”

598 sn Continuing to utilize the imagery of physical illness, the group acknowledges that the servant’s willingness to carry their illnesses (v. 4) resulted in their being healed. Healing is a metaphor for forgiveness here.

599 tn Elsewhere the Hiphil of פָגַע (paga’) means “to intercede verbally” (Jer 15:11; 36:25) or “to intervene militarily” (Isa 59:16), but neither nuance fits here. Apparently here the Hiphil is the causative of the normal Qal meaning, “encounter, meet, touch.” The Qal sometimes refers to a hostile encounter or attack; when used in this way the object is normally introduced by the preposition -בְּ (bet, see Josh 2:16; Judg 8:21; 15:12, etc.). Here the causative Hiphil has a double object – the Lord makes “sin” attack “him” (note that the object attacked is introduced by the preposition -בְּ. In their sin the group was like sheep who had wandered from God’s path. They were vulnerable to attack; the guilt of their sin was ready to attack and destroy them. But then the servant stepped in and took the full force of the attack.

600 tn The translation assumes the Niphal is passive; another option is take the clause (note the subject + verb pattern) as concessive and the Niphal as reflexive, “though he humbled himself.”

601 sn This verse emphasizes the servant’s silent submission. The comparison to a sheep does not necessarily suggest a sacrificial metaphor. Sheep were slaughtered for food as well as for sacrificial rituals, and טֶבַח (tevakh) need not refer to sacrificial slaughter (see Gen 43:16; Prov 7:22; 9:2; Jer 50:27; note also the use of the related verb in Exod 21:37; Deut 28:31; 1 Sam 25:11).

602 tn The precise meaning of this line is uncertain. The present translation assumes that מִן (min) here has an instrumental sense (“by, through”) and understands עֹצֶר וּמִמִּשְׁפָּט (’otser umimmishpat, “coercion and legal decision”) as a hendiadys meaning “coercive legal decision,” thus “an unjust trial.” Other interpretive options include: (1) “without [for this sense of מִן, see BDB 578 s.v. 1.b] hindrance and proper judicial process,” i.e., “unfairly and with no one to defend him,” (2) “from [in the sense of “after,” see BDB 581 s.v. 4.b] arrest and judgment.”

603 tn Heb “and his generation, who considers?” (NASB similar). Some understand “his generation” as a reference to descendants. In this case the question would suggest that he will have none. However, אֶת (’et) may be taken here as specifying a new subject (see BDB 85 s.v. I אֵת 3). If “his generation” refers to the servant’s contemporary generation, one may then translate, “As for his contemporary generation, who took note?” The point would be that few were concerned about the harsh treatment he received.

604 sn The “land of the living” is an idiom for the sphere where people live, in contrast to the underworld realm of the dead. See, for example, Ezek 32:23-27.

605 tn The Hebrew text reads “my people,” a reading followed by most English versions, but this is problematic in a context where the first person plural predominates, and where God does not appear to speak again until v. 11b. Therefore, it is preferable to read with the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa עמו (“his people”). In this case, the group speaking in these verses is identified as the servant’s people (compare פְּשָׁעֵנוּ [pÿshaenu, “our rebellious deeds”] in v. 5 with פֶּשַׁע עַמִּי [pesha’ ’ammi, “the rebellion of his people”] in v. 8).

606 tn Heb “one assigned his grave with criminals.” The subject of the singular is impersonal; English typically uses “they” in such constructions.

607 tn This line reads literally, “and with the rich in his death.” בְּמֹתָיו (bÿmotayv) combines a preposition, a plural form of the noun מוֹת (mot), and a third masculine singular suffix. The plural of the noun is problematic and the יו may be the result of virtual dittography. The form should probably be emended to בָּמָתוֹ (bamato, singular noun). The relationship between this line and the preceding one is uncertain. The parallelism appears to be synonymous (note “his grave” and “in his death”), but “criminals” and “the rich” hardly make a compatible pair in this context, for they would not be buried in the same kind of tomb. Some emend עָשִׁיר (’ashir, “rich”) to עָשֵׂי רָע (’ase ra’, “doers of evil”) but the absence of the ayin (ע) is not readily explained in this graphic environment. Others suggest an emendation to שְׂעִירִים (sÿirim, “he-goats, demons”), but the meaning in this case is not entirely transparent and the proposal assumes that the form suffered from both transposition and the inexplicable loss of a final mem. Still others relate עָשִׁיר (’ashir) to an alleged Arabic cognate meaning “mob.” See HALOT 896 s.v. עָשִׁיר. Perhaps the parallelism is antithetical, rather than synonymous. In this case, the point is made that the servant’s burial in a rich man’s tomb, in contrast to a criminal’s burial, was appropriate, for he had done nothing wrong.

608 tn If the second line is antithetical, then עַל (’al) is probably causal here, explaining why the servant was buried in a rich man’s tomb, rather than that of criminal. If the first two lines are synonymous, then עַל is probably concessive: “even though….”

609 tn The meaning of this line is uncertain. It reads literally, “if you/she makes, a reparation offering, his life.” The verb תָּשִׂים (tasim) could be second masculine singular,in which case it would have to be addressed to the servant or to God. However, the servant is only addressed once in this servant song (see 52:14a), and God either speaks or is spoken about in this servant song; he is never addressed. Furthermore, the idea of God himself making a reparation offering is odd. If the verb is taken as third feminine singular, then the feminine noun נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh) at the end of the line is the likely subject. In this case one can take the suffixed form of the noun as equivalent to a pronoun and translate, “if he [literally, “his life”] makes a reparation offering.”

sn What constitutes the servant’s reparation offering? Some might think his suffering, but the preceding context views this as past, while the verb here is imperfect in form. The offering appears to be something the servant does after his suffering has been completed. Perhaps the background of the language can be found in the Levitical code, where a healed leper would offer a reparation offering as part of the ritual to achieve ceremonial cleanliness (see Lev 14). The servant was pictured earlier in the song as being severely ill. This illness (a metaphor for the effects of the people’s sin) separated him from God. However, here we discover the separation is not final; once reparation is made, so to speak, he will again experience the Lord’s favor.

610 sn The idiomatic and stereotypical language emphasizes the servant’s restoration to divine favor. Having numerous descendants and living a long life are standard signs of divine blessing. See Job 42:13-16.

611 tn Heb “he will be satisfied by his knowledge,” i.e., “when he knows.” The preposition is understood as temporal and the suffix as a subjective genitive. Some take בְּדַעְתּוֹ (bÿdato, “by his knowledge”) with what follows and translate “by knowledge of him,” understanding the preposition as instrumental and the suffix as objective.

612 sn The song ends as it began (cf. 52:13-15), with the Lord announcing the servant’s vindication and exaltation.

613 tn Heb “he will acquit, a righteous one, my servant, many.” צַדִּיק (tsadiq) may refer to the servant, but more likely it is dittographic (note the preceding verb יַצְדִּיק, yatsdiq). The precise meaning of the verb (the Hiphil of צָדַק, tsadaq) is debated. Elsewhere the Hiphil is used at least six times in the sense of “make righteous” in a legal sense, i.e., “pronounce innocent, acquit” (see Exod 23:7; Deut 25:1; 1 Kgs 8:32 = 2 Chr 6:23; Prov 17:15; Isa 5:23). It can also mean “render justice” (as a royal function, see 2 Sam 15:4; Ps 82:3), “concede” (Job 27:5), “vindicate” (Isa 50:8), and “lead to righteousness” (by teaching and example, Dan 12:3). The preceding context and the next line suggest a legal sense here. Because of his willingness to carry the people’s sins, the servant is able to “acquit” them.

sn Some (e.g., H. M. Orlinsky, “The So-called ‘Suffering Servant’ in Isaiah 53,22,” VTSup 14 [1967]: 3-133) object to this legal interpretation of the language, arguing that it would be unjust for the righteous to suffer for the wicked and for the wicked to be declared innocent. However, such a surprising development is consistent with the ironic nature of this song. It does seem unfair for the innocent to die for the guilty. But what is God to do when all have sinned and wandered off like stray sheep (cf. v. 6)? Covenant law demands punishment, but punishment in this case would mean annihilation of what God has created. God’s justice, as demanded by the law, must be satisfied. To satisfy his justice, he does something seemingly unjust. He punishes his sinless servant, the only one who has not strayed off! In the progress of biblical revelation, we discover that the sinless servant is really God in the flesh, who offers himself because he is committed to the world he has created. If his justice can only be satisfied if he himself endures the punishment, then so be it. What appears to be an act of injustice is really love satisfying the demands of justice!

614 tn The circumstantial clause (note the vav [ו] + object + subject + verb pattern) is understood as causal here. The prefixed verb form is either a preterite or an imperfect used in a customary manner.

615 tn Scholars have debated the precise meaning of the term רַבִּים (rabbim) that occurs five times in this passage (Isa 52:14, 15; 53:11, 12 [2x]). Its two broad categories of translation are “much”/“many” and “great” (HALOT 1171-72 s.v. I רַב). Unlike other Hebrew terms for might or strength, this term is linked with numbers or abundance. In all sixteen uses outside of Isaiah 52:13-53:12 (articular and plural) it signifies an inclusive meaning: “the majority” or “the multitude” (J. Jeremias, TDNT 6:536-37). This term occurs in parallelism with עֲצוּמִים (’atsumim), which normally signifies “numerous” or “large” or “powerful” (through large numbers). Like רַבִּים (rabbim), it refers to greatness in numbers (cf. Deut 4:38; 7:1; 9:1; 11:34). It emphasizes the multitudes with whom the Servant will share the spoil of his victory. As J. Olley wrote: “Yahweh has won the victory and vindicates his Servant, giving to him many subservient people, together with their spoils. These numerous peoples in turn receive blessing, sharing in the “peace” resulting from Yahweh’s victory and the Servant’s suffering” (John W. Olley, “‘The Many’: How Is Isa 53,12a to Be Understood,” Bib 68 [1987]: 330-56).

616 sn The servant is compared here to a warrior who will be richly rewarded for his effort and success in battle.

617 tn Heb “because he laid bare his life”; traditionally, ASV “because he (+ hath KJV) poured out his soul (life NIV) unto death.”

618 tn The Hiphil of פָּגַע (paga’) can mean “cause to attack” (v. 6), “urge, plead verbally” (Jer 15:11; 36:25), or “intervene militarily” (Isa 59:16). Perhaps the third nuance fits best here, for military imagery is employed in the first two lines of the verse.

619 tn Heb “the curtains of our dwelling places let them stretch out.”

620 tn Heb “your stakes strengthen.”

621 tn Or “take possession of”; NAB “shall dispossess.”

622 tn Or “embarrassed”; NASB “humiliated…disgraced.”

623 tn Another option is to translate, “the disgrace of our widowhood” (so NRSV). However, the following context (vv. 6-7) refers to Zion’s husband, the Lord, abandoning her, not dying. This suggests that an אַלְמָנָה (’almanah) was a woman who had lost her husband, whether by death or abandonment.

624 tn Or “redeemer.” See the note at 41:14.

625 sn See the note on the phrase “the Holy One of Israel” in 1:4.

626 tn Heb “like a woman abandoned and grieved in spirit.”

627 tn Or “forsook” (NASB).

628 tn According to BDB 1009 s.v. שֶׁטֶף the noun שֶׁצֶף here is an alternate form of שֶׁטֶף (shetef, “flood”). Some relate the word to an alleged Akkadian cognate meaning “strength.”

629 tn Heb “I hid my face from you.”

630 tn Or “redeemer.” See the note at 41:14.

631 tc The Hebrew text reads literally, “For [or “indeed”] the waters of Noah [is] this to me.” כִּי־מֵי (ki-me, “for the waters of”) should be emended to כְּמֵי (kÿmey, “like the days of”), which is supported by the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa and all the ancient versions except LXX.

632 tn Heb “the waters of Noah” (so NAB, NIV, NRSV).

633 tn Heb “peace” (so many English versions); NLT “of blessing.”

634 tn Or, more literally, “windblown, storm tossed.”

635 tn Perhaps, “rubies” (so ASV, NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT).

636 tn On the meaning of אֶקְדָּח (’eqdakh), which occurs only here, see HALOT 82 s.v.

637 tn Heb “border” (so ASV); NASB “your entire wall.”

638 tn Heb “delightful”; KJV “pleasant.”

639 tn Heb “and great [will be] the peace of your sons.”

640 tn Heb “in righteousness [or “vindication”] you will be established.” The precise meaning of צְדָקָה (tsÿdaqah) here is uncertain. It could mean “righteousness, justice,” indicating that the city will be a center for justice. But the context focuses on deliverance, suggesting that the term means “deliverance, vindication” here.

641 tn Heb “Be far from oppression!” The imperative is used here in a rhetorical manner to express certainty and assurance. See GKC 324 §110.c.

642 tn Heb “from terror.” The rhetorical command, “be far” is understood by ellipsis here. Note the preceding context.

643 tn Heb “it,” i.e., the “terror” just mentioned.

644 tn The infinitive absolute precedes the finite verb here for emphasis.

645 tn Heb “will fall over you.” The expression נָפַל עַל (nafalal) can mean “attack,” but here it means “fall over to,” i.e., “surrender to.”

646 tn Heb “who brings out an implement for his work.”

647 tn Heb “and every tongue that rises up for judgment with you will prove to be guilty.”

648 tn Heb “this is the inheritance of the servants of the Lord, and their vindication from me.”

649 tn The Hebrew term הוֹי (hoy, “woe, ah”) was used in funeral laments and is often prefixed to judgment oracles for rhetorical effect. But here it appears to be a simple interjection, designed to grab the audience’s attention. Perhaps there is a note of sorrow or pity. See BDB 223 s.v.

650 sn The statement is an oxymoron. Its ironic quality adds to its rhetorical impact. The statement reminds one of the norm (one must normally buy commodities) as it expresses the astounding offer. One might paraphrase the statement: “Come and take freely what you normally have to pay for.”

651 tn Heb “for what is not food.”

652 tn The interrogative particle and the verb “spend” are understood here by ellipsis (note the preceding line).

653 tn Heb “your labor,” which stands by metonymy for that which one earns.

654 tn The infinitive absolute follows the imperative and lends emphasis to the exhortation.

655 tn Heb “good” (so NASB, NIV, NRSV).

656 tn Heb “Let your appetite delight in fine food.”

sn Nourishing, fine food here represents the blessings God freely offers. These include forgiveness, a new covenantal relationship with God, and national prominence (see vv. 3-6).

657 tn The jussive with vav (ו) conjunctive following the imperative indicates purpose/result.

sn To live here refers to covenantal blessing, primarily material prosperity and national security (see vv. 4-5, 13, and Deut 30:6, 15, 19-20).

658 tn Or “an eternal covenant with.”

659 tn Heb “the reliable expressions of loyalty of David.” The syntactical relationship of חַסְדֵי (khasde, “expressions of loyalty”) to the preceding line is unclear. If the term is appositional to בְּרִית (bÿrit, “covenant”), then the Lord here transfers the promises of the Davidic covenant to the entire nation. Another option is to take חַסְדֵי (khasde) as an adverbial accusative and to translate “according to the reliable covenantal promises.” In this case the new covenantal arrangement proposed here is viewed as an extension or perhaps fulfillment of the Davidic promises. A third option, the one reflected in the above translation, is to take the last line as comparative. In this case the new covenant being proposed is analogous to the Davidic covenant. Verses 4-5, which compare David’s international prominence to what Israel will experience, favors this view. In all three of these interpretations, “David” is an objective genitive; he is the recipient of covenantal promises. A fourth option would be to take David as a subjective genitive and understand the line as giving the basis for the preceding promise: “Then I will make an unconditional covenantal promise to you, because of David’s faithful acts of covenantal loyalty.”

660 sn Ideally the Davidic king was to testify to the nations of God’s greatness (cf. Pss 18:50 HT [18:49 ET]; 22:28 HT [22:27 ET]). See J. H. Eaton, Kingship in the Psalms (SBT), 182-84.

661 tn Heb “a nation,” but the singular is collective here, as the plural verbs in the next line indicate (note that both “know” and “run” are third plural forms).

662 tn Heb “a nation,” but the singular is collective here, as the plural verbs that follow indicate.

663 sn See the note on the phrase “the Holy One of Israel” in 1:4.

664 tn Heb “while he allows himself to be found.” The Niphal form has a tolerative force here.

665 tn Heb “Let the wicked one abandon his way.” The singular is collective.

666 tn Heb “and the man of evil his thoughts.” The singular is collective.

667 tn Heb “let him return.” The singular is collective, meaning “let them.”

668 tn The imperfect with vav (ו) conjunctive after the jussive indicates purpose/result.

669 sn The appeal and promise of vv. 6-7 echoes the language of Deut 4:25-31; 30:1-10; and 1 Kgs 8:46-53, all of which anticipate the exile and speak of the prerequisites for restoration.

670 tn Or “For” (KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV).

671 tn Or “thoughts” (so many English versions).

672 tn Heb “are not.” “Like” is interpretive, but v. 9 indicates that a comparison is in view.

673 tn Heb “ways” (so many English versions).

674 tn Heb “are not.” “Like” is interpretive, but v. 9 indicates that a comparison is in view.

675 tn Or “the heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavens” or “sky” depending on the context.

676 tn Heb “ways” (so many English versions).

677 tn Heb “are higher than.”

678 tn Or “thoughts” (so many English versions).

679 tn This verse begins in the Hebrew text with כִּי כַּאֲשֶׁר (ki kaasher, “for, just as”), which is completed by כֵּן (ken, “so, in the same way”) at the beginning of v. 11. For stylistic reasons, this lengthy sentence is divided up into separate sentences in the translation.

680 tn Heb “so is the word which goes out from my mouth, it does not return to empty.” “Word” refers here to divine promises, like the ones made just prior to and after this (see vv. 7b, 12-13).

681 tn Heb “but it accomplishes what I desire, and succeeds [on the mission] which I send it.”

sn Verses 8-11 focus on the reliability of the divine word and support the promises before (vv. 3-5, 7b) and after (vv. 12-13) this. Israel can be certain that repentance will bring forgiveness and a new covenantal relationship because God’s promises are reliable. In contrast to human plans (or “thoughts”), which are destined to fail (Ps 94:11) apart from divine approval (Prov 19:21), and human deeds (or “ways”), which are evil and lead to destruction (Prov 1:15-19; 3:31-33; 4:19), God’s plans are realized and his deeds accomplish something positive.

682 tn Heb “to the Lord for a name.” For שֵׁם (shem) used in the sense of “monument,” see also 56:5, where it stands parallel to יָד (yad).

683 tn Or, more literally, “a permanent sign that will not be cut off.”

684 tn Heb “guard”; KJV “Keep”; NAB “Observe”; NASB “Preserve”; NIV, NRSV “Maintain.”

685 tn Heb “for near is my deliverance to enter, and my vindication [or “righteousness”] to be revealed.”

686 tn Heb “blessed is the man who does this.”

687 tn Heb “the son of mankind who takes hold of it.”

688 tn Heb and who keeps his hand from doing any evil.”

689 tn Heb “who attaches himself to.”

690 tn The infinitive absolute precedes the finite verb for emphasis.

691 tn Heb “and take hold of” (so KJV); NASB “hold fast.”

692 tn Heb “a hand and a name.” For other examples where יָד (yad) refers to a monument, see HALOT 388 s.v.

693 tn Heb “name” (so KJV, NIV, NRSV).

694 tn Heb “who attach themselves to.”

695 tn Heb “and take hold of”; NAB “hold to”; NIV, NRSV “hold fast.”

696 tn Heb “in the house of my prayer.”

697 tn Heb “for my house will be called a house of prayer for all the nations.”

698 tn The meaning of the statement is unclear. The text reads literally, “Still I will gather upon him to his gathered ones.” Perhaps the preposition -לְ (lamed) before “gathered ones” introduces the object of the verb, as in Jer 49:5. The third masculine singular suffix on both עָלָיו (’alayv) and נִקְבָּצָיו (niqbatsayv) probably refers to “Israel.” In this case one can translate literally, “Still I will gather to him his gathered ones.”

699 sn The “watchmen” are probably spiritual leaders, most likely prophets and priests, responsible for giving the people moral direction.

700 tn Heb “they do not know”; KJV “they are all ignorant”; NIV “they all lack knowledge.”

701 tn The Hebrew text has הֹזִים (hozim), which appears to be derived from an otherwise unattested verbal root הָזָה (hazah). On the basis of alleged cognates, BDB 223 s.v. הָזָה offers the definition “dream, rave” while HALOT 243 s.v. הזה lists “pant.” In this case the dog metaphor of the preceding lines continues. The reference to dogs at the beginning of v. 11 favors the extension of the metaphor. The Qumran scroll 1QIsaa has חזים (“seers”) here. In this case the “watchmen” are directly identified as prophets and depicted as lazy.

702 sn The phrase never full alludes to the greed of the leaders.

703 tn Heb “for his gain from his end.”

704 tn The words “each one says” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

705 tn Heb “great, [in] abundance, very much,” i.e., “very great indeed.” See HALOT 452 s.v. יֶתֶר.

706 tn Or “righteous” (KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT); NAB “the just man”; TEV “Good people.”

707 tn Or perhaps, “understands.” Heb “and there is no man who sets [it] upon [his] heart.”

708 tn Heb “Men of loyalty are taken away.” The Niphal of אָסַף (’asaf) here means “to die.”

709 tn The Hebrew term בְּאֵין (bÿen) often has the nuance “when there is no.” See Prov 8:24; 11;14; 14:4; 15:22; 26:20; 29:18.

710 tn Or “realizes”; Heb “understands” (so NASB, NIV, NRSV).

711 tn Or “righteous” (KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT); NAB “the just man.”

712 tn Heb “are taken away.” The Niphal of אָסַף (’asaf) here means “to die.”

713 tn The term מִפְּנֵי (mippÿne, “from the face of”) often has a causal nuance. It also appears with the Niphal of אָסַף (’asaph, “gather”) in 2 Chr 12:5: אֲשֶׁר־נֶאֶסְפוּ אֶל־יְרוּשָׁלַם מִפְּנֵי שִׁישָׁק (’asher-neesphuel-yÿrushalam mippÿney shishaq, “who had gathered at Jerusalem because of [i.e., due to fear of] Shishak”).

714 tn The translation assumes that this verse, in proverbial fashion, laments society’s apathy over the persecution of the godly. The second half of the verse observes that such apathy results in more widespread oppression. Since the next verse pictures the godly being taken to a place of rest, some interpret the second half of v. 1 in a more positive vein. According to proponents of this view, God removes the godly so that they might be spared suffering and calamity, a fact which the general populace fails to realize.

715 tn Heb “he enters peace, they rest on their beds, the one who walks straight ahead of himself.” The tomb is here viewed in a fairly positive way as a place where the dead are at peace and sleep undisturbed.

716 tc The Hebrew text reads literally, “offspring of an adulterer [masculine] and [one who] has committed adultery.” Perhaps the text has suffered from transposition of vav (ו) and tav (ת) and מְנָאֵף וַתִּזְנֶה (mÿnaef vattizneh) should be emended to מְנָאֶפֶת וְזֹנָה (mÿnaefet vÿzonah, “an adulteress and a prostitute”). Both singular nouns would be understood in a collective sense. Most modern English versions render both forms as nouns.

717 tn Heb “Are you not children of rebellion, offspring of a lie?” The rhetorical question anticipates the answer, “Of course you are!”

718 tn Heb “inflame yourselves”; NRSV “burn with lust.” This verse alludes to the practice of ritual sex that accompanied pagan fertility rites.

719 sn This apparently alludes to the practice of child sacrifice (cf. TEV, CEV, NLT).

720 tn Heb “among the smooth stones of the stream [is] your portion, they, they [are] your lot.” The next line indicates idols are in view.

721 tn The text reads literally, “Because of these am I relenting?” If the prefixed interrogative particle is retained at the beginning of the sentence, then the question would be rhetorical, with the Niphal of נָחָם (nakham) probably being used in the sense of “relent, change one’s mind.” One could translate: “Because of these things, how can I relent?” However, the initial letter he may be dittographic (note the final he [ה] on the preceding word). In this case one may understand the verb in the sense of “console oneself, seek vengeance,” as in 1:24.

722 tn The precise referent of זִכָּרוֹן (zikkaron) in this context is uncertain. Elsewhere the word refers to a memorial or commemorative sign. Here it likely refers to some type of idolatrous symbol.

723 tn Or “for” (KJV, NRSV).

724 tc The Hebrew text reads literally, “from me you uncover.” The translation assumes an emendation of the Piel form גִּלִּית (gillit, “you uncover”), which has no object expressed here, to the Qal גָּלִית (galit, “you depart”).

725 tn Heb “you make wide your bed” (NASB similar).

726 tc Heb “and you [second masculine singular, unless the form be taken as third feminine singular] cut for yourself [feminine singular] from them.” Most English translations retain the MT reading in spite of at least three problems. This section makes significant use of feminine verbs and noun suffixes because of the sexual imagery. The verb in question is likely a 2nd person masculine singular verb. Nevertheless, this kind of fluctuation in gender appears elsewhere (GKC 127-28 §47.k and 462 §144.p; cf. Jer 3:5; Ezek 22:4; 23:32; cf. J. N. Oswalt, Isaiah [NICOT], 2:473, n. 13). Secondly, when this verbal root signifies establishing a covenant, it is normally accompanied by the noun for “covenant” (בְּרִית, bÿrit). Finally, this juxtaposition of the verb “to cut” and “covenant” normally is followed by the preposition “with,” while here it is “from.” The translation above assumes an emendation of וַתִּכְרָת (vatikhrah, “and you cut”) to וְכָרִית (vÿkharit, “and you purchase”) from the root כָּרָה (kharah); see HALOT 497 s.v. II כרה.

727 tn The Hebrew text has simply חָזָה (khazah, “gaze”). The adverb “longingly” is interpretive (see the context, where sexual lust is depicted).

728 tn Heb “[at] a hand you gaze.” The term יָד (yad, “hand”) probably has the sense of “power, manhood” here, where it is used, as in Ugaritic, as a euphemism for the genitals. See HALOT 387 s.v. I יָד.

729 tn Heb “you journey with oil.”

730 tn Heb “the king.” Since the context refers to idolatry and child sacrifice (see v. 5), some emend מֶלֶך (melekh, “king”) to “Molech.” Perhaps Israel’s devotion to her idols is likened here to a subject taking tribute to a ruler.

731 tn Heb “and you multiply your perfumes.”

732 sn Israel’s devotion to her idols is inordinate, irrational, and self-destructive.

733 tn Heb “by the greatness [i.e., “length,” see BDB 914 s.v. רֹב 2] of your way you get tired.”

734 tn Heb “it is hopeless” (so NAB, NASB, NIV); NRSV “It is useless.”

735 tn Heb “the life of your hand you find.” The term חַיָּה (khayyah, “life”) is here used in the sense of “renewal” (see BDB 312 s.v.) while יָד (yad) is used of “strength.”

736 tn Heb “you do not grow weak.”

737 tn Heb “you do not place [it] on your heart.”

738 tn Heb “Is it not [because] I have been silent, and from long ago?”

739 sn God’s patience with sinful Israel has caused them to think that they can sin with impunity and suffer no consequences.

740 tn Heb “I, I will declare your righteousness and your deeds.”

741 tn The Hebrew text has קִבּוּצַיִךְ (qibbutsayikh, “your gatherings”), an otherwise unattested noun from the verbal root קָבַץ (qavats, “gather”). Perhaps this alludes to their religious assemblies and by metonymy to their rituals. Since idolatry is a prominent theme in the context, some understand this as a reference to a collection of idols. The second half of the verse also favors this view.

742 tn Heb “all of them a wind lifts up.”

743 tn Heb “a breath takes [them] away.”

744 tn Or “seeks refuge in me.” “Seeking refuge” is a metonymy for “being loyal to.”

745 tn Heb “possess, own.” The point seems to be that he will have free access to God’s presence, as if God’s temple mount were his personal possession.

746 tn Since God is speaking throughout this context, perhaps we should emend the text to “and I say.” However, divine speech is introduced in v. 15.

747 tn Heb “the one who dwells forever.” שֹׁכֵן עַד (shokhenad) is sometimes translated “the one who lives forever,” and understood as a reference to God’s eternal existence. However, the immediately preceding and following descriptions (“high and exalted” and “holy”) emphasize his sovereign rule. In the next line, he declares, “I dwell in an exalted and holy [place],” which refers to the place from which he rules. Therefore it is more likely that שֹׁכֵן עַד (shokhenad) means “I dwell [in my lofty palace] forever” and refers to God’s eternal kingship.

748 tn Heb “and also with the crushed and lowly of spirit.” This may refer to the repentant who have humbled themselves (see 66:2) or more generally to the exiles who have experienced discouragement and humiliation.

749 tn Heb “to restore the lowly of spirit and to restore the heart of the crushed.”

750 tn Or perhaps, “argue,” or “accuse” (so NAB, NIV, NRSV).

751 tn Heb “for a spirit from before me would be faint.”

752 tn Heb “and I struck him, hiding, and I was angry.” פָּנַיִם (panayim, “face”) is the implied object of “hiding.”

753 tn Heb “and he walked [as an] apostate in the way of his heart.”

754 tn Heb “his ways” (so KJV, NASB, NIV); TEV “how they acted.”

755 tn Heb “and I will restore consolation to him, to his mourners.”

756 tc The Hebrew text has literally, “one who creates fruit of lips.” Perhaps the pronoun אֲנִי (’ani) should be inserted after the participle; it may have been accidentally omitted by haplography: נוּב שְׂפָתָיִם[אֲנִי] בּוֹרֵא (bore’ [’ani] nuv sÿfatayim). “Fruit of the lips” is often understood as a metonymy for praise; perhaps it refers more generally to joyful shouts (see v. 18).

757 tn Heb “Peace, peace.” The repetition of the noun emphasizes degree.

758 tn Heb “declare to my people their rebellion.”

759 tn Heb “and to the house of Jacob their sin.” The verb “declare” is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).

760 tn Heb “ways” (so KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV, TEV); NLT “my laws.”

761 tn The words “they lament” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

762 tn Heb “you find pleasure”; NASB “you find your desire.”

763 tn Or perhaps, “debtors.” See HALOT 865 s.v. * עָצֵב.

764 tn Heb “you fast for” (so NASB); NRSV “you fast only to quarrel.”

765 tn Heb “and for striking with a sinful fist.”

766 tn Heb “choose” (so NASB, NRSV); NAB “wish.”

767 tn Heb “a day when man humbles himself.” The words “Do I want” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

768 tn Or “making [their] bed.”

769 tn Heb “Is this not a fast I choose?” “No” is supplied in the translation for clarification.

770 tn The words “I want you” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

771 tn Heb “crushed.”

772 tn Heb “Is it not?” The rhetorical question here expects a positive answer, “It is!”

773 tn Heb “and afflicted [ones], homeless [ones] you should bring [into] a house.” On the meaning of מְרוּדִים (mÿrudim, “homeless”) see HALOT 633 s.v. *מָרוּד.

774 tn Heb “and from your flesh do not hide yourself.”

775 tn Heb “will burst out like the dawn.”

sn Light here symbolizes God’s favor and restored blessing, as the immediately following context makes clear.

776 tn Heb “prosper”; KJV “spring forth speedily.”

777 tn Or “righteousness.” Their godly behavior will be on display for all to see.

778 sn The nation will experience God’s protective presence.

779 tn Heb “if you.” In the Hebrew text vv. 9b-10 are one long conditional sentence. The protasis (“if” clauses appear in vv. 9b-10a), with the apodosis (“then” clause) appearing in v. 10b.

780 tn Heb “if you.” See the note on “you must” in v. 9b.

781 tn Heb “If you furnish for the hungry [with] your being, and the appetite of the oppressed you satisfy.”

782 tn Heb “will rise in the darkness.”

783 tn Heb “and your darkness [will be] like noonday.”

784 tn Heb “he will satisfy in parched regions your appetite.”

785 tn Heb “and your bones he will strengthen.”

786 tn Heb “and they will build from you ancient ruins.”

787 tc The Hebrew text has “the one who restores paths for dwelling.” The idea of “paths to dwell in” is not a common notion. Some have proposed emending נְתִיבוֹת (nÿtivot, “paths”) to נְתִיצוֹת (nÿtitsot, “ruins”), a passive participle from נָתַץ (natats, “tear down”; see HALOT 732 s.v. *נְתִיצָה), because tighter parallelism with the preceding line is achieved. However, none of the textual sources support this emendation. The line may mean that paths must be repaired in order to dwell in the land.

788 tn Lit., “if you.” In the Hebrew text vv. 13-14 are one long conditional sentence. The protasis (“if” clauses appear in v. 13), with the apodosis (“then” clause) appearing in v. 14.

789 tn Heb “if you turn from the Sabbath your feet.”

790 tn Heb “[from] doing your desires on my holy day.” The Qumran scroll 1QIsaa supplies the preposition מִן (min) on “doing.”

791 tn Heb “and call the Sabbath a pleasure”; KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV “a delight.”

792 tn Heb “and [call] the holy [day] of the Lord honored.” On קָדוֹשׁ (qadosh, “holy”) as indicating a time period, see BDB 872 s.v. 2.e (cf. also Neh 8:9-11).

793 tn Heb “and you honor it [by refraining] from accomplishing your ways, from finding your desire and speaking a word.” It is unlikely that the last phrase (“speaking a word”) is a prohibition against talking on the Sabbath; instead it probably refers to making transactions or plans (see Hos 10:4). Some see here a reference to idle talk (cf. 2 Sam 19:30).

794 tn For a parallel use of the phrase “find joy in” (Hitpael of עָנַג [’anag] followed by the preposition עַל [’al]), see Ps 37:4.

795 tn Heb “and I will cause you to ride upon the heights of the land.” The statement seems to be an allusion to Deut 32:13, where it is associated, as here, with God’s abundant provision of food.

796 tn Heb “and I will cause you to eat the inheritance of Jacob your father.” The Hebrew term נַחֲלָה (nakhalah) likely stands by metonymy for the crops that grow on Jacob’s “inheritance” (i.e., the land he inherited as a result of God’s promise).

797 tn Heb “for the mouth of the Lord has spoken.” The introductory כִּי (ki) may be asseverative (as reflected in the translation) or causal/explanatory, explaining why the preceding promise will become reality (because it is guaranteed by the divine word).

798 tn Heb “short” (so NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV).

799 tn Heb “or his ear too heavy [i.e., “dull”] to hear.”

800 tn Heb “and your sins have caused [his] face to be hidden from you so as not to hear.”

801 tn Heb “no one pleads with justice.”

802 tn Heb “nothing”; NAB “emptiness.”

803 tn Or “trouble” (NIV), or “harm.”

804 tn Heb “that which is pressed in hatches [as] a snake.”

805 tn Heb “their deeds are deeds of sin, and the work of violence [is] in their hands.”

806 tn Heb “their feet run to evil.”

807 tn Heb “they quickly pour out innocent blood.”

808 tn Heb “their thoughts are thoughts of sin, destruction and crushing [are] in their roadways.”

809 tn Heb “a way of peace they do not know, and there is no justice in their pathways.”

810 tn Heb “their paths they make crooked, everyone who walks in it does not know peace.”

811 tn מִשְׁפָּט (mishpat), which refers to “justice” in the earlier verses, here refers to “justice from God,” or “vindication.” Because the people are unjust, God refuses to vindicate them before their enemies. See v. 11.

812 sn The prophet speaks on behalf of the sinful nation and confesses its sins.

813 sn Light here symbolizes prosperity and blessing.

814 tn Heb “but, look, darkness”; NIV “but all is darkness.”

815 tn The words “we wait for” are supplied in the translation; the verb is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).

816 tn The plural noun form may indicate degree here.

817 tn Or “walk about”; NCV “all we have is darkness.”

818 tn The plural noun form may indicate degree here.

819 tn Heb “like there are no eyes.”

820 tn Heb among the strong, like dead men.”

821 tn See the note at v. 9.

822 tn Heb “for many are our rebellious deeds before you.”

823 tn Heb “indeed [or “for”] our rebellious deeds (are) with us, and our sins, we know them.”

824 tn Heb “speaking.” A new sentence was started here in the translation for stylistic reasons.

825 tn Heb “conceiving and uttering from the heart words of falsehood.”

826 tn Or “righteousness” (ASV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); KJV, NAB “justice.”

827 tn Or “for” (KJV, NRSV).

828 tn Heb “and it is displeasing in his eyes.”

829 tn Heb “man” (so KJV, ASV); TEV “no one to help.”

830 tn Or “appalled” (NAB, NIV, NRSV), or “disgusted.”

831 tn Heb “and his arm delivers for him.”

832 tn Heb “and his justice [or “righteousness”] supports him.”

833 tn Or “righteousness” (KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT); NCV “goodness.”

834 tn Or “a breastplate” (traditional; so many English versions); TEV “a coat of armour.”

835 tn Heb “and [as] a helmet deliverance on his head.”

836 tn Heb “and he puts on the clothes of vengeance [as] a garment.”

837 tn Heb “in accordance with deeds, so he repays, anger to his adversaries, repayment to his enemies.”

838 tn Or “islands” (KJV, NIV).

839 tc Heb “fear.” A few medieval Hebrew mss read “see.”

840 tn Heb “and they fear from the west the name of the Lord.”

841 tn Heb “and from the rising of the sun his splendor.”

842 tn Heb “narrow”; NAB, NIV, NRSV “pent-up.”

843 tn Heb “the wind of the Lord drives it on.” The term רוּחַ (ruakh) could be translated “breath” here (see 30:28).

844 tn Or “redeemer.” See the note at 41:14.

845 tn Heb “and to those who turn from rebellion in Jacob.”

846 tn Or “my covenant with” (so many English versions); NCV “my agreement with.”

sn The Lord promises the repentant (note “to them”) that they and their offspring will possess his spirit and function as his spokesmen. In this regard they follow in the footsteps of the Lord’s special servant. See 42:1; 49:2; 51:16.

847 tn Heb “from now and on into the future.”

848 tn Or “glory” (so most English versions).

849 tn The verb “covers” is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).

850 tn Or “glory” (so most English versions); TEV “the brightness of his presence.”

851 tn Heb “Lift up around your eyes and see!”

852 tn Or “shine,” or “be radiant” (NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV).

853 tn Heb “and it will tremble and be wide, your heart.”

854 tn Heb “the wealth of the sea,” i.e., wealth that is transported from distant lands via the sea.

855 tn Heb “an abundance of camels will cover you.”

856 tn Heb “all of them, from Sheba.”

857 tn Heb “and they will announce the praises of the Lord.”

858 tn Heb “will serve you,” i.e., be available as sacrifices (see the next line). Another option is to understood these “rams” as symbolic of leaders who will be subject to the people of Zion. See v. 10.

859 tc Heb “they will go up on acceptance [on] my altar.” Some have suggested that the preposition עַל (’al) is dittographic (note the preceding יַעֲלוּ [yaalu]). Consequently, the form should be emended to לְרָצוֹן (lÿratson, “acceptably”; see BDB 953 s.v. רָצוֹן). However, the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa has both לרצון followed by the preposition על, which would argue against deleted the preposition. As the above translation seeks to demonstrate, the preposition עַל (’al) indicates a norm (“in accordance with acceptance” or “acceptably”; IBHS 218 §11.2.13e, n. 111) and the “altar” functions as an objective accusative with a verb of motion (cf. Gen 49:4; Lev 2:2; Num 13:17; J. N. Oswalt, Isaiah [NICOT], 2:534, n. 14).

860 tn Heb “fly” (so KJV, NASB, NRSV); NAB, NIV “fly along.”

861 tn Heb “to their windows,” i.e., to the openings in their coops. See HALOT 83 s.v. אֲרֻבָּה.

862 tn Or “islands” (NIV); CEV “distant islands”; TEV “distant lands.”

863 tn Heb “the ships of Tarshish.” See the note at 2:16.

864 tn Heb “to the name of the Lord your God.”

865 sn See the note on the phrase “the Holy One of Israel” in 1:4.

866 tn Heb “in my favor I will have compassion on you.”

867 tn Or “led in procession.” The participle is passive.

868 tn Or “For” (KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT); TEV “But.”

869 tn The infinitive absolute appears before the finite verb for emphasis.

870 tn Or “holy place, sanctuary.”

871 tn Heb “the place of my feet.” See Ezek 43:7, where the Lord’s throne is called the “place of the soles of my feet.”

872 sn See the note on the phrase “the Holy One of Israel” in 1:4.

873 tn Heb “Instead of your being abandoned and despised, with no one passing through, I will make you.”

874 sn The nations and kings are depicted as a mother nursing her children. Restored Zion will be nourished by them as she receives their wealth as tribute.

875 tn Or “redeemer.” See the note at 41:14.

876 sn See 1:24 and 49:26.

877 tn The words “I will bring you” are supplied in the translation; they are understood by ellipsis (see the preceding lines).

878 tn The words “I will bring you” are supplied in the translation; they are understood by ellipsis (see the first two lines of the verse).

879 tn Or “peace” (KJV and many other English versions).

880 tn The plural indicates degree. The language is ironic; in the past Zion was ruled by oppressive tyrants, but now personified prosperity and vindication will be the only things that will “dominate” the city.

881 tn The words “sounds of” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

882 tn The words “sounds of” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

883 tn Heb “and your God for your splendor.”

884 sn In this verse “sun” and “moon” refer to the Lord’s light, which will replace the sun and moon (see v. 19). Light here symbolizes the restoration of divine blessing and prosperity in conjunction with the Lord’s presence. See 30:26.

885 tn Heb “days” (so KJV, NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT).

886 tn Or “righteous” (NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT); NAB “just.”

887 tn Heb “a shoot of his planting, the work of my hands, to reveal splendor.”

888 tn Heb “will become” (so NASB, NIV).

889 tn Heb “I, the Lord, in its time, I will quickly do it.”

890 tn Heb “anointed,” i.e., designated to carry out an assigned task.

891 sn The speaker is not identified, but he is distinct from the Lord and from Zion’s suffering people. He possesses the divine spirit, is God’s spokesman, and is sent to release prisoners from bondage. The evidence suggests he is the Lord’s special servant, described earlier in the servant songs (see 42:1-4, 7; 49:2, 9; 50:4; see also 51:16).

892 tn Or “sent” (NAB); NCV “has appointed me.”

893 tn Or “proclaim good news to.”

894 tn Heb “to bind up [the wounds of].”

895 tn Heb “to announce the year of the Lord’s favor, and the day of our God’s vengeance.

896 tn Heb “oil of joy” (KJV, ASV); NASB, NIV, NRSV “the oil of gladness.”

897 tn Heb “garment of praise.”

898 tn Heb “a faint spirit” (so NRSV); KJV, ASV “the spirit of heaviness”; NASB “a spirit of fainting.”

899 tn Rather than referring to the character of the people, צֶדֶק (tsedeq) may carry the nuance “vindication” here, suggesting that God’s restored people are a testimony to his justice. See v. 2, which alludes to the fact that God will take vengeance against the enemies of his people. Cf. NAB “oaks of justice.”

900 tn Heb “a planting of the Lord to reveal splendor.”

901 tn Heb “and the formerly desolate places they will raise up.”

902 sn The Lord speaks in vv. 7-8 (and possibly v. 9). It is not clear where the servant’s speech (see vv. 1-3a) ends and the Lord’s begins. Perhaps the direct address to the people signals the beginning of the Lord’s speech.

903 tn Heb “will stand [in position] and shepherd.”

904 tn The Hebrew text adds, “it will be said concerning you.”

905 tn Heb “eat” (KJV, NAB, NASB); NIV “feed on”; NLT “be fed with.”

906 tc The form in the Hebrew text is probably a corruption of יִתְאַמְּרוּ (yitammÿru), a Hitpael from אָמַר (’amar), meaning “boast about” (see HALOT 67 s.v. II אמר, HALOT 416 s.v. ימר, and BDB 56 s.v. אָמַר).

907 tn Heb “their glory” (i.e., riches).

908 tn Heb “instead of your shame, a double portion.”

909 tn Heb “and [instead of] humiliation they will rejoice [over] their portion.” The term תָחָת (takhat, “instead of”) is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).

910 tn Heb “therefore” (so KJV, NASB); NIV “and so.”

911 tn Heb “in faithfulness”; NASB, NRSV, NLT “faithfully.”

912 tn Heb “all who see them will recognize them, that they [are] descendants [whom] the Lord has blessed.”

913 sn The speaker in vv. 10-11 is not identified, but it is likely that the personified nation (or perhaps Zion) responds here to the Lord’s promise of restoration.

914 tn The infinitive absolute appears before the finite verb for emphasis.

915 tn Heb “my being is happy in my God”; NAB “in my God is the joy of my soul.”

916 tn Heb “robe of vindication”; KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV “robe of righteousness.”

917 tn Heb “like a bridegroom [who] acts like a priest [by wearing] a turban, and like a bride [who] wears her jewelry.” The words “I look” are supplied for stylistic reasons and clarification.

918 tn Or perhaps, “righteousness,” but the context seems to emphasize deliverance and restoration (see v. 10 and 62:1).

919 tn Heb “and praise before all the nations.”

920 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

921 tn Heb “goes forth like brightness.”

922 tn Heb “which the mouth of the Lord will designate.”

923 tn Or “for”; KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV “but.”

924 tn Hebrew חֶפְצִי־בָהּ (kheftsi-vah), traditionally transliterated “Hephzibah” (so KJV, ASV, NIV).

925 tn Hebrew בְּעוּלָה (bÿulah), traditionally transliterated “Beulah” (so KJV, ASV, NIV).

926 tn That is, the land will be restored to the Lord’s favor and once again enjoy his blessing and protection. To indicate the land’s relationship to the Lord, the words “to him” have been supplied at the end of the clause.

927 tc The Hebrew text has “your sons,” but this produces an odd metaphor and is somewhat incongruous with the parallelism. In the context (v. 4b, see also 54:5-7) the Lord is the one who “marries” Zion. Therefore several prefer to emend “your sons” to בֹּנָיִךְ (bonayikh, “your builder”; e.g., NRSV). In Ps 147:2 the Lord is called the “builder of Jerusalem.” However, this emendation is not the best option for at least four reasons. First, although the Lord is never called the “builder” of Jerusalem in Isaiah, the idea of Zion’s children possessing the land does occur (Isa 49:20; 54:3; cf. also 14:1; 60:21). Secondly, all the ancient versions support the MT reading. Thirdly, although the verb בָּעַל (baal) can mean “to marry,” its basic idea is “to possess.” Consequently, the verb stresses a relationship more than a state. All the ancient versions render this verb “to dwell in” or “to dwell with.” The point is not just that the land will be reinhabited, but that it will be in a relationship of “belonging” to the Israelites. Hence a relational verb like בָּעַל is used (J. N. Oswalt, Isaiah [NICOT], 2:581). Finally, “sons” is a well-known metaphor for “inhabitants” (J. de Waard, Isaiah, 208).

928 sn The speaker here is probably the prophet.

929 tn Heb “all day and all night continually they do not keep silent.” The following lines suggest that they pray for the Lord’s intervention and restoration of the city.

930 tn Or “invoke”; NIV “call on”; NASB, NRSV “remind.”

931 tn “Jerusalem” is supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons; note the following line.

932 tn Heb “[the object of] praise.”

933 tn The Lord’s right hand and strong arm here symbolize his power and remind the audience that his might guarantees the fulfillment of the following promise.

934 tn Heb “it,” the grain mentioned in v. 8a.

935 tn Heb “and those who gather it will drink it.” The masculine singular pronominal suffixes attached to “gather” and “drink” refer back to the masculine noun תִּירוֹשׁ (tirosh, “wine”) in v. 8b.

936 tn Heb “to the end of the earth” (so NASB, NRSV).

937 sn As v. 12 indicates, the returning exiles are the Lord’s reward/prize. See also 40:10 and the note there.

938 tn Or “the redeemed of the Lord” (KJV, NAB).

939 sn Edom is here an archetype for the Lord’s enemies. See 34:5.

940 tn Heb “[in] bright red garments, from Bozrah.”

941 tn The interrogative particle is understood by ellipsis; note the first line of the verse.

942 tn Heb “honored in his clothing”; KJV, ASV “glorious in his apparel.”

943 tc The Hebrew text has צָעָה (tsaah), which means “stoop, bend” (51:14). The translation assumes an emendation to צָעַד (tsaad, “march”; see BDB 858 s.v. צָעָה).

944 tn Heb “I, [the one] speaking in vindication [or “righteousness”], great to deliver.”

945 tn Heb “and your garments like one who treads in a vat?”

946 sn Nations, headed by Edom, are the object of the Lord’s anger (see v. 6). He compares military slaughter to stomping on grapes in a vat.

947 tn Heb “and I stained.” For discussion of the difficult verb form, see HALOT 170 s.v. II גאל. Perhaps the form is mixed, combining the first person forms of the imperfect (note the alef prefix) and perfect (note the תי- ending).

948 tn Heb “for the day of vengeance was in my heart, and the year of my revenge came.” The term גְּאוּלַי (gÿulai) is sometimes translated here “my redemption,” for the verbal root גאל often means “deliver, buy back.” A גֹּאֵל (goel, “kinsman-redeemer”) was responsible for protecting the extended family’s interests, often by redeeming property that had been sold outside the family. However, the responsibilities of a גֹּאֵל extended beyond financial concerns. He was also responsible for avenging the shed blood of a family member (see Num 35:19-27; Deut 19:6-12). In Isa 63:4, where vengeance is a prominent theme (note the previous line), it is probably this function of the family protector that is in view. The Lord pictures himself as a blood avenger who waits for the day of vengeance to arrive and then springs into action.

949 sn See Isa 59:16 for similar language.

950 tn Heb “and my anger, it supported me”; NIV “my own wrath sustained me.”

951 sn See Isa 49:26 and 51:23 for similar imagery.

952 tn Heb “and I brought down to the ground their juice.” “Juice” refers to their blood (see v. 3).

953 tn Heb “according to all which.”

954 tn Heb “greatness of goodness to the house of Israel which he did for them.”

955 tn Heb “according to.”

956 tn Heb “children [who] do not act deceitfully.” Here the verb refers to covenantal loyalty.

957 tn Heb “in all their distress, there was distress to him” (reading לוֹ [lo] with the margin/Qere).

958 tn Heb “the messenger [or “angel”] of his face”; NIV “the angel of his presence.”

sn This may refer to the “angel of God” mentioned in Exod 14:19, who in turn may be identical to the divine “presence” (literally, “face”) referred to in Exod 33:14-15 and Deut 4:37. Here in Isa 63 this messenger may be equated with God’s “holy Spirit” (see vv. 10-11) and “the Spirit of the Lord” (v. 14). See also Ps 139:7, where God’s “Spirit” seems to be equated with his “presence” (literally, “face”) in the synonymous parallelistic structure.

959 tn Or “redeemed” (KJV, NAB, NIV), or “delivered.”

960 tn Heb “all the days of antiquity”; KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV “days of old.”

961 tn Or “grieved, hurt the feelings of.”

962 sn The phrase “holy Spirit” occurs in the OT only here (in v. 11 as well) and in Ps 51:11 (51:13 HT), where it is associated with the divine presence.

963 tn Heb “and he remembered the days of antiquity, Moses, his people.” The syntax of the statement is unclear. The translation assumes that “his people” is the subject of the verb “remembered.” If original, “Moses” is in apposition to “the days of antiquity,” more precisely identifying the time period referred to. However, the syntactical awkwardness suggests that “Moses” may have been an early marginal note (perhaps identifying “the shepherd of his flock” two lines later) that has worked its way into the text.

964 tn The Hebrew text has a plural form, which if retained and taken as a numerical plural, would probably refer to Moses, Aaron, and the Israelite tribal leaders at the time of the Exodus. Most prefer to emend the form to the singular (רָעָה, raah) and understand this as a reference just to Moses.

965 sn See the note at v. 10.

966 tn Heb “who caused to go at the right hand of Moses the arm of his splendor.”

967 tn Heb “making for himself a lasting name.”

968 tn Heb “in the desert [or “steppe”].”

969 tn The words “to graze” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

970 tn Or “so” (KJV, ASV), or “thus” (NAB, NRSV).

971 tn Heb “making for yourself a majestic name.”

972 tn This probably refers to his zeal for his people, which motivates him to angrily strike out against their enemies.

973 tn The Hebrew text reads literally, “the agitation of your intestines and your compassion to me they are held back.” The phrase “agitation of your intestines” is metonymic, referring to the way in which one’s nervous system reacts when one feels pity and compassion toward another. אֵלַי (’elay, “to me”) is awkward in this context, where the speaker represents the nation and, following the introduction (see v. 7), utilizes first person plural forms. The translation assumes an emendation to the negative particle אַל (’al). This also necessitates emending the following verb form (which is a plural perfect) to a singular jussive (תִתְאַפָּק, titappaq). The Hitpael of אָפַק (’afaq) also occurs in 42:14.

974 tn Heb “our protector [or “redeemer”] from antiquity [is] your name.”

975 tn Some suggest a tolerative use of the Hiphil here, “[why do] you allow us to stray?” (cf. NLT). Though the Hiphil of תָעָה (taah) appears to be tolerative in Jer 50:6, elsewhere it is preferable or necessary to take it as causative. See Isa 3:12; 9:15; and 30:28, as well as Gen 20:13; 2 Kgs 21:9; Job 12:24-25; Prov 12:26; Jer 23:13, 32; Hos 4:12; Amos 2:4; Mic 3:5.

976 tn This probably refers to God’s commands.

977 tn Heb “[Why do] you harden our heart[s] so as not to fear you.” The interrogative particle is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).

sn How direct this hardening is, one cannot be sure. The speaker may envision direct involvement on the Lord’s part. The Lord has brought the exile as judgment for the nation’s sin and now he continues to keep them at arm’s length by blinding them spiritually. The second half of 64:7 might support this, though the precise reading of the final verb is uncertain. On the other hand, the idiom of lament is sometimes ironic and hyperbolically deterministic. For example, Naomi lamented that Shaddai was directly opposing her and bringing her calamity (Ruth 1:20-21), while the author of Ps 88 directly attributes his horrible suffering and loneliness to God (see especially vv. 6-8, 16-18). Both individuals make little, if any, room for intermediate causes or the principle of sin and death which ravages the human race. In the same way, the speaker in Isa 63:17 (who evidences great spiritual sensitivity and is anything but “hardened”) may be referring to the hardships of exile, which discouraged and even embittered the people, causing many of them to retreat from their Yahwistic faith. In this case, the “hardening” in view is more indirect and can be lifted by the Lord’s intervention. Whether the hardening here is indirect or direct, it is important to recognize that the speaker sees it as one of the effects of rebellion against the Lord (note especially 64:5-6).

978 tn Or “holy” (ASV, NASB, NRSV, TEV, NLT).

979 tn Heb “for a short time they had a possession, the people of your holiness.”

980 tn Heb “your adversaries trampled on.”

981 tn Heb “we were from antiquity” (see v. 16). The collocation עוֹלָם + מִן + הָיָה (hayah + min + ’olam) occurs only here.

982 tn Heb “you did not rule them, your name was not called over them.” The expression “the name is called over” indicates ownership; see the note at 4:1. As these two lines stand they are very difficult to interpret. They appear to be stating that the adversaries just mentioned in v. 18 have not been subject to the Lord’s rule in the past, perhaps explaining why they could commit the atrocity described in v. 18b.

983 sn In BHS the chapter division occurs in a different place from the English Bible: 64:1 ET (63:19b HT) and 64:2-12 (64:1-11 HT). Beginning with 65:1 the verse numbers in the English Bible and the Hebrew Bible are again the same.

984 tn Or “the heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavens” or “sky” depending on the context.

985 tn Or “quake.” נָזֹלּוּ (nazollu) is from the verbal root זָלַל (zalal, “quake”; see HALOT 272 s.v. II זלל). Perhaps there is a verbal allusion to Judg 5:5, the only other passage where this verb occurs. In that passage the poet tells how the Lord’s appearance to do battle caused the mountains to shake.

986 tn Heb “to make known your name to your adversaries.” Perhaps the infinitive construct with preposition -לְ (lamed) should be construed with “come down” in v. 1a, or subordinated to the following line: “To make known your name to your adversaries, let the nations shake from before you.”

987 tn Heb “[for which] we were not waiting.”

988 tn See the note at v. 1.

989 tn Heb “from ancient times they have not heard, they have not listened.”

990 tn Heb “meet [with kindness].”

991 tn Heb “the one who rejoices and does righteousness.”

992 tn Heb “in your ways they remember you.”

993 tc The Hebrew text reads literally, “look, you were angry and we sinned against them continually [or perhaps, “in ancient times”] and we were delivered.” The statement makes little sense as it stands. The first vav [ו] consecutive (“and we sinned”) must introduce an explanatory clause here (see Num 1:48 and Isa 39:1 for other examples of this relatively rare use of the vav [ו] consecutive). The final verb (if rendered positively) makes no sense in this context – God’s anger at their sin resulted in judgment, not deliverance. One of the alternatives involves an emendation to וַנִּרְשָׁע (vannirsha’, “and we were evil”; LXX, NRSV, TEV). The Vulgate and the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa support the MT reading. One can either accept an emendation or cast the statement as a question (as above).

994 tn Heb “and like a garment of menstruation [are] all our righteous acts”; KJV, NIV “filthy rags”; ASV “a polluted garment.”

995 tn Or “calls out in”; NASB, NIV, NRSV “calls on.”

996 tn Or “rouses himself”; NASB “arouses himself.”

997 tn Heb “for you have hidden your face from us.”

998 tc The Hebrew text reads literally, “and you caused us to melt in the hand of our sin.” The verb וַתְּמוּגֵנוּ (vattÿmugenu) is a Qal preterite 2nd person masculine singular with a 1st person common plural suffix from the root מוּג (mug, “melt”). However, elsewhere the Qal of this verb is intransitive. If the verbal root מוּג (mug) is retained here, the form should be emended to a Polel pattern (וַתְּמֹגְגֵנוּ, vattÿmogÿgenu). The translation assumes an emendation to וַתְּמַגְּנֵנוּ (vattÿmaggÿnenu, “and you handed us over”). This form is a Piel preterite 2nd person masculine singular with a 1st person common plural suffix from the verbal root מִגֵּן (miggen, “hand over, surrender”; see HALOT 545 s.v. מגן and BDB 171 s.v. מָגָן). The point is that God has abandoned them to their sinful ways and no longer seeks reconciliation.

999 tn On the force of וְעַתָּה (vÿattah) here, see HALOT 902 s.v. עַתָּה.

1000 tn Heb “the work of your hand.”

1001 tn Heb “do not remember sin continually.”

1002 tn Heb “Look, gaze at your people, all of us.” Another option is to translate, “Take a good look! We are all your people.”

1003 tn Heb “holy” (so KJV, NASB, NRSV, NLT); NIV “sacred.”

1004 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

1005 tn Heb “our source of pride.”

1006 tn Or “all that we valued has become a ruin.”

1007 tn Heb “because of these”; KJV, ASV “for these things.”

1008 tn Heb “I allowed myself to be sought by those who did not ask.”

1009 tn Heb “I allowed myself to be found by those who did not seek.”

1010 tn Heb “call out in”; NASB, NIV, NRSV “call on.”

1011 tn Heb “who walked [in] the way that is not good, after their thoughts.”

1012 tn Heb “the people who provoke me to anger to my face continually.”

1013 tn Or “gardens” (KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT).

1014 tn Or perhaps, “on tiles.”

1015 sn Perhaps the worship of underworld deities or dead spirits is in view.

1016 tn The Hebrew text reads literally, “and in the watches they spend the night.” Some understand נְּצוּרִים (nÿtsurim) as referring to “secret places” or “caves,” while others emend the text to וּבֵין צוּרִים (uven tsurim, “between the rocky cliffs”).

1017 tn Heb “the flesh of the pig”; KJV, NAB, NASB “swine’s flesh.”

1018 tc The marginal reading (Qere), supported by the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa, reads מְרַק (mÿraq, “broth”), while the consonantal text (Kethib) has פְרַק (feraq, “fragment”).

1019 tn Heb “Look, it is written before me.”

1020 tn Heb “I will pay back into their lap.”

1021 tn Heb “the iniquities of your fathers.”

1022 tn Or perhaps, “taunted”; KJV “blasphemed”; NAB “disgraced”; NASB “scorned”; NIV “defied”; NRSV “reviled.”

1023 tn Heb “I will measure out their pay [from the] beginning into their lap,” i.e., he will give them everything they have earned.

1024 tn Heb “just as.” In the Hebrew text the statement is one long sentence, “Just as…, so I will do….”

1025 tn Heb “for a blessing is in it.”

1026 tn Heb “by not destroying everyone.”

1027 tn Heb “it.” The third feminine singular pronominal suffix probably refers to the land which contains the aforementioned mountains.

1028 sn Sharon was a plain located to the west, along the Mediterranean coast north of Joppa and south of Carmel.

1029 sn The Valley of Achor (“Achor” means “trouble” in Hebrew) was the site of Achan’s execution. It was located to the east, near Jericho.

1030 tn Heb “a resting place for cattle”; NASB, NIV “for herds.”

1031 tn Heb “for my people who seek me.”

1032 tn The Hebrew text has simply, “forget.” The words “about worshiping at” are supplied in the translation for clarification.

1033 tn The Hebrew has לַגַּד (laggad, “for Gad”), the name of a pagan deity. See HALOT 176 s.v. II גַּד 2.

1034 tn The Hebrew has לַמְנִי (lamni, “for Meni”), the name of a pagan deity. See HALOT 602 s.v. מְגִי.

1035 tn Heb “I assign you to the sword.” Some emend the Qal verb form מָנִיתִי (maniti, “I assign”) to the Piel מִנִּיתִי (minniti, “ I ordain”). The verb sounds like the name of the god Meni (מְנִי, mÿni, “Destiny, Fate”). The sound play draws attention to the irony of the statement. The sinners among God’s people worship the god Meni, apparently in an effort to ensure a bright destiny for themselves. But the Lord is the one who really determines their destiny and he has decreed their demise.

1036 tn Or “at the slaughter”; NIV “for the slaughter”; NLT “before the executioner.”

1037 tn Heb “that which is evil in my eyes.”

1038 tn Heb “from the good of the heart.”

1039 tn Heb “from the pain of the heart.”

1040 tn Heb “from the breaking of the spirit.”

1041 tn Heb “you will leave your name for an oath to my chosen ones.”

sn For an example of such a curse formula see Jer 29:22.

1042 tn Or “in the land” (NIV, NCV, NRSV). The same phrase occurs again later in this verse, with the same options.

1043 tn Heb “will pronounce a blessing by the God of truth.”

1044 tn Heb “will take an oath by the God of truth.”

1045 tn Heb “for the former distresses will be forgotten, and they will be hidden from my eyes.”

1046 sn This hyperbolic statement likens the coming transformation of Jerusalem (see vv. 18-19) to a new creation of the cosmos.

1047 tn Or perhaps, “the former things” (so ASV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); TEV “The events of the past.”

1048 tn Heb “and they will not come up on the mind.”

1049 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

1050 tn Heb “Jerusalem, joy.” The next verse suggests the meaning: The Lord will create Jerusalem to be a source of joy to himself.

1051 tn Heb “her people, happiness.” See the preceding note.

1052 tn Heb “and I will rejoice in Jerusalem, and be happy in my people.”

1053 tn Heb “and there will not be from there again a nursing infant of days,” i.e., one that lives just a few days.

1054 tn Heb “or an old [man] who does not fill out his days.”

1055 tn Heb “for the child as a son of one hundred years will die.” The point seems to be that those who die at the age of a hundred will be considered children, for the average life span will be much longer than that. The category “child” will be redefined in light of the expanded life spans that will characterize this new era.

1056 tn Heb “the one who misses.” חָטָא (khata’) is used here in its basic sense of “miss the mark.” See HALOT 305 s.v. חטא. Another option is to translate, “and the sinner who reaches the age of a hundred will be cursed.”

1057 tn Heb “they will not build, and another live [in it].”

1058 tn Heb “they will not plant, and another eat.”

1059 tn Heb “for like the days of the tree [will be] the days of my people.”

1060 tn Heb “the work of their hands” (so KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NLT “their hard-won gains.”

1061 tn Heb “and they will not give birth to horror.”

1062 tn Heb “for offspring blessed by the Lord they [will be], and their descendants along with them.”

1063 tn The verb that introduces this verse serves as a discourse particle and is untranslated; see note on “in the future” in 2:2.

1064 sn A similar statement appears in 11:6.

1065 sn These words also appear in 11:7.

1066 sn Some see an allusion to Gen 3:14 (note “you will eat dirt”). The point would be that even in this new era the snake (often taken as a symbol of Satan) remains under God’s curse. However, it is unlikely that such an allusion exists. Even if there is an echo of Gen 3:14, the primary allusion is to 11:8, where snakes are pictured as no longer dangerous. They will no longer attack other living creatures, but will be content to crawl along the ground. (The statement “you will eat dirt” in Gen 3:14 means “you will crawl on the ground.” In the same way the statement “dirt will be its food” in Isa 65:25 means “it will crawl on the ground.”)

1067 tn Heb “in all my holy mountain.” These same words appear in 11:9. See the note there.

sn As in 11:1-9 the prophet anticipates a time when the categories predator-prey no longer exist. See the note at the end of 11:8.

1068 tn Heb “all these.” The phrase refers to the heavens and earth, mentioned in the previous verse.

1069 tn Heb “and all these were.” Some prefer to emend וַיִּהְיוּ (vayyihyu, “and they were”) to וְלִי הָיוּ (vÿli hayu, “and to me they were”), i.e., “and they belong to me.”

1070 tn Heb “and to this one I look” (KJV and NASB both similar).

1071 tn Heb “to the humble and the lowly in spirit and the one who trembles at my words.”

1072 tn Heb “one who slaughters a bull, one who strikes down a man.” Some understand a comparison here and in the following lines. In God’s sight the one who sacrifices is like (i.e., regarded as) a murderer or one whose worship is ritually defiled or idolatrous. The translation above assumes that the language is not metaphorical, but descriptive of the sinners’ hypocritical behavior. (Note the last two lines of the verse, which suggests they are guilty of abominable practices.) On the one hand, they act pious and offer sacrifices; but at the same time they commit violent crimes against men, defile their sacrifices, and worship other gods.

1073 tn Heb “one who sacrifices a lamb, one who breaks a dog’s neck.” Some understand a comparison, but see the previous note.

sn The significance of breaking a dog’s neck is uncertain, though the structure of the statement when compared to the preceding and following lines suggests the action is viewed in a negative light. According to Exod 13:13 and 34:20, one was to “redeem” a firstborn donkey by offering a lamb; if one did not “redeem” the firstborn donkey in this way, then its neck must be broken. According to Deut 21:1-9 a heifer’s neck was to be broken as part of the atonement ritual to purify the land from the guilt of bloodshed. It is not certain if these passages relate in any way to the action described in Isa 66:3.

1074 tn Heb “one who offers an offering, pig’s blood.” Some understand a comparison, but see the note at the end of the first line.

1075 tn Heb “one who offers incense as a memorial offering, one who blesses something false.” Some understand a comparison, but see the note at the end of the first line. אָוֶן (’aven), which has a wide variety of attested nuances, here refers metonymically to an idol. See HALOT 22 s.v. and BDB 20 s.v. 2.

1076 tn Heb “also they have chosen their ways.”

1077 tn Heb “their being [or “soul”] takes delight in their disgusting [things].”

1078 tn The precise meaning of the noun is uncertain. It occurs only here and in 3:4 (but see the note there). It appears to be derived from the verbal root עָלַל (’alal), which can carry the nuance “deal severely.”

1079 tn Heb “that which is evil in my eyes.”

1080 tn Heb “who tremble at his word.”

1081 tn Heb “brothers” (so NASB, NIV); NRSV “Your own people”; NLT “Your close relatives.”

1082 tn Or “so that we might witness your joy.” The point of this statement is unclear.

1083 tn Heb “land,” but here אֶרֶץ (’erets) stands metonymically for an organized nation (see the following line).

1084 sn The rhetorical questions expect the answer, “Of course not!”

1085 tn Or “in order that”; ASV, NRSV “that.”

1086 tn Heb “you will suck and be satisfied, from her comforting breast.”

1087 tn Heb “you will slurp and refresh yourselves from her heavy breast.”

sn Zion’s residents will benefit from and enjoy her great material prosperity. See v. 12.

1088 tn Heb “Look, I am ready to extend to her like a river prosperity [or “peace”], and like an overflowing stream, the riches of nations.”

1089 tn The words “from her breast” are supplied in the translation for clarification (see v. 11).

1090 tn Heb “like a man whose mother comforts him.”

1091 tn “and you will see and your heart will be happy.”

1092 tn Heb “and your bones like grass will sprout.”

1093 tn Heb “and the hand of the Lord will be made known to his servants, and anger to his enemies.”

1094 sn Chariots are like a windstorm in their swift movement and in the way that they kick up dust.

1095 tn Heb “to cause to return with the rage of his anger, and his battle cry [or “rebuke”] with flames of fire.”

1096 tn Heb “flesh” (so KJV, NASB, NRSV); NIV “upon all men”; TEV “all the people of the world.”

1097 tn Heb “many are the slain of the Lord.”

1098 tn Heb “the ones who consecrate themselves and the ones who purify themselves toward the orchards [or “gardens”] after the one in the midst.” The precise meaning of the statement is unclear, though it is obvious that some form of idolatry is in view.

1099 tn Heb “ones who eat the flesh of the pig and the disgusting thing and the mouse.”

1100 tn Heb “together they will come to an end.”

1101 tc The Hebrew text reads literally “and I, their deeds and their thoughts, am coming.” The syntax here is very problematic, suggesting that the text may have suffered corruption. Some suggest that the words “their deeds and their thoughts” have been displaced from v. 17. This line presents two primary challenges. In the first place, the personal pronoun “I” has no verb after it. Most translations insert “know” for the sake of clarity (NASB, NRSV, NLT, ESV). The NIV has “I, because of their actions and their imaginations…” Since God’s “knowledge” of Israel’s sin occasions judgment, the verb “hate” is an option as well (see above translation). The feminine form of the next verb (בָּאָה, baah) could be understood in one of two ways. One could provide an implied noun “time” (עֵת, ’et) and render the next line “the time is coming/has come” (NASB, ESV). One could also emend the feminine verb to the masculine בָּא (ba’) and have the “I” at the beginning of the line govern this verb as well (for the Lord is speaking here): “I am coming” (cf. NIV, NCV, NRSV, TEV, NLT).

1102 tn Heb “and the tongues”; KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV “and tongues.”

1103 tn Heb “and I will set a sign among them.” The precise meaning of this statement is unclear. Elsewhere “to set a sign” means “perform a mighty act” (Ps 78:43; Jer 32:20), “make [someone] an object lesson” (Ezek 14:8), and “erect a [literal] standard” (Ps 74:4).

1104 tn Some prefer to read “Put” (i.e., Libya).

1105 sn That is, Lydia (in Asia Minor).

1106 tn Heb “drawers of the bow” (KJV and ASV both similar).

1107 sn Javan is generally identified today as Greece (so NIV, NCV, NLT).

1108 tn Or “islands” (NIV).

1109 tn Heb “brothers” (so NIV); NCV “fellow Israelites.”

1110 tn The words “they will bring them” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

1111 tn The precise meaning of this word is uncertain. Some suggest it refers to “chariots.” See HALOT 498 s.v. *כִּרְכָּרָה.

1112 tn Heb “new moon.” The verb that introduces this verse serves as a discourse particle and is untranslated; see note on “in the future” in 2:2.

1113 tn Heb “all flesh” (so KJV, ASV, NRSV); NAB, NASB, NIV “all mankind”; NLT “All humanity.”

1114 tn Or “bow down before” (NASB).

1115 tn Heb “for their worm will not die.”

1116 tn Heb “and their fire will not be extinguished.”

1117 tn Heb “and they will be an abhorrence to all flesh.”

sn This verse depicts a huge mass burial site where the seemingly endless pile of maggot-infested corpses are being burned.



TIP #07: Use the Discovery Box to further explore word(s) and verse(s). [ALL]
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