40:1 “Comfort, comfort my people,”
says your 1 God.
that her time of warfare is over, 4
that her punishment is completed. 5
For the Lord has made her pay double 6 for all her sins.”
40:3 A voice cries out,
“In the wilderness clear a way for the Lord;
construct in the desert a road for our God.
40:4 Every valley must be elevated,
and every mountain and hill leveled.
The rough terrain will become a level plain,
the rugged landscape a wide valley.
and all people 8 will see it at the same time.
40:6 A voice says, “Cry out!”
Another asks, 11 “What should I cry out?”
and all their promises 14 are like the flowers in the field.
40:7 The grass dries up,
the flowers wither,
when the wind sent by the Lord 15 blows on them.
Surely humanity 16 is like grass.
40:8 The grass dries up,
the flowers wither,
but the decree of our God is forever reliable.” 17
40:9 Go up on a high mountain, O herald Zion!
Shout out loudly, O herald Jerusalem! 18
Shout, don’t be afraid!
Say to the towns of Judah,
“Here is your God!”
his military power establishes his rule. 20
Look, his reward is with him;
his prize goes before him. 21
40:11 Like a shepherd he tends his flock;
he gathers up the lambs with his arm;
he carries them close to his heart; 22
he leads the ewes along.
or carefully weighed 26 the soil of the earth,
or weighed the mountains in a balance,
or the hills on scales? 27
or gives him instruction as his counselor? 30
or imparts knowledge to him,
or instructs him in skillful design? 34
40:15 Look, the nations are like a drop in a bucket;
they are regarded as dust on the scales.
its wild animals would not provide enough burnt offerings. 38
40:17 All the nations are insignificant before him;
they are regarded as absolutely nothing. 39
40:18 To whom can you compare God?
To what image can you liken him?
a metalsmith overlays it with gold
and forges silver chains for it.
he then seeks a skilled craftsman
to make 42 an idol that will not fall over.
40:21 Do you not know?
Do you not hear?
Has it not been told to you since the very beginning?
Have you not understood from the time the earth’s foundations were made?
its inhabitants are like grasshoppers before him. 44
He is the one who stretches out the sky like a thin curtain, 45
40:23 He is the one who reduces rulers to nothing;
he makes the earth’s leaders insignificant.
40:24 Indeed, they are barely planted;
yes, they are barely sown;
yes, they barely take root in the earth,
and then he blows on them, causing them to dry up,
and the wind carries them away like straw.
40:25 “To whom can you compare me? Whom do I resemble?”
says the Holy One. 48
Who created all these heavenly lights? 50
He is the one who leads out their ranks; 51
he calls them all by name.
Because of his absolute power and awesome strength,
not one of them is missing.
40:27 Why do you say, Jacob,
Why do you say, Israel,
“The Lord is not aware of what is happening to me, 52
My God is not concerned with my vindication”? 53
40:28 Do you not know?
Have you not heard?
The Lord is an eternal God,
the creator of the whole earth. 54
He does not get tired or weary;
there is no limit to his wisdom. 55
40:29 He gives strength to those who are tired;
to the ones who lack power, he gives renewed energy.
40:30 Even youths get tired and weary;
even strong young men clumsily stumble. 56
they rise up as if they had eagles’ wings, 58
they run without growing weary,
they walk without getting tired.
Let the nations find renewed strength!
Let them approach and then speak;
let us come together for debate! 60
He hands nations over to him, 64
and enables him to subdue 65 kings.
He makes them like dust with his sword,
like windblown straw with his bow. 66
he advances with great speed. 68
Who 70 summons the successive generations from the beginning?
I, the Lord, am present at the very beginning,
and at the very end – I am the one. 71
the whole earth 73 trembles;
they approach and come.
one says to the other, ‘Be strong!’
41:7 The craftsman encourages the metalsmith,
the one who wields the hammer encourages 75 the one who pounds on the anvil.
He approves the quality of the welding, 76
and nails it down so it won’t fall over.”
41:8 “You, my servant Israel,
Jacob whom I have chosen,
offspring of Abraham my friend, 77
and have summoned from the remote regions –
I told you, “You are my servant.”
I have chosen you and not rejected you.
41:10 Don’t be afraid, for I am with you!
Don’t be frightened, for I am your God! 79
I strengthen you –
yes, I help you –
yes, I uphold you with my saving right hand! 80
41:11 Look, all who were angry at you will be ashamed and humiliated;
your enemies 84 will be reduced to absolutely nothing.
41:13 For I am the Lord your God,
the one who takes hold of your right hand,
who says to you, ‘Don’t be afraid, I am helping you.’
men of 86 Israel.
I am helping you,” says the Lord,
new and double-edged. 90
You will thresh the mountains and crush them;
you will make the hills like straw. 91
41:16 You will winnow them and the wind will blow them away;
the wind will scatter them.
You will rejoice in the Lord;
you will boast in the Holy One of Israel.
41:17 The oppressed and the poor look for water, but there is none;
their tongues are parched from thirst.
I, the Lord, will respond to their prayers; 92
I, the God of Israel, will not abandon them.
41:18 I will make streams flow down the slopes
and produce springs in the middle of the valleys.
I will turn the desert into a pool of water
and the arid land into springs.
41:19 I will make cedars, acacias, myrtles, and olive trees grow in the wilderness;
I will make evergreens, firs, and cypresses grow together in the desert.
so they will pay attention and understand
that the Lord’s power 95 has accomplished this,
and that the Holy One of Israel has brought it into being.” 96
41:21 “Present your argument,” says the Lord.
41:22 “Let them produce evidence! Let them tell us what will happen!
Tell us about your earlier predictive oracles, 99
Or decree for us some future events!
so we might know you are gods.
Yes, do something good or bad,
so we might be frightened and in awe. 103
41:24 Look, you are nothing, and your accomplishments are nonexistent;
the one who chooses to worship you is disgusting. 104
one from the eastern horizon who prays in my name. 106
He steps on 107 rulers as if they were clay,
like a potter treading the clay.
41:26 Who decreed this from the beginning, so we could know?
Who announced it 108 ahead of time, so we could say, ‘He’s correct’?
Indeed, none of them decreed it!
Indeed, none of them announced it!
Indeed, no one heard you say anything!
I sent a herald to Jerusalem. 110
41:28 I look, but there is no one,
among them there is no one who serves as an adviser,
that I might ask questions and receive answers.
their accomplishments are nonexistent;
their metal images lack any real substance. 112
my chosen one in whom I take pleasure.
I have placed my spirit on him;
42:2 He will not cry out or shout;
he will not publicize himself in the streets. 116
42:3 A crushed reed he will not break,
a dim wick he will not extinguish; 117
he will faithfully make just decrees. 118
before establishing justice on the earth;
the one who created the sky and stretched it out,
the one who fashioned the earth and everything that lives on it, 123
the one who gives breath to the people on it,
and life to those who live on it: 124
I take hold of your hand.
to release prisoners 131 from dungeons,
those who live in darkness from prisons.
42:8 I am the Lord! That is my name!
I will not share my glory with anyone else,
or the praise due me with idols.
now I announce new events.
Before they begin to occur,
I reveal them to you.” 133
42:10 Sing to the Lord a brand new song!
Praise him 134 from the horizon of the earth,
you who go down to the sea, and everything that lives in it, 135
you coastlands 136 and those who live there!
42:11 Let the desert and its cities shout out,
the towns where the nomads of Kedar live!
Let the residents of Sela shout joyfully;
let them shout loudly from the mountaintops.
let them praise his deeds in the coastlands. 138
42:13 The Lord emerges like a hero,
like a warrior he inspires himself for battle; 139
he shouts, yes, he yells,
he shows his enemies his power. 140
I kept quiet and held back.
Like a woman in labor I groan;
I pant and gasp. 142
I will dry up all their vegetation.
I will turn streams into islands, 144
and dry up pools of water. 145
I will guide them down paths they have never traveled. 147
I will turn the darkness in front of them into light,
and level out the rough ground. 148
This is what I will do for them.
I will not abandon them.
42:17 Those who trust in idols
will turn back and be utterly humiliated, 149
those who say to metal images, ‘You are our gods.’”
42:18 “Listen, you deaf ones!
Take notice, 150 you blind ones!
42:19 My servant is truly blind,
my messenger is truly deaf.
their ears are open, but do not hear.”
42:21 The Lord wanted to exhibit his justice
by magnifying his law and displaying it. 155
42:22 But these people are looted and plundered;
all of them are trapped in pits 156
and held captive 157 in prisons.
They were carried away as loot with no one to rescue them;
they were carried away as plunder, and no one says, “Bring that back!” 158
42:23 Who among you will pay attention to this?
Who will listen attentively in the future? 159
42:24 Who handed Jacob over to the robber?
Who handed Israel over to the looters? 160
Was it not the Lord, against whom we sinned?
They refused to follow his commands;
they disobeyed his law. 161
42:25 So he poured out his fierce anger on them,
along with the devastation 162 of war.
Its flames encircled them, but they did not realize it; 163
it burned against them, but they did notice. 164
43:1 Now, this is what the Lord says,
the one who created you, O Jacob,
and formed you, O Israel:
“Don’t be afraid, for I will protect 165 you.
I call you by name, you are mine.
43:2 When you pass through the waters, I am with you;
when you pass 166 through the streams, they will not overwhelm you.
When you walk through the fire, you will not be burned;
the flames will not harm 167 you.
43:3 For I am the Lord your God,
the Holy One of Israel, 168 your deliverer.
I have handed over Egypt as a ransom price,
Ethiopia and Seba 169 in place of you.
and I love you,
I will hand over people in place of you,
nations in place of your life.
43:5 Don’t be afraid, for I am with you.
From the east I will bring your descendants;
from the west I will gather you.
43:6 I will say to the north, ‘Hand them over!’
and to the south, ‘Don’t hold any back!’
Bring my sons from distant lands,
and my daughters from the remote regions of the earth,
whom I created for my glory,
whom I formed – yes, whom I made!
43:8 Bring out the people who are blind, even though they have eyes,
those who are deaf, even though they have ears!
43:9 All nations gather together,
the peoples assemble.
Who among them announced this?
Who predicted earlier events for us? 172
Let them produce their witnesses to testify they were right;
let them listen and affirm, ‘It is true.’
43:10 You are my witnesses,” says the Lord,
“my servant whom I have chosen,
so that you may consider 173 and believe in me,
and understand that I am he.
No god was formed before me,
and none will outlive me. 174
43:11 I, I am the Lord,
and there is no deliverer besides me.
43:12 I decreed and delivered and proclaimed,
and there was no other god among you.
You are my witnesses,” says the Lord, “that I am God.
43:13 From this day forward I am he;
no one can deliver from my power; 175
I will act, and who can prevent it?”
43:14 This is what the Lord says,
“For your sake I send to Babylon
and make them all fugitives, 178
turning the Babylonians’ joyful shouts into mourning songs. 179
the one who created Israel, your king.”
43:16 This is what the Lord says,
the one who made a road through the sea,
a pathway through the surging waters,
together with a mighty army.
They fell down, 182 never to rise again;
they were extinguished, put out like a burning wick:
don’t recall these former events.
43:19 “Look, I am about to do something new.
Yes, I will make a road in the desert
and paths 186 in the wilderness.
43:20 The wild animals of the desert honor me,
the jackals and ostriches,
because I put water in the desert
and streams in the wilderness,
to quench the thirst of my chosen people,
43:21 the people whom I formed for myself,
so they might praise me.” 187
43:22 “But you did not call for me, O Jacob;
you did not long 188 for me, O Israel.
43:23 You did not bring me lambs for your burnt offerings;
you did not honor me with your sacrifices.
I did not burden you with offerings;
I did not make you weary by demanding 189 incense.
you did not present to me 191 the fat of your sacrifices.
Yet you burdened me with your sins;
you made me weary with your evil deeds. 192
43:25 I, I am the one who blots out your rebellious deeds for my sake;
your sins I do not remember.
43:26 Remind me of what happened! Let’s debate!
You, prove to me that you are right! 193
your spokesmen 195 rebelled against me.
43:28 So I defiled your holy princes,
and handed Jacob over to destruction,
and subjected 196 Israel to humiliating abuse.”
44:1 “Now, listen, Jacob my servant,
Israel whom I have chosen!”
44:2 This is what the Lord, the one who made you, says –
the one who formed you in the womb and helps you:
“Don’t be afraid, my servant Jacob,
Jeshurun, 197 whom I have chosen!
and cause streams to flow 199 on the dry land.
I will pour my spirit on your offspring
and my blessing on your children.
like poplars beside channels of water.
44:5 One will say, ‘I belong to the Lord,’
and another will use 201 the name ‘Jacob.’
One will write on his hand, ‘The Lord’s,’
and use the name ‘Israel.’” 202
44:6 This is what the Lord, Israel’s king, says,
their protector, 203 the Lord who commands armies:
“I am the first and I am the last,
there is no God but me.
Let him announce it and explain it to me –
since I established an ancient people – 205
let them announce future events! 206
Did I not tell you beforehand and decree it?
You are my witnesses! Is there any God but me?
There is no other sheltering rock; 208 I know of none.
44:9 All who form idols are nothing;
the things in which they delight are worthless.
Their witnesses cannot see;
they recognize nothing, so they are put to shame.
44:10 Who forms a god and casts an idol
that will prove worthless? 209
the craftsmen are mere humans. 211
Let them all assemble and take their stand!
They will panic and be put to shame.
and forges metal over the coals.
He forms it 213 with hammers;
he makes it with his strong arm.
He gets hungry and loses his energy; 214
he drinks no water and gets tired.
he marks out an outline of its form; 216
he scrapes 217 it with chisels,
and marks it with a compass.
He patterns it after the human form, 218
like a well-built human being,
and puts it in a shrine. 219
44:14 He cuts down cedars
and acquires a cypress 220 or an oak.
He gets 221 trees from the forest;
he plants a cedar 222 and the rain makes it grow.
he takes some of it and warms himself.
Yes, he kindles a fire and bakes bread.
Then he makes a god and worships it;
he makes an idol and bows down to it. 224
44:16 Half of it he burns in the fire –
over that half he cooks 225 meat;
he roasts a meal and fills himself.
Yes, he warms himself and says,
‘Ah! I am warm as I look at the fire.’
44:17 With the rest of it he makes a god, his idol;
he bows down to it and worships it.
He prays to it, saying,
‘Rescue me, for you are my god!’
44:18 They do not comprehend or understand,
for their eyes are blind and cannot see;
their minds do not discern. 226
44:19 No one thinks to himself,
nor do they comprehend or understand and say to themselves:
‘I burned half of it in the fire –
yes, I baked bread over the coals;
I roasted meat and ate it.
With the rest of it should I make a disgusting idol?
Should I bow down to dry wood?’ 227
his deceived mind misleads him.
He cannot rescue himself,
nor does he say, ‘Is this not a false god I hold in my right hand?’ 229
44:21 Remember these things, O Jacob,
O Israel, for you are my servant.
I formed you to be my servant;
O Israel, I will not forget you! 230
44:22 I remove the guilt of your rebellious deeds as if they were a cloud,
the guilt of your sins as if they were a cloud. 231
Come back to me, for I protect 232 you.”
shout out, you subterranean regions 234 of the earth.
O mountains, give a joyful shout;
you too, O forest and all your trees! 235
For the Lord protects 236 Jacob;
he reveals his splendor through Israel. 237
the one who formed you in the womb:
“I am the Lord, who made everything,
who alone stretched out the sky,
who fashioned the earth all by myself, 239
and humiliates 241 the omen readers,
who overturns the counsel of the wise men 242
and makes their advice 243 seem foolish,
and brings to pass the announcements 245 of his messengers,
who says about Jerusalem, 246 ‘She will be inhabited,’
and about the towns of Judah, ‘They will be rebuilt,
her ruins I will raise up,’
44:27 who says to the deep sea, ‘Be dry!
I will dry up your sea currents,’
to carry out all my wishes 249
and to decree concerning Jerusalem, ‘She will be rebuilt,’
and concerning the temple, ‘It will be reconstructed.’” 250
to Cyrus, whose right hand I hold 252
in order to subdue nations before him,
and disarm kings, 253
to open doors before him,
so gates remain unclosed:
45:2 “I will go before you
and level mountains. 254
Bronze doors I will shatter
and iron bars 255 I will hack through.
riches stashed away in secret places,
so you may recognize that I am the Lord,
the one who calls you by name, the God of Israel.
45:4 For the sake of my servant Jacob,
Israel, my chosen one,
I call you by name
and give you a title of respect, even though you do not recognize 257 me.
there is no God but me.
that there is no God but me;
I am the Lord, I have no peer.
and creates darkness; 264
the one who brings about peace
and creates calamity. 265
I am the Lord, who accomplishes all these things.
45:8 O sky, rain down from above!
Let the clouds send down showers 266 of deliverance!
and deliverance may sprout up 269 along with it.
I, the Lord, create it. 270
one who is like a mere 272 shard among the other shards on the ground!
The clay should not say to the potter, 273
“What in the world 274 are you doing?
Your work lacks skill!” 275
“What in the world 277 are you fathering?”
and to his mother,
“What in the world are you bringing forth?” 278
45:11 This is what the Lord says,
the Holy One of Israel, 279 the one who formed him,
concerning things to come: 280
“How dare you question me 281 about my children!
How dare you tell me what to do with 282 the work of my own hands!
45:12 I made the earth,
I created the people who live 283 on it.
I give orders to all the heavenly lights. 286
I will make all his ways level.
He will rebuild my city;
he will send my exiled people home,
but not for a price or a bribe,”
says the Lord who commands armies.
45:14 This is what the Lord says:
along with the Sabeans, those tall men,
will be brought to you 290 and become yours.
They will walk behind you, coming along in chains. 291
They will bow down to you
and pray to you: 292
there is no other God!’”
45:15 Yes, you are a God who keeps hidden,
O God of Israel, deliverer!
45:16 They will all be ashamed and embarrassed;
those who fashion idols will all be humiliated. 295
you will never again be ashamed or humiliated. 297
45:18 For this is what the Lord says,
the one who created the sky –
he is the true God, 298
the one who formed the earth and made it;
he established it,
he did not create it without order, 299
he formed it to be inhabited –
“I am the Lord, I have no peer.
45:19 I have not spoken in secret,
in some hidden place. 300
I did not tell Jacob’s descendants,
‘Seek me in vain!’ 301
I am the Lord,
the one who speaks honestly,
who makes reliable announcements. 302
45:20 Gather together and come!
Approach together, you refugees from the nations!
Those who carry wooden idols know nothing,
those who pray to a god that cannot deliver.
Let them consult with one another!
Who predicted this in the past?
Who announced it beforehand?
Was it not I, the Lord?
I have no peer, there is no God but me,
a God who vindicates and delivers; 304
there is none but me.
all you who live in the earth’s remote regions!
For I am God, and I have no peer.
what I say is true and reliable: 307
‘Surely every knee will bow to me,
every tongue will solemnly affirm; 308
45:24 they will say about me,
“Yes, the Lord is a powerful deliverer.”’” 309
All who are angry at him will cower before him. 310
45:25 All the descendants of Israel will be vindicated by the Lord
and will boast in him. 311
Nebo 313 bends low.
Their images weigh down animals and beasts. 314
Your heavy images are burdensome to tired animals. 315
46:2 Together they bend low and kneel down;
they are unable to rescue the images; 316
all you who are left from the family of Israel, 320
you who have been carried from birth, 321
you who have been supported from the time you left the womb. 322
even when you have gray hair, I will carry you.
I made you and I will support you;
I will carry you and rescue you. 324
46:5 To whom can you compare and liken me?
Tell me whom you think I resemble, so we can be compared!
46:6 Those who empty out gold from a purse
and weigh out silver on the scale 325
hire a metalsmith, who makes it into a god.
They then bow down and worship it.
46:7 They put it on their shoulder and carry it;
they put it in its place and it just stands there;
it does not 326 move from its place.
Even when someone cries out to it, it does not reply;
it does not deliver him from his distress.
Think about it, you rebels! 328
Truly I am God, I have no peer; 330
I am God, and there is none like me,
46:10 who announces the end from the beginning
and reveals beforehand 331 what has not yet occurred,
who says, ‘My plan will be realized,
I will accomplish what I desire,’
from a distant land, one who carries out my plan.
Yes, I have decreed, 333
yes, I will bring it to pass;
I have formulated a plan,
yes, I will carry it out.
you who distance yourself from doing what is right. 335
46:13 I am bringing my deliverance near, it is not far away;
I am bringing my salvation near, 336 it does not wait.
I will save Zion; 337
I will adorn Israel with my splendor.” 338
47:1 “Fall down! Sit in the dirt,
O virgin 339 daughter Babylon!
Sit on the ground, not on a throne,
O daughter of the Babylonians!
Indeed, 340 you will no longer be called delicate and pampered.
47:2 Pick up millstones and grind flour!
Remove your veil,
strip off your skirt,
expose your legs,
cross the streams!
47:3 Let your private parts be exposed!
Your genitals will be on display! 341
I will get revenge;
I will not have pity on anyone,” 342
47:4 says our protector –
the Lord who commands armies is his name,
the Holy One of Israel. 343
O daughter of the Babylonians!
Indeed, 345 you will no longer be called ‘Queen of kingdoms.’
47:6 I was angry at my people;
I defiled my special possession
and handed them over to you.
You showed them no mercy; 346
you even placed a very heavy burden on old people. 347
47:7 You said,
‘I will rule forever as permanent queen!’ 348
You did not think about these things; 349
you did not consider how it would turn out. 350
47:8 So now, listen to this,
O one who lives so lavishly, 351
who lives securely,
who says to herself, 352
‘I am unique! No one can compare to me! 353
I will never have to live as a widow;
I will never lose my children.’ 354
47:9 Both of these will come upon you
suddenly, in one day!
You will lose your children and be widowed. 355
You will be overwhelmed by these tragedies, 356
despite 357 your many incantations
and your numerous amulets. 358
you thought, 360 ‘No one sees me.’
Your self-professed 361 wisdom and knowledge lead you astray,
when you say, ‘I am unique! No one can compare to me!’ 362
47:11 Disaster will overtake you;
you will not know how to charm it away. 363
Destruction will fall on you;
you will not be able to appease it.
Calamity will strike you suddenly,
before you recognize it. 364
and your many incantations,
which you have faithfully recited 367 since your youth!
Maybe you will be successful 368 –
maybe you will scare away disaster. 369
Let them take their stand –
the ones who see omens in the sky,
who gaze at the stars,
who make monthly predictions –
let them rescue you from the disaster that is about to overtake you! 371
47:14 Look, they are like straw,
which the fire burns up;
they cannot rescue themselves
from the heat 372 of the flames.
There are no coals to warm them,
no firelight to enjoy. 373
those you have so faithfully dealt with since your youth. 375
Each strays off in his own direction, 376
leaving no one to rescue you.”
you who are called by the name ‘Israel,’
and are descended from Judah, 378
who take oaths in the name of the Lord,
and invoke 379 the God of Israel –
but not in an honest and just manner. 380
they trust in 382 the God of Israel,
whose name is the Lord who commands armies.
I issued the decrees and made the predictions; 384
suddenly I acted and they came to pass.
Your neck muscles are like iron
and your forehead like bronze. 386
48:5 I announced them to you beforehand;
before they happened, I predicted them for you,
so you could never say,
‘My image did these things,
my idol, my cast image, decreed them.’
Will you not admit that what I say is true? 388
From this point on I am announcing to you new events
that are previously unrevealed and you do not know about. 389
before today you did not hear about them,
so you could not say,
‘Yes, 391 I know about them.’
48:8 You did not hear,
you do not know,
you were not told beforehand. 392
For I know that you are very deceitful; 393
you were labeled 394 a rebel from birth.
48:10 Look, I have refined you, but not as silver;
I have purified you 398 in the furnace of misery.
for how can I allow my name to be defiled? 400
I will not share my glory with anyone else! 401
48:12 Listen to me, O Jacob,
Israel, whom I summoned!
I am the one;
I am present at the very beginning
and at the very end. 402
48:13 Yes, my hand founded the earth;
my right hand spread out the sky.
I summon them;
they stand together.
48:14 All of you, gather together and listen!
Who among them 403 announced these things?
The Lord’s ally 404 will carry out his desire against Babylon;
he will exert his power against the Babylonians. 405
48:15 I, I have spoken –
yes, I have summoned him;
I lead him and he will succeed. 406
48:16 Approach me! Listen to this!
From the very first I have not spoken in secret;
when it happens, 407 I am there.”
So now, the sovereign Lord has sent me, accompanied by his spirit. 408
the Holy One of Israel: 410
“I am the Lord your God,
who teaches you how to succeed,
who leads you in the way you should go.
prosperity would have flowed to you like a river, 412
deliverance would have come to you like the waves of the sea. 413
and your children 415 like its granules.
Their name would not have been cut off
and eliminated from my presence. 416
48:20 Leave Babylon!
Flee from the Babylonians!
Announce it with a shout of joy!
Make this known!
Proclaim it throughout the earth! 417
Say, ‘The Lord protects 418 his servant Jacob.
48:21 They do not thirst as he leads them through dry regions;
he makes water flow out of a rock for them;
he splits open a rock and water flows out.’ 419
48:22 There will be no prosperity for the wicked,” says the Lord.
Pay attention, you people who live far away!
The Lord summoned me from birth; 421
he commissioned me when my mother brought me into the world. 422
49:2 He made my mouth like a sharp sword,
he hid me in the hollow of his hand;
he made me like a sharpened 423 arrow,
he hid me in his quiver. 424
49:3 He said to me, “You are my servant,
Israel, through whom I will reveal my splendor.” 425
I have expended my energy for absolutely nothing.” 427
But the Lord will vindicate me;
my God will reward me. 428
49:5 So now the Lord says,
the one who formed me from birth 429 to be his servant –
he did this 430 to restore Jacob to himself,
so that Israel might be gathered to him;
and I will be honored 431 in the Lord’s sight,
for my God is my source of strength 432 –
49:6 he says, “Is it too insignificant a task for you to be my servant,
to reestablish the tribes of Jacob,
I will make you a light to the nations, 435
so you can bring 436 my deliverance to the remote regions of the earth.”
49:7 This is what the Lord,
a servant of rulers:
“Kings will see and rise in respect, 442
princes will bow down,
because of the faithful Lord,
the Holy One of Israel who has chosen you.”
49:8 This is what the Lord says:
“At the time I decide to show my favor, I will respond to you;
in the day of deliverance I will help you;
and to reassign the desolate property.
They will graze beside the roads;
on all the slopes they will find pasture.
49:10 They will not be hungry or thirsty;
the sun’s oppressive heat will not beat down on them, 450
for one who has compassion on them will guide them;
he will lead them to springs of water.
49:11 I will make all my mountains into a road;
I will construct my roadways.”
49:12 Look, they come from far away!
Look, some come from the north and west,
and others from the land of Sinim! 451
Rejoice, O earth!
Let the mountains give a joyful shout!
For the Lord consoles his people
and shows compassion to the 453 oppressed.
49:14 “Zion said, ‘The Lord has abandoned me,
the sovereign master 454 has forgotten me.’
Can she withhold compassion from the child she has borne? 456
Even if mothers 457 were to forget,
I could never forget you! 458
your walls are constantly before me.
49:17 Your children hurry back,
while those who destroyed and devastated you depart.
All of them gather to you.
As surely as I live,” says the Lord,
“you will certainly wear all of them like jewelry;
you will put them on as if you were a bride.
49:19 Yes, your land lies in ruins;
it is desolate and devastated. 461
But now you will be too small to hold your residents,
and those who devoured you will be far away.
49:20 Yet the children born during your time of bereavement
will say within your hearing,
‘This place is too cramped for us, 462
make room for us so we can live here.’ 463
‘Who bore these children for me?
I was bereaved and barren,
dismissed and divorced. 465
Who raised these children?
Look, I was left all alone;
where did these children come from?’”
49:22 This is what the sovereign Lord says:
“Look I will raise my hand to the nations;
I will raise my signal flag to the peoples.
They will bring your sons in their arms
and carry your daughters on their shoulders.
their princesses will nurse your children. 467
With their faces to the ground they will bow down to you
and they will lick the dirt on 468 your feet.
Then you will recognize that I am the Lord;
those who wait patiently for me are not put to shame.
49:24 Can spoils be taken from a warrior,
or captives be rescued from a conqueror? 469
49:25 Indeed,” says the Lord,
“captives will be taken from a warrior;
spoils will be rescued from a conqueror.
I will oppose your adversary
and I will rescue your children.
49:26 I will make your oppressors eat their own flesh;
they will get drunk on their own blood, as if it were wine. 470
Then all humankind 471 will recognize that
I am the Lord, your deliverer,
50:1 This is what the Lord says:
“Where is your mother’s divorce certificate
by which I divorced her?
Or to which of my creditors did I sell you? 474
Look, you were sold because of your sins; 475
because of your rebellious acts I divorced your mother. 476
50:2 Why does no one challenge me when I come?
Why does no one respond when I call? 477
Do I lack the power to rescue you?
Look, with a mere shout 480 I can dry up the sea;
I can turn streams into a desert,
so the fish rot away and die
from lack of water. 481
50:3 I can clothe the sky in darkness;
I can cover it with sackcloth.”
so that I know how to help the weary. 483
He wakes me up every morning;
he makes me alert so I can listen attentively as disciples do. 484
I have not rebelled,
I have not turned back.
my jaws to those who tore out my beard;
I did not hide my face
from insults and spitting.
50:7 But the sovereign Lord helps me,
so I am not humiliated.
For that reason I am steadfastly resolved; 487
I know I will not be put to shame.
50:8 The one who vindicates me is close by.
Who dares to argue with me? Let us confront each other! 488
50:9 Look, the sovereign Lord helps me.
Who dares to condemn me?
Look, all of them will wear out like clothes;
a moth will eat away at them.
50:10 Who among you fears the Lord?
Who obeys 491 his servant?
Whoever walks in deep darkness, 492
should trust in the name of the Lord
and rely on his God.
50:11 Look, all of you who start a fire
and among the flaming arrows you ignited! 497
This is what you will receive from me: 498
you will lie down in a place of pain. 499
who seek the Lord!
Look at the rock from which you were chiseled,
51:2 Look at Abraham, your father,
and Sarah, who gave you birth. 503
When I summoned him, he was a lone individual, 504
51:3 Certainly the Lord will console Zion;
he will console all her ruins.
He will make her wilderness like Eden,
her desert like the Garden of the Lord.
Happiness and joy will be restored to 507 her,
thanksgiving and the sound of music.
51:4 Pay attention to me, my people!
Listen to me, my people!
I will make my justice a light to the nations. 510
I am ready to deliver, 512
I will establish justice among the nations. 513
The coastlands 514 wait patiently for me;
they wait in anticipation for the revelation of my power. 515
51:6 Look up at the sky!
Look at the earth below!
For the sky will dissipate 516 like smoke,
and the earth will wear out like clothes;
its residents will die like gnats.
But the deliverance I give 517 is permanent;
51:7 Listen to me, you who know what is right,
you people who are aware of my law! 520
Don’t be afraid of the insults of men;
don’t be discouraged because of their abuse!
51:8 For a moth will eat away at them like clothes;
a clothes moth will devour them like wool.
But the vindication I provide 521 will be permanent;
the deliverance I give will last.”
51:9 Wake up! Wake up!
Clothe yourself with strength, O arm of the Lord! 522
Wake up as in former times, as in antiquity!
51:10 Did you not dry up the sea,
the waters of the great deep?
Did you not make 527 a path through the depths of the sea,
so those delivered from bondage 528 could cross over?
51:11 Those whom the Lord has ransomed will return;
they will enter Zion with a happy shout.
Unending joy will crown them, 529
happiness and joy will overwhelm 530 them;
grief and suffering will disappear. 531
Why are you afraid of mortal men,
of mere human beings who are as short-lived as grass? 533
who stretched out the sky 535
and founded the earth?
Why do you constantly tremble all day long 536
at the anger of the oppressor,
when he makes plans to destroy?
Where is the anger of the oppressor? 537
he will not die in prison, 539
he will not go hungry. 540
51:15 I am the Lord your God,
who churns up the sea so that its waves surge.
The Lord who commands armies is his name!
I cover you with the palm of my hand, 543
to establish 544 the sky and to found the earth,
to say to Zion, ‘You are my people.’” 545
51:17 Wake up! Wake up!
Get up, O Jerusalem!
You drank from the cup the Lord passed to you,
which was full of his anger! 546
You drained dry
the goblet full of intoxicating wine. 547
51:18 There was no one to lead her
among all the children she bore;
there was no one to take her by the hand
among all the children she raised.
51:19 These double disasters confronted you.
But who feels sorry for you?
Destruction and devastation,
famine and sword.
But who consoles you? 548
51:20 Your children faint;
they lie at the head of every street
like an antelope in a snare.
They are left in a stupor by the Lord’s anger,
by the battle cry of your God. 549
51:21 So listen to this, oppressed one,
who is drunk, but not from wine!
“Look, I have removed from your hand
the cup of intoxicating wine, 551
the goblet full of my anger. 552
You will no longer have to drink it.
who said to you, ‘Lie down, so we can walk over you.’
You made your back like the ground,
and like the street for those who walked over you.”
52:1 Wake up! Wake up!
Clothe yourself with strength, O Zion!
Put on your beautiful clothes,
O Jerusalem, 554 holy city!
For uncircumcised and unclean pagans
will no longer invade you.
Get up, captive 556 Jerusalem!
Take off the iron chains around your neck,
O captive daughter Zion!
52:3 For this is what the Lord says:
“You were sold for nothing,
and you will not be redeemed for money.”
52:4 For this is what the sovereign Lord says:
“In the beginning my people went to live temporarily in Egypt;
Assyria oppressed them for no good reason.
“Indeed my people have been carried away for nothing,
those who rule over them taunt,” 558 says the Lord,
“and my name is constantly slandered 559 all day long.
52:6 For this reason my people will know my name,
‘Here I am.’”
the feet of a messenger who announces peace,
a messenger who brings good news, who announces deliverance,
who says to Zion, “Your God reigns!” 563
in unison they shout for joy,
for they see with their very own eyes 565
the Lord’s return to Zion.
52:9 In unison give a joyful shout,
O ruins of Jerusalem!
For the Lord consoles his people;
he protects 566 Jerusalem.
in the sight of all the nations;
the entire 569 earth sees
our God deliver. 570
52:11 Leave! Leave! Get out of there!
Don’t touch anything unclean!
Get out of it!
Stay pure, you who carry the Lord’s holy items! 571
52:12 Yet do not depart quickly
or leave in a panic. 572
For the Lord goes before you;
the God of Israel is your rear guard.
He will be elevated, lifted high, and greatly exalted 574 –
Kings will be shocked by his exaltation, 581
for they will witness something unannounced to them,
and they will understand something they had not heard about.
like a root out of parched soil; 588
he had no stately form or majesty that might catch our attention, 589
no special appearance that we should want to follow him. 590
one who experienced pain and was acquainted with illness;
people hid their faces from him; 592
he was despised, and we considered him insignificant. 593
53:4 But he lifted up our illnesses,
he carried our pain; 594
even though we thought he was being punished,
attacked by God, and afflicted for something he had done. 595
crushed because of our sins;
he endured punishment that made us well; 597
because of his wounds we have been healed. 598
53:6 All of us had wandered off like sheep;
each of us had strayed off on his own path,
but the Lord caused the sin of all of us to attack him. 599
but he did not even open his mouth.
Like a lamb led to the slaughtering block,
like a sheep silent before her shearers,
he did not even open his mouth. 601
but who even cared? 603
Indeed, he was cut off from the land of the living; 604
because of the rebellion of his own 605 people he was wounded.
but he ended up in a rich man’s tomb, 607
because 608 he had committed no violent deeds,
nor had he spoken deceitfully.
53:10 Though the Lord desired to crush him and make him ill,
once restitution is made, 609
he will see descendants and enjoy long life, 610
and the Lord’s purpose will be accomplished through him.
53:11 Having suffered, he will reflect on his work,
he will be satisfied when he understands what he has done. 611
for he carried their sins. 614
he will divide the spoils of victory with the powerful, 616
because he willingly submitted 617 to death
and was numbered with the rebels,
when he lifted up the sin of many
and intervened 618 on behalf of the rebels.”
54:1 “Shout for joy, O barren one who has not given birth!
Give a joyful shout and cry out, you who have not been in labor!
For the children of the desolate one are more numerous
than the children of the married woman,” says the Lord.
54:2 Make your tent larger,
stretch your tent curtains farther out! 619
Spare no effort,
lengthen your ropes,
and pound your stakes deep. 620
54:3 For you will spread out to the right and to the left;
your children will conquer 621 nations
and will resettle desolate cities.
54:4 Don’t be afraid, for you will not be put to shame!
Don’t be intimidated, 622 for you will not be humiliated!
You will forget about the shame you experienced in your youth;
you will no longer remember the disgrace of your abandonment. 623
54:5 For your husband is the one who made you –
the Lord who commands armies is his name.
He is called “God of the entire earth.”
54:6 “Indeed, the Lord will call you back
like a wife who has been abandoned and suffers from depression, 626
like a young wife when she has been rejected,” says your God.
but with great compassion I will gather you.
but with lasting devotion I will have compassion on you,”
says your protector, 630 the Lord.
when I vowed that the waters of Noah’s flood 632 would never again cover the earth.
In the same way I have vowed that I will not be angry at you or shout at you.
54:10 Even if the mountains are removed
and the hills displaced,
my devotion will not be removed from you,
nor will my covenant of friendship 633 be displaced,”
says the Lord, the one who has compassion on you.
Look, I am about to set your stones in antimony
and I lay your foundation with lapis-lazuli.
your gates out of beryl, 636
54:13 All your children will be followers of the Lord,
and your children will enjoy great prosperity. 639
You will not experience oppression; 641
indeed, you will not be afraid.
You will not be terrified, 642
for nothing frightening 643 will come near you.
Whoever tries to challenge you will be defeated. 645
54:16 Look, I create the craftsman,
who fans the coals into a fire
and forges a weapon. 646
I create the destroyer so he might devastate.
54:17 No weapon forged to be used against you will succeed;
you will refute everyone who tries to accuse you. 647
This is what the Lord will do for his servants –
I will vindicate them,” 648
says the Lord.
You who have no money, come!
Buy and eat!
Come! Buy wine and milk
without money and without cost! 650
Enjoy fine food! 656
55:3 Pay attention and come to me!
Listen, so you can live! 657
Then I will make an unconditional covenantal promise to 658 you,
just like the reliable covenantal promises I made to David. 659
a ruler and commander of nations.”
nations 662 that did not previously know you will run to you,
because of the Lord your God,
the Holy One of Israel, 663
for he bestows honor on you.
call to him while he is nearby!
and sinful people their plans. 666
and to their God, for he will freely forgive them. 669
and my plans 678 superior to your plans.
and do not return,
but instead water the earth
and make it produce and yield crops,
and provide seed for the planter and food for those who must eat.
55:11 In the same way, the promise that I make
does not return to me, having accomplished nothing. 680
No, it is realized as I desire
and is fulfilled as I intend.” 681
55:12 Indeed you will go out with joy;
you will be led along in peace;
the mountains and hills will give a joyful shout before you,
and all the trees in the field will clap their hands.
55:13 Evergreens will grow in place of thorn bushes,
firs will grow in place of nettles;
they will be a monument to the Lord, 682
a permanent reminder that will remain. 683
1 tn The pronominal suffix is second masculine plural. The identity of the addressee is uncertain: (1) God’s people may be addressed, or (2) the unidentified heralds commanded to comfort Jerusalem.
2 tn Heb “speak to the heart of Jerusalem.” Jerusalem is personified as a woman.
4 tn Heb “that she is filled [with] her warfare.” Some understand צָבָא (tsavah, “warfare”) as meaning “hard service” or “compulsory labor” in this context.
5 tn Heb “that her punishment is accepted [as satisfactory].”
6 tn Heb “for she has received from the hand of the Lord double.” The principle of the double portion in punishment is also seen in Jer 16:18; 17:18 and Rev 18:6. For examples of the double portion in Israelite law, see Exod 22:4, 7, 9 (double restitution by a thief) and Deut 21:17 (double inheritance portion for the firstborn).
8 tn Heb “flesh” (so KJV, ASV, NASB); NAB, NIV “mankind”; TEV “the whole human race.”
9 tn Or “indeed.”
10 tn Heb “the mouth of the Lord has spoken” (so NASB, NIV, NRSV).
11 tn Heb “and he says.” Apparently a second “voice” responds to the command of the first “voice.”
12 tn The words “the first voice responds” are supplied in the translation for clarification. The first voice tells the second one what to declare.
14 tn Heb “and all his loyalty.” The antecedent of the third masculine suffix is בָּשָׂר (basar, “flesh”), which refers collectively to mankind. The LXX, apparently understanding the antecedent as “grass,” reads “glory,” but חֶסֶד (khesed) rarely, if ever, has this nuance. The normal meaning of חֶסֶד (“faithfulness, loyalty, devotion”) fits very well in the argument. Human beings and their faithfulness (verbal expressions of faithfulness are specifically in view; cf. NRSV “constancy”) are short-lived and unreliable, in stark contrast to the decrees and promises of the eternal God.
15 tn The Hebrew text has רוּחַ יְהוָה (ruakh yehvah), which in this context probably does not refer to the Lord’s personal Spirit. The phrase is better translated “the breath of the Lord,” or “the wind of [i.e., sent by] the Lord.” The Lord’s sovereign control over nature, including the hot desert winds that dry up vegetation, is in view here (cf. Ps 147:18; Isa 59:19).
16 tn Heb “the people” (so KJV, ASV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV).
17 tn Heb “but the word of our God stands forever.” In this context the divine “word” specifically refers to his decreed promise assuring Jerusalem that her suffering is over and his glorious return imminent (vv. 1-5).
18 tn The second feminine singular imperatives are addressed to personified Zion/Jerusalem, who is here told to ascend a high hill and proclaim the good news of the Lord’s return to the other towns of Judah. Isa 41:27 and 52:7 speak of a herald sent to Zion, but the masculine singular form מְבַשֵּׂר (mÿvaser) is used in these verses, in contrast to the feminine singular form מְבַשֶּׂרֶת (mÿvaseret) employed in 40:9, where Zion is addressed as a herald.
19 tn Heb “comes as a strong one”; ASV “will come as a mighty one.” The preposition בְּ (bet) here carries the nuance “in the capacity of.” It indicates that the Lord possesses the quality expressed by the noun. See GKC 379 §119.i and HALOT 104 s.v. בְּ.
21 tn As the Lord returns to Jerusalem as a victorious warrior, he brings with him the spoils of victory, called here his “reward” and “prize.” These terms might also be translated “wages” and “recompense.” Verse 11 indicates that his rescued people, likened to a flock of sheep, are his reward.
22 tn Heb “in his bosom” (so KJV, NAB, NASB, NRSV), an expression which reflects closeness and protective care.
23 tn The Qumran scroll 1QIsaa has מי ים (“waters of the sea”), a reading followed by NAB.
24 tn Heb “with a span.” A “span” was the distance between the ends of the thumb and the little finger of the spread hand” (BDB 285 s.v. זֶרֶת).
25 tn Or “the heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavens” or “sky” depending on the context.
26 tn Heb “or weighed by a third part [of a measure].”
27 sn The implied answer to the rhetorical questions of v. 12 is “no one but the Lord. The Lord, and no other, created the world. Like a merchant weighing out silver or commodities on a scale, the Lord established the various components of the physical universe in precise proportions.
28 tn Perhaps the verb is used metonymically here in the sense of “advises” (note the following line).
29 tn In this context רוּחַ (ruakh) likely refers to the Lord’s “mind,” or mental faculties, rather than his personal Spirit (see BDB 925 s.v.).
30 tn Heb “or [as] the man of his counsel causes him to know?”
31 tn Heb “With whom did he consult, so that he gave discernment to him?”
32 tn Heb “and taught him.” The vav (ו) consecutive with prefixed verbal form continues the previous line. The translation employs an interrogative pronoun for stylistic reasons.
33 tn The phrase אֹרַח מִשְׁפָּט (’orakh mishpat) could be translated “path of justice” (so NASB, NRSV), but in this context, where creative ability and skill is in view, the phrase is better understood in the sense of “the way that is proper or fitting” (see BDB 1049 s.v. מִשְׁפָּט 6); cf. NIV, NCV “the right way.”
34 tn Heb “or the way of understanding causes him to know?”
sn The implied answer to the rhetorical questions in vv. 13-14 is, “No one.” In contrast to Marduk, the creator-god of Mesopotamian myths who receives help from the god of wisdom, the Lord neither needs nor receives any such advice or help. See R. Whybray, Heavenly Counsellor (SOTSMS), 64-77.
35 tn Or “weighs” (NIV); NLT “picks up.”
36 tn Or “islands” (NASB, NIV, NLT).
37 tn The words “for a sacrifice” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
38 sn The point is that not even the Lebanon forest could supply enough wood and animals for an adequate sacrifice to the Lord.
39 tn Heb “[as derived] from nothing and unformed.”
40 tn Heb “pours out”; KJV “melteth.”
41 tn The first two words of the verse (הַמְסֻכָּן תְּרוּמָה, hamsukan tÿrumah) are problematic. Some take מְסֻכָּן as an otherwise unattested Pual participle from סָכַן (sakhan, “be poor”) and translate “the one who is impoverished.” תְּרוּמָה (tÿrumah, “contribution”) can then be taken as an adverbial accusative, “with respect to a contribution,” and the entire line translated, “the one who is too impoverished for such a contribution [i.e., the metal idol of v. 19?] selects wood that will not rot.” However, מְסֻכָּן is probably the name of a tree used in idol manufacturing (cognate with Akkadian musukkanu, cf. H. R. Cohen, Biblical Hapax Legomena [SBLDS], 133). מְסֻכָּן may be a scribal interpretive addition attempting to specify עֵץ (’ets) or עֵץ may be a scribal attempt to categorize מְסֻכָּן. How an idol constitutes a תְּרוּמָה (“contribution”) is not entirely clear.
42 tn Or “set up” (ASV, NAB, NIV, NRSV); KJV, NASB “to prepare.”
43 tn Heb “the circle of the earth” (so KJV, NIV, NRSV, NLT).
44 tn The words “before him” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
45 tn The otherwise unattested noun דֹּק (doq), translated here “thin curtain,” is apparently derived from the verbal root דקק (“crush”) from which is derived the adjective דַּק (daq, “thin”; see HALOT 229 s.v. דקק). The nuance “curtain” is implied from the parallelism (see “tent” in the next line).
46 tn The meaning of the otherwise unattested verb מָתַח (matakh, “spread out”) is determined from the parallelism (note the corresponding verb “stretch out” in the previous line) and supported by later Hebrew and Aramaic cognates. See HALOT 654 s.v. *מתה.
47 tn Heb “like a tent [in which] to live”; NAB, NASB “like a tent to dwell (live NIV, NRSV) in.”
49 tn Heb “Lift on high your eyes and see.”
50 tn The words “heavenly lights” are supplied in the translation for clarification. See the following lines.
51 tn Heb “the one who brings out by number their host.” The stars are here likened to a huge army that the Lord leads out. Perhaps the next line pictures God calling roll. If so, the final line may be indicating that none of them dares “go AWOL.” (“AWOL” is a military acronym for “absent without leave.”)
52 tn Heb “my way is hidden from the Lord” (so NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV).
53 tn Heb “and from my God my justice passes away”; NRSV “my right is disregarded by my God.”
54 tn Heb “the ends of the earth,” but this is a merism, where the earth’s extremities stand for its entirety, i.e., the extremities and everything in between them.
55 sn Exiled Israel’s complaint (v. 27) implies that God might be limited in some way. Perhaps he, like so many of the pagan gods, has died. Or perhaps his jurisdiction is limited to Judah and does not include Babylon. Maybe he is unable to devise an adequate plan to rescue his people, or is unable to execute it. But v. 28 affirms that he is not limited temporally or spatially nor is his power and wisdom restricted in any way. He can and will deliver his people, if they respond in hopeful faith (v. 31a).
56 tn Heb “stumbling they stumble.” The verbal idea is emphasized by the infinitive absolute.
57 tn The words “for the Lord’s help” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
58 tn Heb “they rise up [on] wings like eagles” (TEV similar).
59 tn Or “islands” (KJV, NIV, CEV); TEV “distant lands”; NLT “lands beyond the sea.”
60 tn The Hebrew term מִשְׁפָּט (mishpat) could be translated “judgment,” but here it seems to refer to the dispute or debate between the Lord and the nations.
62 tn The interrogative particle is understood by ellipsis.
63 tn Heb “[in] righteousness called him to his foot.”
64 tn Heb “he [the Lord] places before him [Cyrus] nations.”
65 tn The verb יַרְדְּ (yardÿ) is an otherwise unattested Hiphil form from רָדָה (radah, “rule”). But the Hiphil makes no sense with “kings” as object; one must understand an ellipsis and supply “him” (Cyrus) as the object. The Qumran scroll 1QIsaa has יוֹרִד (yorid), which appears to be a Hiphil form from יָרַד (yarad, “go down”). Others suggest reading יָרֹד (yarod), a Qal form from רָדַד (radad, “beat down”).
66 sn The point is that they are powerless before Cyrus’ military power and scatter before him.
67 tn Heb “[in] peace”; KJV, ASV “safely”; NASB “in safety”; NIV “unscathed.”
68 tn Heb “a way with his feet he does not come [or “enter”].” One could translate, “by a way he was not [previously] entering with his feet.” This would mean that he is advancing into new territory and expanding his conquests. The present translation assumes this is a hyperbolic description to his speedy advance. He moves so quickly he does not enter the way with his feet, i.e., his feet don’t even touch the ground. See C. R. North, Second Isaiah, 94.
69 tn Heb “Who acts and accomplishes?”; NASB “Who has performed and accomplished it.”
70 tn The interrogative particle is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).
71 tn Heb “I, the Lord, [am with] the first, and with the last ones I [am] he.”
72 tn Or “islands” (NIV, CEV); NCV “faraway places”; NLT “lands beyond the sea.”
73 tn Heb “the ends of the earth,” but this is a merism, where the earth’s extremities stand for its entirety, i.e., the extremities and everything in between them.
74 tn Heb “each his neighbor helps”; NCV “The workers help each other.”
75 tn The verb “encourages” is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).
76 tn Heb “saying of the welding, ‘It is good.’”
78 tn Heb “whom I have taken hold of [i.e., to lead back].”
79 tn According to BDB (1043 s.v. שָׁעָה), the verb תִּשְׁתָּע (tishta’) in the second line of the poetic couplet is a Hitpael form from the root שָׁעָה (sha’ah, “gaze,” with metathesis of the stem prefix and the first root letter). Taking the Hitpael as iterative, one may then translate “do not anxiously look about.” However, the alleged Hitpael form of שָׁעָה (sha’ah) only occurs here and in verse 23. HALOT 1671 s.v. שׁתע proposes that the verb is instead a Qal form from the root שׁתע (“fear”) which is attested in cognate Semitic languages, including Ugaritic (discovered after the publishing of BDB), suggests the existence of this root. The poetic structure of v. 10 also supports the proposal, for the form in question is in synonymous parallelism to יָרֵא (yare’, “fear”).
80 tn The “right hand” is a symbol of the Lord’s power to deliver (Exod 15:6, 12) and protect (Ps 63:9 HT [63:8 ET]). Here צֶדֶק (tsedeq) has its well-attested nuance of “vindicated righteousness,” i.e., “victory, deliverance” (see 45:8; 51:5, and BDB 841-42 s.v.).
81 tn Heb “the men of your strife”; NASB “those who contend with you.”
82 tn Heb “like nothing”; NAB “come to nought.”
83 tn Heb “the men of your struggle”; NASB “those who quarrel with you.”
84 tn Heb “the men of your battle”; NAB “who do battle with you.”
85 tn Heb “O worm Jacob” (NAB, NIV). The worm metaphor suggests that Jacob is insignificant and despised.
86 tn On the basis of the parallelism (note “worm”) and an alleged Akkadian cognate, some read “louse” or “weevil.” Cf. NAB “O maggot Israel”; NRSV “you insect Israel.”
87 tn Heb “your kinsman redeemer.” A גָּאַל (ga’al, “kinsman redeemer”) was a protector of the extended family’s interests.
89 tn Heb “into” (so NIV); ASV “have made thee to be.”
90 tn Heb “owner of two-mouths,” i.e., double-edged.
91 sn The mountains and hills symbolize hostile nations that are obstacles to Israel’s restoration.
92 tn Heb “will answer them” (so ASV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT).
93 tn The words “I will do this” are supplied in the translation for clarification. The Hebrew text has here simply, “in order that.”
94 tn Heb “they”; NAB, NRSV “that all may see”; CEV, NLT “Everyone will see.”
95 tn Heb “hand” (so KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV).
96 tn Or “created it” (KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV); TEV “has made it happen.”
97 tn Heb “strong [words],” see HALOT 870 s.v. *עֲצֻמוֹת.
99 tn Heb “As for the former things, tell us what they are!”
100 tn Heb “so we might set [them to] our heart.”
101 tn Heb “and might know their outcome.”
102 tn Heb “Declare the coming things, with respect to the end.”
103 tc The translation assumes the Qere (וְנִרְאֶה [vÿnir’eh], from יָרֵא [yare’], “be afraid”).
tn Heb “so we might be frightened and afraid together.” On the meaning of the verb שָׁתָע (shata’), see the note at v. 10.
104 tn Heb “an object of disgust [is he who] chooses you.”
106 tn Heb “[one] from the rising of the sun [who] calls in my name.”
107 tn The Hebrew text has וְיָבֹא (vÿyavo’, “and he comes”), but this is likely a corruption of an original וַיָּבָס (vayyavas), from בּוּס (bus, “step on”).
108 tn The words “who announced it” are supplied in the translation for clarification. The interrogative particle and verb are understood by ellipsis (see the preceding line).
109 tn The Hebrew text reads simply, “First to Zion, ‘Look here they are!’” The words “I decreed” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
111 tc The Hebrew text has אָוֶן (’aven, “deception,” i.e., “false”), but the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa has אין (“nothing”), which forms a better parallel with אֶפֶס (’efes, “nothing”) in the next line. See also 40:17 and 41:12.
112 tn Heb “their statues are wind and nothing”; NASB “wind and emptiness”; NIV “wind and confusion.”
113 sn Verses 1-7 contain the first of Isaiah’s “servant songs,” which describe the ministry of a special, ideal servant who accomplishes God’s purposes for Israel and the nations. This song depicts the servant as a just king who brings justice to the earth and relief for the oppressed. The other songs appear in 49:1-13; 50:4-11; and 52:13-53:12.
114 tn Heb “he will bring out justice” (cf. ASV, NASB, NRSV).
116 tn Heb “he will not cause his voice to be heard in the street.”
117 sn The “crushed reed” and “dim wick” symbolize the weak and oppressed who are on the verge of extinction.
118 tn Heb “faithfully he will bring out justice” (cf. NASB, NRSV).
120 tn Or “islands” (NIV); NLT “distant lands beyond the sea.”
121 tn Or “his law” (KJV, ASV, NASB, NIV) or “his instruction” (NLT).
122 tn Heb “the God.” The definite article here indicates distinctiveness or uniqueness.
123 tn Heb “and its offspring” (so NASB); NIV “all that comes out of it.”
124 tn Heb “and spirit [i.e., “breath”] to the ones walking in it” (NAB, NASB, and NRSV all similar).
126 tn The translation assumes the verb is derived from the root נָצַר (natsar, “protect”). Some prefer to derive it from the root יָצַר (yatsar, “form”).
127 tn Heb “a covenant of people.” A person cannot literally be a covenant; בְּרִית (bÿrit) is probably metonymic here, indicating a covenant mediator. The precise identity of עָם (’am, “people”) is uncertain. In v. 5 עָם refers to mankind, and the following reference to “nations” also favors this. But in 49:8, where the phrase בְּרִית עָם occurs again, Israel seems to be in view.
129 tn Or “the Gentiles” (so KJV, ASV, NIV); the same Hebrew word can be translated “nations” or “Gentiles” depending on the context.
130 sn This does not refer to literal physical healing of the blind. As the next two lines suggest, this refers metonymically to freeing captives from their dark prisons where their eyes have grown unaccustomed to light.
131 sn This does not refer to hardened, dangerous criminals, who would have been executed for their crimes in ancient Near Eastern society. This verse refers to political prisoners or victims of social injustice.
132 tn Heb “the former things, look, they have come.”
133 tn Heb “before they sprout up, I cause you to hear.” The pronoun “you” is plural, referring to the people of Israel. In this verse “the former things” are the Lord’s earlier predictive oracles which have come to pass, while “the new things” are predicted events that have not yet begun to take place. “The former things” are earlier events in Israel’s history which God announced beforehand, such as the Exodus (see 43:16-18). “The new things” are the predictions about the servant (42:1-7). and may also include Cyrus’ conquests (41:25-27).
134 tn Heb “his praise.” The phrase stands parallel to “new song” in the previous line.
135 tn Heb “and its fullness”; NASB, NIV “and all that is in it.”
136 tn Or “islands” (NASB, NIV); NLT “distant coastlands.”
137 tn Heb “Let them ascribe to the Lord glory.”
138 tn Heb “and his praise in the coastlands [or “islands”] let them declare.”
139 tn Heb “like a man of war he stirs up zeal” (NIV similar).
140 tn Or perhaps, “he triumphs over his enemies” (cf. NIV); NLT “will crush all his enemies.”
141 tn Heb “silent” (so NASB, NIV, TEV, NLT); CEV “have held my temper.”
142 sn The imagery depicts the Lord as a warrior who is eager to fight and can no longer hold himself back from the attack.
143 tn Heb “I will dry up the mountains and hills.” The “mountains and hills” stand by synecdoche for the trees that grow on them. Some prefer to derive the verb from a homonymic root and translate, “I will lay waste.”
144 tc The Hebrew text reads, “I will turn streams into coastlands [or “islands”].” Scholars who believe that this reading makes little sense have proposed an emendation of אִיִּים (’iyyim, “islands”) to צִיּוֹת (tsiyyot, “dry places”; cf. NCV, NLT, TEV). However, since all the versions support the MT reading, there is insufficient grounds for an emendation here. Although the imagery of changing rivers into islands is somewhat strange, J. N. Oswalt describes this imagery against the backdrop of rivers of the Near East. The receding of these rivers at times occasioned the appearance of previously submerged islands (Isaiah [NICOT], 2:126).
145 sn The imagery of this verse, which depicts the Lord bringing a curse of infertility to the earth, metaphorically describes how the Lord will destroy his enemies.
146 tn Heb “a way they do not know” (so NASB); NRSV “a road they do not know.”
147 tn Heb “in paths they do not know I will make them walk.”
148 tn Heb “and the rough ground into a level place.”
149 tn Heb “be ashamed with shame”; ASV, NASB “be utterly put to shame.”
150 tn Heb “look to see”; NAB, NCV “look and see”; NRSV “look up and see.”
151 tc The precise meaning of מְשֻׁלָּם (mÿshullam) in this context is uncertain. In later biblical Hebrew the form (which appears to be a Pual participle from the root שָׁלַם, shalam) occurs as a proper name, Meshullam. The Pual of שָׁלַם (“be complete”) is attested with the meaning “repaid, requited,” but that makes little sense here. BDB 1023 s.v. שָׁלַם relates the form to the denominative verb שָׁלַם (“be at peace”) and paraphrases “one in a covenant of peace” (J. N. Oswalt suggests “the covenanted one”; Isaiah [NICOT], 2:128, n. 59) Some emend the form to מֹשְׁלָם (moshÿlam, “their ruler”) or to מְשֻׁלָּחִי (mÿshullakhi, “my sent [or “commissioned”] one”), which fits nicely in the parallelism (note “my messenger” in the previous line). The translation above assumes an emendation to כְּמוֹ שֹׁלְמִי (kÿmo sholÿmi, “like my ally”). Isaiah uses כְּמוֹ in 30:22 and perhaps 51:5; for שֹׁלְמי (“my ally”) see Ps 7:5 HT (7:4 ET).
152 tn Heb “Who is blind but my servant, and deaf like my messenger I send? Who is blind like my commissioned one, blind like the servant of the Lord?” The point of the rhetorical questions is that no one is as blind/deaf as this servant. In this context the Lord’s “servant” is exiled Israel (cf. 41:8-9), which is spiritually blind and deaf and has failed to fulfill God’s purpose for it. This servant stands in contrast to the ideal “Israel” of the servant songs.
153 tn The consonantal text (Kethib) has a perfect, 2nd person masculine singular; the marginal reading (Qere) has an infinitive absolute, which functions here as a finite verb.
154 tn Heb “but you do not guard [i.e., retain in your memory]”; NIV “but have paid no attention.”
155 tn Heb “The Lord was pleased for the sake of his righteousness [or “justice”], he was magnifying [the] law and was making [it] glorious.” The Lord contrasts his good intentions for the people with their present crisis (v. 22). To demonstrate his just character and attract the nations, the Lord wanted to showcase his law among and through Israel (Deut 4:5-8). But Israel disobeyed (v. 24) and failed to carry out their commission.
156 tc The Hebrew text has בַּחוּרִים (bakhurim, “young men”), but the text should be emended to בְּהוֹרִים (bÿhorim, “in holes”).
157 tn Heb “and made to be hidden”; NAB, NASB, NIV, TEV “hidden away in prisons.”
158 tn Heb “they became loot and there was no one rescuing, plunder and there was no one saying, ‘Bring back’.”
159 tn The interrogative particle is understood in the second line by ellipsis (note the preceding line).
160 tn Heb “Who gave to the robber Jacob, and Israel to the looters?” In the first line the consonantal text (Kethib) has מְשׁוֹסֶה (mÿshoseh), a Polel participle from שָׁסָה (shasah, “plunder”). The marginal reading (Qere) is מְשִׁיסָּה (mÿshissah), a noun meaning “plunder.” In this case one could translate “Who handed Jacob over as plunder?”
161 tn Heb “they were not willing in his ways to walk, and they did not listen to his law.”
162 tn Heb “strength” (so KJV, NASB); NAB “fury”; NASB “fierceness”; NIV “violence.”
163 tn Heb “and it blazed against him all around, but he did not know.” The subject of the third feminine singular verb “blazed” is the divine חֵמָה (khemah, “anger”) mentioned in the previous line.
164 tn Heb “and it burned against him, but he did not set [it] upon [the] heart.”
166 tn The verb is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).
167 tn Heb “burn” (so NASB); NAB, NRSV, NLT “consume”; NIV “set you ablaze.”
170 tn Heb “Since you are precious in my eyes and you are honored.”
171 tn Heb “everyone who is called by my name” (so NASB, NIV, NRSV).
172 tn Heb “and the former things was causing us to hear?”
173 tn Or “know” (KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV).
174 tn Heb “and after me, there will not be”; NASB “there will be none after Me.”
175 tn Heb “hand” (so KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NLT “No one can oppose what I do.”
178 tn Heb “and I bring down [as] fugitives all of them.”
179 tn The Hebrew text reads literally, “as for the Babylonians, in ships their joyful shout.” This might be paraphrased, “even the Babylonians in the ships [over which] they joyfully shouted.” The point would be that the Lord caused the Babylonians to flee for safety in the ships in which they took such great pride. A slight change in vocalization yields the reading “into mourning songs,” which provides a good contrast with “joyful shout.” The prefixed bet (בְּ) would indicate identity.
181 tn Heb “led out chariots and horses.” The words “to destruction” are supplied in the translation for clarification. The verse refers to the destruction of the Egyptians at the Red Sea.
182 tn Heb “lay down”; NAB “lie prostrate together”; CEV “lie dead”; NRSV “they lie down.”
183 tn Heb “the former things” (so KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NLT “forget all that.”
184 tn Heb “sprouts up”; NASB “will spring forth.”
185 tn Or “know” (KJV, ASV); NASB “be aware of”; NAB, NIV, NRSV “perceive.”
187 tn Heb “[so] they might declare my praise.”
188 tn Or “strive”; KJV, ASV, NRSV “been weary of me.”
189 tn Heb “with.” The words “by demanding” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
190 tn That is, “calamus” (so NIV); NCV, TEV, NLT “incense”; CEV “spices.”
191 tn Heb “you did not saturate me”; NASB “Neither have you filled Me.”
192 sn In vv. 22-24 the Lord appears to be condemning his people for failure to bring the proper sacrifices. However, this is problematic. If this refers to the nation’s behavior while in exile, such cultic service was impossible and could hardly be expected by the Lord. If this refers to the nation’s conduct before the exile, it contradicts other passages that depict Israel as bringing excessive sacrifices (see, e.g., Isa 1:11-14; Jer 6:20; Amos 4:4-5, 5:21-23). Rather than being a condemnation of Israel’s failure to bring sacrifices, these verses are better taken as a highly rhetorical comment on the worthlessness of Israel’s religious ritual. They may have brought sacrifices, but not to the Lord, for he did not accept them or even want them. See C. R. North, Second Isaiah, 127, and R. Whybray, Isaiah 40-66 (NCBC), 91.
193 tn Heb “you, tell in order that you may be right”; NAB “prove your innocence.”
194 tn Heb “your first father.” This could refer to Abraham (see 51:2), but elsewhere in Isaiah he does not appear in a negative light (see 29:22; 41:8; 63:16). A more likely candidate is Jacob/Israel, also referred to as the nation’s “father” elsewhere (see 58:14; 63:16).
195 tn On the meaning of the term לִיץ (lits), see HALOT 590 s.v. מֵלִיץ. This may refer to the nation’s prophets, priests, and/or kings.
196 tn The word “subjected” is supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
198 tn Heb “the thirsty.” Parallelism suggests that dry ground is in view (see “dry land” in the next line.)
199 tn Heb “and streams”; KJV “floods.” The verb “cause…to flow” is supplied in the second line for clarity and for stylistic reasons.
200 tn The Hebrew term בֵין (ven) is usually taken as a preposition, in which case one might translate, “among the grass.” But בֵין is probably the name of a tree (cf. C. R. North, Second Isaiah, 133). If one alters the preposition bet (בְּ) to kaf (כְּ), one can then read, “like a binu-tree.” (The Qumran scroll 1QIsaa supports this reading.) This forms a nice parallel to “like poplars” in the next line. חָצִיר (khatsir) is functioning as an adverbial accusative of location.
201 tn The Hebrew text has a Qal verb form, “and another will call by the name of Jacob.” With support from Symmachus (an ancient Greek textual witness), some read the Niphal, “and another will be called by the name of Jacob.”
202 tn Heb “and by the name of Israel he will title.” Some, with support from several ancient versions, prefer to change the Piel (active) verb form to a Pual (passive), “and he will be titled by the name of Israel.”
204 tn Heb “let him call” or “let him proclaim” (so NASB, NIV, NRSV); NAB “Let him stand up and speak.”
205 tc The Hebrew text reads, “from (the time) I established an ancient people, and the coming things.” Various emendations have been proposed. One of the options assumes the reading מַשְׁמִיעִים מֵעוֹלָם אוֹתִיּוֹת (mashmi’im me’olam ’otiyyot); This literally reads “the ones causing to hear from antiquity coming things,” but more idiomatically would read “as for those who predict from antiquity what will happen” (cf. NAB, NEB, REB). The emendation directs the attention of the reader to those who claim to be able to predict the future, challenging them to actually do what they claim they can do. The MT presents Yahweh as an example to whom these alleged “predictors of the future” can compare themselves. Since the ancient versions are unanimous in their support of the MT, the emendations should be set aside.
206 tn Heb and those things which are coming let them declare for themselves.”
207 tn BDB 923 s.v. רָהָה derives this verb from an otherwise unattested root, while HALOT 403 s.v. יָרָה defines it as “be stupefied” on the basis of an Arabic cognate. The form is likely a corruption of תיראו, the reading attested in the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa.
208 tn Heb “rock” or “rocky cliff,” a title that depicts God as a protective refuge in his role as sovereign king; thus the translation “sheltering rock.”
209 tn The rhetorical question is sarcastic. The sense is, “Who is foolish enough…?”
211 sn The point seems to be this: If the idols are the mere products of human hands, then those who trust in them will be disappointed, for man-made gods are incapable of helping their “creators.”
213 tn Some English versions take the pronoun “it” to refer to an idol being fashioned by the blacksmith (cf. NIV, NCV, CEV). NLT understands the referent to be “a sharp tool,” which is then used by the carpenter in the following verse to carve an idol from wood.
214 tn Heb “and there is no strength”; NASB “his strength fails.”
215 tn Heb “stretches out a line” (ASV similar); NIV “measures with a line.”
216 tn Heb “he makes an outline with the [?].” The noun שֶׂרֶד (shered) occurs only here; it apparently refers to some type of tool or marker. Cf. KJV “with a line”; ASV “with a pencil”; NAB, NRSV “with a stylus”; NASB “with red chalk”; NIV “with a marker.”
217 tn Heb “works” (so NASB) or “fashions” (so NRSV); NIV “he roughs it out.”
218 tn Heb “he makes it like the pattern of a man”; NAB “like a man in appearance.”
219 tn Heb “like the glory of man to sit [in] a house”; NIV “that it may dwell in a shrine.”
220 tn It is not certain what type of tree this otherwise unattested noun refers to. Cf. ASV “a holm-tree” (NRSV similar).
221 tn Heb “strengthens for himself,” i.e., “secures for himself” (see BDB 55 s.v. אָמֵץ Pi.2).
222 tn Some prefer to emend אֹרֶן (’oren) to אֶרֶז (’erez, “cedar”), but the otherwise unattested noun appears to have an Akkadian cognate, meaning “cedar.” See H. R. Cohen, Biblical Hapax Legomena (SBLDS), 44-45. HALOT 90 s.v. I אֹרֶן offers the meaning “laurel.”
223 tn Heb “and it becomes burning [i.e., firewood] for a man”; NAB “to serve man for fuel.”
224 tn Or perhaps, “them.”
225 tn Heb “eats” (so NASB); NAB, NRSV “roasts.”
226 tn Heb “for their eyes are smeared over so they cannot see, so their heart cannot be wise.”
227 tn There is no formal interrogative sign here, but the context seems to indicate these are rhetorical questions. See GKC 473 §150.a.
228 tn Or perhaps, “he eats on an ash heap.”
229 tn Heb “Is it not a lie in my right hand?”
230 tc The verb in the Hebrew text is a Niphal imperfect with a pronominal suffix. Although the Niphal ordinarily has the passive sense, it can have a reflexive nuance as well (see above translation). Some have suggested an emendation to a Qal form: “Do not forget me” (all the ancient versions, NEB, REB; see GKC 369 §117.x). “Do not forget me” would make a good parallel with “remember these things” in the first line. Since the MT is the harder reading and fits with Israel’s complaint that God had forgotten her (Isa 40:27), the MT reading should be retained (NASB, NKJV, NRSV, ESV). The passive has been rendered as an active in the translation in keeping with contemporary English style (so also NIV, NCV, TEV, NLT).
231 tn Heb “I blot out like a cloud your rebellious deeds, and like a cloud your sins.” “Rebellious deeds” and “sins” stand by metonymy for the guilt they produce. Both עָב (’av) and עָנָן (’anan) refer to the clouds in the sky. It is tempting for stylistic purposes to translate the second with “fog” or “mist” (cf. NAB, NRSV “cloud…mist”; NIV “cloud…morning mist”; NLT “morning mists…clouds”), but this distinction between the synonyms is unwarranted here. The point of the simile seems to be this: The Lord forgives their sins, causing them to vanish just as clouds disappear from the sky (see Job 7:9; 30:15).
233 tn Heb “acts”; NASB, NRSV “has done it”; NLT “has done this wondrous thing.”
235 tn Heb “O forest and all the trees in it”; NASB, NRSV “and every tree in it.”
237 tn That is, by delivering Israel. Cf. NCV “showed his glory when he saved Israel”; TEV “has shown his greatness by saving his people Israel.”
239 tn The consonantal text (Kethib) has “Who [was] with me?” The marginal reading (Qere) is “from with me,” i.e., “by myself.” See BDB 87 s.v. II אֵת 4.c.
240 tc The Hebrew text has בַּדִּים (baddim), perhaps meaning “empty talkers” (BDB 95 s.v. III בַּד). In the four other occurrences of this word (Job 11:3; Isa 16:6; Jer 48:30; 50:36) the context does not make the meaning of the term very clear. Its primary point appears to be that the words spoken are meaningless or false. In light of its parallelism with “omen readers,” some have proposed an emendation to בָּרִים (barim, “seers”). The Mesopotamian baru-priests were divination specialists who played an important role in court life. See R. Wilson, Prophecy and Society in Ancient Israel, 93-98. Rather than supporting an emendation, J. N. Oswalt (Isaiah [NICOT], 2:189, n. 79) suggests that Isaiah used בַּדִּים purposively as a derisive wordplay on the Akkadian word baru (in light of the close similarity of the d and r consonants).
241 tn Or “makes fools of” (NIV, NRSV); NAB and NASB both similar.
242 tn Heb “who turns back the wise” (so NRSV); NIV “overthrows the learning of the wise”; TEV “The words of the wise I refute.”
243 tn Heb “their knowledge” (so KJV, NAB, NASB, NRSV).
244 tn Heb “the word of his servant.” The following context indicates that the Lord’s prophets are in view.
245 tn Heb “counsel.” The Hebrew term עֵצָה (’etsah) probably refers here to the divine plan as announced by the prophets. See HALOT 867 s.v. I עֵצָה.
247 tn Heb “says to.” It is possible that the sentence is not completed, as the description of Cyrus and his God-given role is developed in the rest of the verse. 45:1 picks up where 44:28a leaves off with the Lord’s actual words to Cyrus finally being quoted in 45:2.
248 tn Heb “my shepherd.” The shepherd motif is sometimes applied, as here, to a royal figure who is responsible for the well-being of the people whom he rules.
249 tn Heb “that he might bring to completion all my desire.”
250 tn Heb “and [concerning the] temple, you will be founded.” The preposition -לְ (lÿ) is understood by ellipsis at the beginning of the second line. The verb תִּוָּסֵד (tivvased, “you will be founded”) is second masculine singular and is probably addressed to the personified temple (הֵיכָל [hekhal, “temple”] is masculine).
251 tn Heb “anointed” (so KJV, NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT); NCV “his appointed king.”
252 sn The “right hand” is a symbol of activity and strength; the Lord directs Cyrus’ activities and assures his success.
253 tn Heb “and the belts of kings I will loosen”; NRSV “strip kings of their robes”; NIV “strip kings of their armor.”
254 tc The form הֲדוּרִים (hadurim) makes little, if any, sense here. It is probably a corruption of an original הָרָרִים (hararim, “mountains”), the reduplicated form of הָר (har, “mountain”).
255 tn That is, on the gates. Cf. CEV “break the iron bars on bronze gates.”
256 tn Heb “treasures of darkness” (KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); TEV “treasures from dark, secret places.”
257 tn Or “know” (NCV, NRSV, TEV, NLT); NIV “acknowledge.”
259 tn Heb “gird you” (so NASB) or “strengthen you” (so NIV).
260 tn Or “know” (NAB, NCV, NRSV, TEV, CEV, NLT); NIV “have not acknowledged.”
261 tn The words “I do this” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
262 tn Heb “they” (so KJV, ASV); TEV, CEV “everyone”; NLT “all the world.”
264 tn On the surface v. 7a appears to describe God’s sovereign control over the cycle of day and night, but the following statement suggests that “light” and “darkness” symbolize “deliverance” and “judgment.”
265 sn This verses affirms that God is ultimately sovereign over his world, including mankind and nations. In accordance with his sovereign will, he can cause wars to cease and peace to predominate (as he was about to do for his exiled people through Cyrus), or he can bring disaster and judgment on nations (as he was about to do to Babylon through Cyrus).
266 tn Heb “let the clouds drip with”; KJV “let the skies pour down.”
267 tn Heb “open up” (so NASB); NIV, NLT “open wide.”
268 tc The plural verb should be emended to a singular form. The vav (ו) ending is probably virtually dittographic (note the yod at the beginning of the following word).
269 tc The Hiphil verb form (תַצְמִיחַ, tatsmiakh) should probably be emended to a Qal (תִצְמַח, titsmakh). The יח sequence at the end of the form is probably due to dittography (note the following יַחַד, yakhad).
270 tn The masculine singular pronominal suffix probably refers back to יָשַׁע (yasha’, “salvation”).
271 tn Heb “Woe [to] the one who argues with the one who formed him.”
272 tn The words “one who is like a mere” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons and clarification.
273 tn Heb “Should the clay say to the one who forms it?” The rhetorical question anticipates a reply, “Of course not!”
274 tn The words “in the world” are supplied in the translation to approximate in English idiom the force of the sarcastic question.
275 tn Heb “your work, there are no hands for it,” i.e., “your work looks like something made by a person who has no hands.”
276 tn Heb “Woe [to] one who says” (NASB and NIV both similar); NCV “How terrible it will be.”
280 tc The Hebrew text reads “the one who formed him, the coming things.” Among various suggestions, some have proposed an emendation of יֹצְרוֹ (yotsÿro, “the one who formed him”) to יֹצֵר (yotser, “the one who forms”; the suffixed form in the Hebrew text may be influenced by vv. 9-10, where the same form appears twice) and takes “coming things” as the object of the participle (either objective genitive or accusative): “the one who brings the future into being.”
281 tn Heb “Ask me” The rhetorical command sarcastically expresses the Lord’s disgust with those who question his ways.
282 tn Heb “Do you command me about…?” The rhetorical question sarcastically expresses the Lord’s disgust with those who question his ways.
283 tn The words “who live” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
285 tn Or “the heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavens” or “sky” depending on the context.
288 tn Heb “labor,” which stands metonymically for the fruits of labor, either “monetary profit,” or “products.”
289 tn Or perhaps, “merchandise” (so KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NAB “the gain of Ethiopia”; CEV “the treasures of Ethiopia.”
290 tn Heb “they will pass over to you”; NASB, NIV “will come over to you”; CEV “will belong to you.”
291 sn Restored Israel is depicted here in typical ancient Near Eastern fashion as an imperial power that receives riches and slaves as tribute.
292 sn Israel’s vassals are portrayed as so intimidated and awed that they treat Israel as an intermediary to God or sub-deity.
293 tn Or perhaps, “among.” Cf. KJV, ASV “Surely God is in thee.”
295 tn “together they will walk in humiliation, the makers of images.”
296 tn Heb “Israel will be delivered by the Lord [with] a permanent deliverance.”
297 tn Heb “you will not be ashamed and you will not be humiliated for ages of future time.”
298 tn Heb “he [is] the God.” The article here indicates uniqueness.
300 tn Heb “in a place of a land of darkness” (ASV similar); NASB “in some dark land.”
301 tn “In vain” translates תֹהוּ (tohu), used here as an adverbial accusative: “for nothing.”
302 tn The translation above assumes that צֶדֶק (tsedeq) and מֵישָׁרִים (mesharim) are adverbial accusatives (see 33:15). If they are taken as direct objects, indicating the content of what is spoken, one might translate, “who proclaims deliverance, who announces justice.”
304 tn Or “a righteous God and deliverer”; NASB, NIV, NRSV “a righteous God and a Savior.”
305 tn The Niphal imperative with prefixed vav (ו) indicates purpose after the preceding imperative. The Niphal probably has a tolerative sense, “allow yourselves to be delivered, accept help.”
306 tn Heb “I swear by myself”; KJV, NASB “have sworn.”
307 tn Heb “a word goes out from my mouth [in] truth and will not return.”
308 tn Heb “swear” (so KJV, NAB, NIV, NRSV); NLT “confess allegiance.”
309 tn Heb “‘Yes, in the Lord,’ one says about me, ‘is deliverance and strength.’”
310 tn Heb “will come to him and be ashamed.”
311 tn Heb “In the Lord all the offspring of Israel will be vindicated and boast.”
312 sn Bel was the name of a Babylonian god. The name was originally associated with Enlil, but later was applied to Marduk. See HALOT 132 s.v. בֵּל.
313 sn Nebo is a variation of the name of the Babylonian god Nabu.
314 tn Heb “their images belong to animals and beasts”; NIV “their idols are borne by beasts of burden”; NLT “are being hauled away.”
315 tn Heb “your loads are carried [as] a burden by a weary [animal].”
316 tn Heb “[the] burden,” i.e., their images, the heavy burden carried by the animals.
317 tn נַפְשָׁם (nafsham, “their souls/lives”) is equivalent here to a third masculine plural suffix, but the third feminine singular verb הָלָכָה (halakhah, “they go”) agrees with the feminine noun נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh, “soul, life”).
318 sn The downfall of Babylon is depicted here. The idols are carried off by the victorious enemy; the gods are likened to defeated captives who cower before the enemy and are taken into exile.
319 tn Heb “house of Jacob”; TEV “descendants of Jacob.”
320 tn Heb “and all the remnant of the house of Israel.”
321 tn Heb “from the womb” (so NRSV); KJV “from the belly”; NAB “from your infancy.”
322 tn Heb “who have been lifted up from the womb.”
323 tn Heb “until old age, I am he” (NRSV similar); NLT “I will be your God throughout your lifetime.”
324 sn Unlike the weary idol gods, whose images must be carried by animals, the Lord carries his weary people.
325 tn Heb “the reed,” probably referring to the beam of a scales. See BDB 889 s.v. קָנֶה 4.c.
326 tn Or perhaps, “cannot,” here and in the following two lines. The imperfect forms can indicate capability.
327 tn The meaning of the verb אָשַׁשׁ (’ashash, which appears here in the Hitpolel stem) is uncertain. BDB 84 s.v. אשׁשׁ relates it to a root meaning “found, establish” in Arabic; HALOT 100 s.v. II אשׁשׁ gives the meaning “pluck up courage.” The imperative with vav (ו) may indicate purpose following the preceding imperative.
328 tn Heb “return [it], rebels, to heart”; NRSV “recall it to mind, you transgressors.”
329 tn Heb “remember the former things, from antiquity”; KJV, ASV “the former things of old.”
330 tn Heb “and there is no other” (so NASB, NIV, NRSV).
331 tn Or “from long ago”; KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV “from ancient times.”
333 tn Heb “spoken”; KJV “I have spoken it.”
334 tn Heb “strong of heart [or, mind]”; KJV “stouthearted”; NAB “fainthearted”; NIV “stubborn-hearted.”
335 tn Heb “who are far from righteousness [or perhaps, “deliverance”].”
336 tn Heb “my salvation.” The verb “I am bringing near” is understood by ellipsis (note the previous line).
337 tn Heb “I will place in Zion salvation”; NASB “I will grant salvation in Zion.”
338 tn Heb “to Israel my splendor”; KJV, ASV “for Israel my glory.”
339 tn בְּתוּלַה (bÿtulah) often refers to a virgin, but the phrase “virgin daughter” is apparently stylized (see also 23:12; 37:22). In the extended metaphor of this chapter, where Babylon is personified as a queen (vv. 5, 7), she is depicted as being both a wife and mother (vv. 8-9).
340 tn Or “For” (NASB, NRSV).
341 tn Heb “Your shame will be seen.” In this context “shame” is a euphemism referring to the genitals.
343 tc The Hebrew text reads, “Our redeemer – the Lord who commands armies [traditionally, the Lord of hosts] is his name, the Holy One of Israel.” The ancient Greek version adds “says” before “our redeemer.” אָמַר (’amar) may have accidentally dropped from the text by virtual haplography. Note that the preceding word אָדָם (’adam) is graphically similar.
sn See the note on the phrase “the Holy One of Israel” in 1:4.
344 tn Heb “darkness,” which may indicate a place of hiding where a fugitive would seek shelter and protection.
345 tn Or “For” (NASB, NRSV).
346 tn Or “compassion.”
347 tn Heb “on the old you made very heavy your yoke.”
348 tn Heb “Forever I [will be] permanent queen”; NIV “the eternal queen”; CEV “queen forever.”
349 tn Heb “you did not set these things upon your heart [or “mind”].”
350 tn Heb “you did not remember its outcome”; NAB “you disregarded their outcome.”
351 tn Or perhaps, “voluptuous one” (NAB); NAB “you sensual one”; NLT “You are a pleasure-crazy kingdom.”
352 tn Heb “the one who says in her heart.”
354 tn Heb “I will not live [as] a widow, and I will not know loss of children.”
355 tn Heb “loss of children and widowhood.” In the Hebrew text the phrase is in apposition to “both of these” in line 1.
356 tn Heb “according to their fullness, they will come upon you.”
357 tn For other examples of the preposition bet (בְּ) having the sense of “although, despite,” see BDB 90 s.v. III.7.
358 sn Reference is made to incantations and amulets, both of which were important in Mesopotamian religion. They were used to ward off danger and demons.
359 tn Heb “you trusted in your evil”; KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV “wickedness.”
360 tn Or “said”; NAB “said to yourself”’ NASB “said in your heart.”
361 tn The words “self-professed” are supplied in the translation for clarification.
363 tc The Hebrew text has שַׁחְרָהּ (shakhrah), which is either a suffixed noun (“its dawning,” i.e., origin) or infinitive (“to look early for it”). Some have suggested an emendation to שַׁחֲדָהּ (shakhadah), a suffixed infinitive from שָׁחַד (shakhad, “[how] to buy it off”; see BDB 1005 s.v. שָׁחַד). This forms a nice parallel with the following couplet. The above translation is based on a different etymology of the verb in question. HALOT 1466 s.v. III שׁחר references a verbal root with these letters (שׁחד) that refers to magical activity.
364 tn Heb “you will not know”; NIV “you cannot foresee.”
365 tn Heb “stand” (so KJV, ASV); NASB, NRSV “Stand fast.”
367 tn Heb “in that which you have toiled.”
368 tn Heb “maybe you will be able to profit.”
370 tn Heb “you are tired because of the abundance of your advice.”
371 tn Heb “let them stand and rescue you – the ones who see omens in the sky, who gaze at the stars, who make known by months – from those things which are coming upon you.”
372 tn Heb “hand,” here a metaphor for the strength or power of the flames.
373 tn The Hebrew text reads literally, “there is no coal [for?] their food, light to sit before it.” Some emend לַחְמָם (lakhmam, “their food”) to לְחֻמָּם (lÿkhummam, “to warm them”; see HALOT 328 s.v. חמם). This statement may allude to Isa 44:16, where idolaters are depicted warming themselves over a fire made from wood, part of which was used to form idols. The fire of divine judgment will be no such campfire; its flames will devour and destroy.
374 tn Heb “So they will be to you”; NIV “That is all they can do for you.”
375 tn Heb “that for which you toiled, your traders from your youth.” The omen readers and star gazers are likened to merchants with whom Babylon has had an ongoing economic relationship.
376 tn Heb “each to his own side, they err.”
377 tn Heb “house of Jacob”; TEV, CEV “people of Israel.”
378 tc The Hebrew text reads literally “and from the waters of Judah came out.” מִמֵּי (mimme) could be a corruption of מִמְּעֵי (mimmÿ’e, “from the inner parts of”; cf. NASB, NIV, NLT, NRSV) as suggested in the above translation. Some translations (ESV, NKJV) retain the MT reading because the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa, which corrects a similar form to “from inner parts of” in 39:7, does not do it here.
379 tn Heb “cause to remember”; KJV, ASV “make mention of.”
380 tn Heb “not in truth and not in righteousness.”
381 tn Heb “they call themselves [or “are called”] from the holy city.” The precise meaning of the statement is uncertain. The Niphal of קָרָא (qara’) is combined with the preposition מִן (min) only here. When the Qal of קָרָא is used with מִן, the preposition often indicates the place from which one is summoned (see 46:11). So one could translate, “from the holy city they are summoned,” meaning that they reside there.
382 tn Heb “lean on” (so NASB, NRSV); NAB, NIV “rely on.”
383 tn Heb “the former things beforehand I declared.”
384 tn Heb “and from my mouth they came forth and I caused them to be heard.”
386 sn The image is that of a person who has tensed the muscles of the face and neck as a sign of resolute refusal.
387 tn Heb “gaze [at] all of it”; KJV “see all this.”
388 tn Heb “[as for] you, will you not declare?”
389 tn Heb “and hidden things, and you do not know them.”
390 tn Heb “are created” (so KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NLT “They are brand new.”
391 tn Heb “look”; KJV, NASB “Behold.”
392 tn Heb “beforehand your ear did not open.”
393 tn Heb “deceiving, you deceive.” The infinitive absolute precedes the finite verb for emphasis.
394 tn Or “called” (KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV).
395 tn Heb “for the sake of my name” (so NAB, NASB); NLT “for my own sake.”
396 tn Heb “and my praise.” לְמַעַן (lÿma’an, “for the sake of”) is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).
397 tn Heb “I restrain [myself] concerning you not to cut you off.”
398 tc The Hebrew text has בְּחַרְתִּיךָ (bÿkhartikha, “I have chosen you”), but the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa reads correctly בחנתיכה (“I have tested you”). The metallurgical background of the imagery suggests that purification through testing is the idea.
399 tn The Hebrew text repeats לְמַעֲנִי (lÿma’ani, “for my sake”) for emphasis.
402 tn Heb “I [am] he, I [am the] first, also I [am the] last.”
404 tn Or “friend,” or “covenant partner.”
405 tn Heb “and his arm [against] the Babylonians.”
406 tn Heb “and his way will be prosperous.”
407 tn Heb “from the time of its occurring.”
411 tn Heb “paid attention to” (so NASB, NIV, NRSV); TEV “had listened to.”
412 tn Heb “like a river your peace would have been.” שָׁלוֹם (shalom) probably refers here to the peace and prosperity which God promised in return for obedience to the covenant.
414 tn Heb “like sand”; NCV “as many as the grains of sand.”
415 tn Heb “and the issue from your inner parts.”
416 tn Heb “and his name would not be cut off and would not be destroyed from before me.”
417 tn Heb “to the end of the earth” (so KJV, NASB, NRSV).
419 sn The translation above (present tense) assumes that this verse describes God’s provision for returning Babylonian exiles (see v. 20; 35:6; 49:10) in terms reminiscent of the Exodus from Egypt (see Exod 17:6).
420 tn Or “islands” (NASB, NIV); NLT “in far-off lands.”
sn The Lord’s special servant, introduced in chap. 42, speaks here of his commission.
421 tn Heb “called me from the womb.”
422 tn Heb “from the inner parts of my mother he mentioned my name.”
423 tn Or perhaps, “polished” (so KJV, ASV, NAB, NIV, NRSV); NASB “a select arrow.”
424 sn The figurative language emphasizes the servant’s importance as the Lord’s effective instrument. The servant’s mouth, which stands metonymically for his words, is compared to a sharp sword because he will be an effective spokesman on God’s behalf (see 50:4). The Lord holds his hand on the servant, ready to draw and use him at the appropriate time. The servant is like a sharpened arrow reserved in a quiver for just the right moment.
425 sn This verse identifies the servant as Israel. This seems to refer to the exiled nation (cf. 41:8-9; 44:1-2, 21; 45:4; 48:20), but in vv. 5-6 this servant says he has been commissioned to reconcile Israel to God, so he must be distinct from the exiled nation. This servant is an ideal “Israel” who, like Moses of old, mediates a covenant for the nation (see v. 8), leads them out of bondage (v. 9a), and carries out God’s original plan for Israel by positively impacting the pagan nations (see v. 6b). By living according to God’s law, Israel was to be a model of God’s standards of justice to the surrounding nations (Deut 4:6-8). The sinful nation failed, but the servant, the ideal “Israel,” will succeed by establishing justice throughout the earth.
426 tn Or “said” (KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NLT “I replied.”
427 tn Heb “for nothing and emptiness.” Synonyms are combined to emphasize the common idea.
428 tn Heb “But my justice is with the Lord, and my reward [or “wage”] with my God.”
429 tn Heb “from the womb” (so KJV, NASB).
430 tn The words “he did this” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons. In the Hebrew text the infinitive construct of purpose is subordinated to the previous statement.
431 tn The vav (ו) + imperfect is translated here as a result clause; one might interpret it as indicating purpose, “and so I might be honored.”
432 tn Heb “and my God is [perhaps, “having been”] my strength.” The disjunctive structure (vav [ו] + subject + verb) is interpreted here as indicating a causal circumstantial clause.
433 tn Heb “the protected [or “preserved”] ones.”
434 sn The question is purely rhetorical; it does not imply that the servant was dissatisfied with his commission or that he minimized the restoration of Israel.
436 tn Heb “be” (so KJV, ASV); CEV “you must take.”
439 tc The Hebrew text reads literally “to [one who] despises life.” It is preferable to read with the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa לבזוי, which should be vocalized as a passive participle, לִבְזוּי (livzuy, “to the one despised with respect to life” [נֶפֶשׁ is a genitive of specification]). The consonantal sequence וי was probably misread as ה in the MT tradition. The contextual argument favors the 1QIsaa reading. As J. N. Oswalt (Isaiah [NICOT], 2:294) points out, the three terse phrases “convey a picture of lowliness, worthlessness, and helplessness.”
440 tn MT’s Piel participle (“to the one who rejects”) does not fit contextually. The form should be revocalized as a Pual, “to the one rejected.”
443 tn The translation assumes the verb is derived from the root נָצָר (natsar, “protect”). Some prefer to derive it from the root יָצָר (yatsar, “form”).
444 tn Heb “a covenant of people.” A person cannot literally be a covenant; בְּרִית (bÿrit) is probably metonymic here, indicating a covenant mediator. Here עָם (’am, “people”) appears to refer to Israel. See the note at 42:6.
445 tn The Hiphil of קוּם (qum, “arise”) is probably used here in the sense of “rebuild.”
446 tn The “land” probably stands by metonymy for the ruins within it.
447 tn Heb “to say.” In the Hebrew text the infinitive construct is subordinated to what precedes.
448 tn Heb “in darkness” (so KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NLT “the prisoners of darkness.”
449 tn Heb “show yourselves” (so ASV, NAB, NASB).
450 tn Heb “and the heat and the sun will not strike them.” In Isa 35:7, its only other occurrence in the OT, שָׁרָב (sharav) stands parallel to “parched ground” and in contrast to “pool.” In later Hebrew and Aramaic it refers to “dry heat, heat of the sun” (Jastrow 1627 s.v.). Here it likely has this nuance and forms a hendiadys with “sun.”
451 tc The MT reads “Sinim” here; the Dead Sea Scrolls read “Syene,” a location in Egypt associated with modern Aswan. A number of recent translations adopt this reading: “Syene” (NAB, NRSV); “Aswan” (NIV); “Egypt” (NLT).
sn The precise location of the land of Sinim is uncertain, but since the north and west are mentioned in the previous line, it was a probably located in the distant east or south.
452 tn Or “O heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavens” or “sky” depending on the context.
453 tn Heb “his” (so KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV).
454 tn The Hebrew term translated “sovereign master” here is אֲדֹנָי (’adonay).
455 tn Heb “her suckling”; NASB “her nursing child.”
456 tn Heb “so as not to have compassion on the son of her womb?”
457 tn Heb “these” (so ASV, NASB).
458 sn The argument of v. 15 seems to develop as follows: The Lord has an innate attachment to Zion, just like a mother does for her infant child. But even if mothers were to suddenly abandon their children, the Lord would never forsake Zion. In other words, the Lord’s attachment to Zion is like a mother’s attachment to her infant child, but even stronger.
459 tn Heb “you.” Here the pronoun is put by metonymy for the person’s name.
460 tn Heb “Lift up around your eyes and see.”
461 tn Heb “Indeed your ruins and your desolate places, and the land of your destruction.” This statement is abruptly terminated in the Hebrew text and left incomplete.
462 tn Heb “me.” The singular is collective.
463 tn Heb “draw near to me so I can dwell.”
464 tn Heb “and you will say in your heart.”
465 tn Or “exiled and thrust away”; NIV “exiled and rejected.”
467 tn Heb “you.” See the preceding note.
468 tn Or “at your feet” (NAB, NIV); NLT “from your feet.”
470 sn Verse 26a depicts siege warfare and bloody defeat. The besieged enemy will be so starved they will their own flesh. The bloodstained bodies lying on the blood-soaked battle site will look as if they collapsed in drunkenness.
471 tn Heb “flesh” (so KJV, NASB).
474 sn The Lord challenges the exiles (Zion’s children) to bring incriminating evidence against him. The rhetorical questions imply that Israel accused the Lord of divorcing his wife (Zion) and selling his children (the Israelites) into slavery to pay off a debt.
475 sn The Lord admits that he did sell the Israelites, but it was because of their sins, not because of some debt he owed. If he had sold them to a creditor, they ought to be able to point him out, but the preceding rhetorical question implies they would not be able to do so.
476 sn The Lord admits he did divorce Zion, but that too was the result of the nation’s sins. The force of the earlier rhetorical question comes into clearer focus now. The question does not imply that a certificate does not exist and that no divorce occurred. Rather, the question asks for the certificate to be produced so the accuser can see the reason for the divorce in black and white. The Lord did not put Zion away arbitrarily.
477 sn The present tense translation of the verbs assumes that the Lord is questioning why Israel does not attempt to counter his arguments. Another possibility is to take the verbs as referring to past events: “Why did no one meet me when I came? Why did no one answer when I called?” In this case the Lord might be asking why Israel rejected his calls to repent and his offer to deliver them.
478 tn Heb “short” (so NAB, NASB, NIV).
479 tn Or “ransom” (NAB, NASB, NIV).
480 tn Heb “with my rebuke.”
481 tn Heb “the fish stink from lack of water and die from thirst.”
482 tn Heb “has given to me a tongue of disciples.”
sn Verses 4-11 contain the third of the so-called servant songs, which depict the career of the Lord’s special servant, envisioned as an ideal Israel (49:3) who rescues the exiles and fulfills God’s purposes for the world. Here the servant alludes to opposition (something hinted at in 49:4), but also expresses his determination to persevere with the Lord’s help.
483 tc Heb “to know [?] the weary with a word.” Comparing it with Arabic and Aramaic cognates yields the meaning of “help, sustain.” Nevertheless, the meaning of עוּת (’ut) is uncertain. The word occurs only here in the OT (see BDB 736 s.v.). Various scholars have suggested an emendation to עָנוֹת (’anot) from עָנָה (’anah, “answer”): “so that I know how to respond kindly to the weary.” Since the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa and the Vulgate support the MT reading, that reading is retained.
484 tn Heb “he arouses for me an ear, to hear like disciples.”
485 tn Or perhaps, “makes me obedient.” The text reads literally, “has opened for me an ear.”
486 tn Or perhaps, “who beat [me].”
487 tn Heb “Therefore I set my face like flint.”
488 tn Heb “Let us stand together!”
489 tn Heb “Who is the master of my judgment?”
490 tn Heb “let him approach me”; NAB, NIV “Let him confront me.”
491 tn Heb “[who] listens to the voice of his servant?” The interrogative is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).
492 tn The plural indicates degree. Darkness may refer to exile and/or moral evil.
493 tc Several more recent commentators have proposed an emendation of מְאַזְּרֵי (mÿ’azzÿre, “who put on”) to מְאִירִי (mÿ’iri, “who light”). However, both Qumran scrolls of Isaiah and the Vulgate support the MT reading (cf. NIV, ESV).
494 tn On the meaning of זִיקוֹת (ziqot, “flaming arrows”), see HALOT 268 s.v. זִיקוֹת.
495 tn The imperative is probably rhetorical and has a predictive force.
496 tn Or perhaps, “flame” (so ASV).
497 sn Perhaps the servant here speaks to his enemies and warns them that they will self-destruct.
498 tn Heb “from my hand” (so NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV).
499 sn The imagery may be that of a person who becomes ill and is forced to lie down in pain on a sickbed. Some see this as an allusion to a fiery place of damnation because of the imagery employed earlier in the verse.
500 tn Or “righteousness” (KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); NAB “justice”; NLT “hope for deliverance.”
501 tn Heb “the excavation of the hole.”
502 sn The “rock” and “quarry” refer here to Abraham and Sarah, the progenitors of the nation.
503 sn Although Abraham and Sarah are distant ancestors of the people the prophet is addressing, they are spoken of as the immediate parents.
504 tn Heb “one”; NLT “was alone”; TEV “was childless.”
506 tn Heb “and I made him numerous.”
507 tn Heb “found in” (so NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV).
508 tn Or “certainly.”
509 tn Heb “instruction [or “a law”] will go out from me.”
510 tn Heb “and my justice for a light to the nations I will cause to rest.”
511 tn Heb “my righteousness [or “vindication”] is near.”
512 tn Heb “my deliverance goes forth.”
513 tn Heb “and my arms will judge [on behalf of] nations.”
514 tn Or “islands” (NIV); TEV “Distant lands.”
515 tn Heb “for my arm” (so NIV, NRSV).
516 tn Heb “will be torn in pieces.” The perfect indicates the certitude of the event, from the Lord’s rhetorical perspective.
517 tn Heb “my deliverance.” The same Hebrew word can also be translated “salvation” (so KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT); cf. CEV “victory.”
518 tn Heb “my righteousness [or “vindication”].”
519 tn Heb “will not be shattered [or “dismayed”].”
520 tn Heb “people (who have) my law in their heart.”
521 tn Heb “my vindication”; many English versions “my righteousness”; NRSV, TEV “my deliverance”; CEV “my victory.”
522 tn The arm of the Lord is a symbol of divine military power. Here it is personified and told to arouse itself from sleep and prepare for action.
523 tn Heb “Are you not the one who smashed?” The feminine singular forms agree grammatically with the feminine noun “arm.” The Hebrew text has ַהמַּחְצֶבֶת (hammakhtsevet), from the verbal root חָצַב (khatsav, “hew, chop”). The Qumran scroll 1QIsaa has, probably correctly, המחצת, from the verbal root מָחַץ (makhats, “smash”) which is used in Job 26:12 to describe God’s victory over “the Proud One.”
524 tn This title (רַהַב, rahav, “proud one”) is sometimes translated as a proper name: “Rahab” (cf. NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV). It is used here of a symbolic sea monster, known elsewhere in the Bible and in Ugaritic myth as Leviathan. This sea creature symbolizes the forces of chaos that seek to destroy the created order. In the Bible “the Proud One” opposes God’s creative work, but is defeated (see Job 26:12; Ps 89:10). Here the title refers to Pharaoh’s Egyptian army that opposed Israel at the Red Sea (see v. 10, and note also Isa 30:7 and Ps 87:4, where the title is used of Egypt).
526 tn Hebrew תַּנִּין (tannin) is another name for the symbolic sea monster. See the note at 27:1. In this context the sea creature represents Egypt. See the note on the title “Proud One” earlier in this verse.
527 tn The Hebrew text reads literally, “Are you not the one who dried up the sea, the waters of the great deep, who made…?”
528 tn Heb “the redeemed” (so ASV, NASB, NIV, NRSV); KJV “the ransomed.”
529 tn Heb “[will be] on their head[s].” “Joy” may be likened here to a crown (cf. 2 Sam 1:10). The statement may also be an ironic twist on the idiom “earth/dust on the head” (cf. 2 Sam 1:2; 13:19; 15:32; Job 2:12), referring to a mourning practice.
530 tn Heb “overtake” (so NIV); NASB “they will obtain.”
531 tn Heb “grief and groaning will flee.”
532 tc The plural suffix should probably be emended to the second masculine singular (which is used in v. 13). The final mem (ם) is probably dittographic; note the mem at the beginning of the next word.
533 tn Heb “Who are you that you are afraid of man who dies, and of the son of man who [as] grass is given up?” The feminine singular forms should probably be emended to the masculine singular (see v. 13). They have probably been influenced by the construction אַתְּ־הִיא (’at-hi’) in vv. 9-10.
534 tn Heb “and that you forget.”
536 tn Heb “and that you tremble constantly all the day.”
538 tn Heb “who is stooped over” (under a burden).
539 tn Heb “the pit” (so KJV); ASV, NAB “die and go down into the pit”; NASB, NIV “dungeon”; NCV “prison.”
540 tn Heb “he will not lack his bread.”
541 tn The addressee (second masculine singular, as in vv. 13, 15) in this verse is unclear. The exiles are addressed in the immediately preceding verses (note the critical tone of vv. 12-13 and the reference to the exiles in v. 14). However, it seems unlikely that they are addressed in v. 16, for the addressee appears to be commissioned to tell Zion, who here represents the restored exiles, “you are my people.” The addressee is distinct from the exiles. The language of v. 16a is reminiscent of 49:2 and 50:4, where the Lord’s special servant says he is God’s spokesman and effective instrument. Perhaps the Lord, having spoken to the exiles in vv. 1-15, now responds to this servant, who spoke just prior to this in 50:4-11.
542 tn Heb “I place my words in your mouth.”
543 tn Heb “with the shadow of my hand.”
544 tc The Hebrew text has לִנְטֹעַ (lintoa’, “to plant”). Several scholars prefer to emend this form to לִנְטֹת (lintot) from נָטָה (natah, “to stretch out”); see v. 13, as well as 40:22; 42:5; 44:24; 45:12; cf. NAB, NCV, NRSV. However, since the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa, LXX (and Aquila and Symmachus), and Vulgate support the MT reading, there is no need to emend the form. The interpretation is clear enough: Yahweh fixed the sky in its place.
545 tn The infinitives in v. 16b are most naturally understood as indicating the purpose of the divine actions described in v. 16a. The relationship of the third infinitive to the commission is clear enough – the Lord has made the addressee (his special servant?) his spokesman so that the latter might speak encouraging words to those in Zion. But how do the first two infinitives relate? The text seems to indicate that the Lord has commissioned the addressee so that the latter might create the universe! Perhaps creation imagery is employed metaphorically here to refer to the transformation that Jerusalem will experience (see 65:17-18).
546 tn Heb “[you] who have drunk from the hand of the Lord the cup of his anger.”
547 tn Heb “the goblet, the cup [that causes] staggering, you drank, you drained.”
548 tc The Hebrew text has אֲנַחֲמֵךְ (’anakhamekh), a first person form, but the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa reads correctly יִנַחֲמֵךְ (yinakhamekh), a third person form.
549 tn Heb “those who are full of the anger of the Lord, the shout [or “rebuke”] of your God.”
550 tn The Hebrew term translated “sovereign master” here is אֲדֹנָי (’adonay).
551 tn Heb “the cup of [= that causes] staggering” (so ASV, NAB, NRSV); NASB “the cup of reeling.”
552 tn Heb “the goblet of the cup of my anger.”
553 tn That is, to make them drink it.
555 tn Heb “Shake yourself free from the dirt.”
556 tc The Hebrew text has שְּׂבִי (shÿvi), which some understand as a feminine singular imperative from יָשַׁב (yashav, “sit”). The LXX, Vulgate, Syriac, and the Targum support the MT reading (the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa does indirectly). Some interpret this to mean “take your throne”: The Lord exhorts Jerusalem to get up from the dirt and sit, probably with the idea of sitting in a place of honor (J. N. Oswalt, Isaiah [NICOT], 2:361). However, the form is likely a corruption of שְׁבִיָּה (shÿviyyah, “captive”), which appears in the parallel line.
557 tn Heb “and now what [following the marginal reading (Qere)] to me here?”
558 tn The verb appears to be a Hiphil form from the root יָלַל (yalal, “howl”), perhaps here in the sense of “mock.” Some emend the form to יְהוֹלָּלוֹ (yÿhollalo) and understand a Polel form of the root הָלַל meaning here “mock, taunt.”
559 tn The verb is apparently a Hitpolal form (with assimilated tav, ת) from the root נָאַץ (na’ats), but GKC 151-52 §55.b explains it as a mixed form, combining Pual and Hitpolel readings.
560 tn The verb is understood by ellipsis (note the preceding line).
561 tn Heb “in that day” (so KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV).
562 tn Heb “How delightful on the mountains.”
563 tn Or “has become king.” When a new king was enthroned, his followers would give this shout. For other examples of this enthronement formula (Qal perfect 3rd person masculine singular מָלַךְ [malakh], followed by the name of the king), see 2 Sam 15:10; 1 Kgs 1:11, 13, 18; 2 Kgs 9:13. The Lord is an eternal king, but here he is pictured as a victorious warrior who establishes his rule from Zion.
564 tn קוֹל (qol, “voice”) is used at the beginning of the verse as an interjection.
565 tn Heb “eye in eye”; KJV, ASV “eye to eye”; NAB “directly, before their eyes.”
567 tn Heb “lays bare”; NLT “will demonstrate.”
568 tn Heb “his holy arm.” This is a metonymy for his power.
569 tn Heb “the remote regions,” which here stand for the extremities and everything in between.
570 tn Heb “the deliverance of our God.” “God” is a subjective genitive here.
571 tn Heb “the vessels of the Lord” (so KJV, NAB).
572 tn Heb “or go in flight”; NAB “leave in headlong flight.”
573 tn Heb “act wisely,” which by metonymy means “succeed.”
574 tn This piling up of synonyms emphasizes the degree of the servant’s coming exaltation.
575 tn Some witnesses read “him,” which is more consistent with the context, where the servant is spoken about, not addressed. However, it is possible that the Lord briefly addresses the servant here. The present translation assumes the latter view and places the phrase in parentheses.
576 tn Heb “such was the disfigurement.” The noun מִשְׁחַת (mishkhat) occurs only here. It may be derived from the verbal root שָׁחַת (shakhat, “be ruined”; see BDB 1007-8 s.v. שָׁחַת). The construct form appears here before a prepositional phrase (cf. GKC 421 §130.a).
577 tn Heb “from a man his appearance.” The preposition מִן (min) here carries the sense “away from,” i.e., “so as not to be.” See BDB 583 s.v.
578 tn Heb “and his form from the sons of men.” The preposition מִן (min) here carries the sense “away from,” i.e., “so as not to be.”
579 tn This statement completes the sentence begun in v. 14a. The introductory כֵּן (ken) answers to the introductory כַּאֲשֶׁר (ka’asher) of v. 14a. Verses 14b-15a are parenthetical, explaining why many were horrified.
580 tn Traditionally the verb יַזֶּה (yazzeh, a Hiphil stem) has been understood as a causative of נָזָה (nazah, “spurt, spatter”) and translated “sprinkle.” In this case the passage pictures the servant as a priest who “sprinkles” (or spiritually cleanses) the nations. Though the verb נָזָה does occur in the Hiphil with the meaning “sprinkle,” the usual interpretation is problematic. In all other instances where the object or person sprinkled is indicated, the verb is combined with a preposition. This is not the case in Isaiah 52:15, unless one takes the following עָלָיו (’alayv, “on him”) with the preceding line. But then one would have to emend the verb to a plural, make the nations the subject of the verb “sprinkle,” and take the servant as the object. Consequently some interpreters doubt the cultic idea of “sprinkling” is present here. Some emend the text; others propose a homonymic root meaning “spring, leap,” which in the Hiphil could mean “cause to leap, startle” and would fit the parallelism of the verse nicely.
581 tn Heb “Because of him kings will shut their mouths,” i.e., be speechless.
583 sn The speaker shifts here from God to an unidentified group (note the first person plural pronouns throughout vv. 1-6). The content of the speech suggests that the prophet speaks here as representative of the sinful nation Israel. The group acknowledges its sin and recognizes that the servant suffered on their behalf.
584 tn The first half of v. 1 is traditionally translated, “Who has believed our report?” or “Who has believed our message?” as if the group speaking is lamenting that no one will believe what they have to say. But that doesn’t seem to be the point in this context. Here the group speaking does not cast itself in the role of a preacher or evangelist. No, they are repentant sinners, who finally see the light. The phrase “our report” can mean (1) the report which we deliver, or (2) the report which was delivered to us. The latter fits better here, where the report is most naturally taken as the announcement that has just been made in 52:13-15.
585 tn Heb “to whom” (so KJV, NASB, NIV, NRSV).
586 tn Heb “the arm of the Lord.” The “arm of the Lord” is a metaphor of military power; it pictures the Lord as a warrior who bares his arm, takes up his weapon, and crushes his enemies (cf. 51:9-10; 63:5-6). But Israel had not seen the Lord’s military power at work in the servant.
587 tn Heb “before him.” Some suggest an emendation to “before us.” If the third singular suffix of the Hebrew text is retained, it probably refers to the Lord (see v. 1b). For a defense of this reading, see R. Whybray, Isaiah 40-66 (NCBC), 173-74.
588 sn The metaphor in this verse suggests insignificance.
589 tn Heb “that we might see him.” The vav conjunctive prefixed to the imperfect introduces a result clause here. See GKC 504-5 §166.a.
590 tn Heb “that we should desire him.” The vav conjunctive prefixed to the imperfect introduces a result clause here. See GKC 504-5 §166.a.
591 tn Heb “lacking of men.” If the genitive is taken as specifying (“lacking with respect to men”), then the idea is that he lacked company because he was rejected by people. Another option is to take the genitive as indicating genus or larger class (i.e., “one lacking among men”). In this case one could translate, “he was a transient” (cf. the use of חָדֵל [khadel] in Ps 39:5 HT [39:4 ET]).
592 tn Heb “like a hiding of the face from him,” i.e., “like one before whom the face is hidden” (see BDB 712 s.v. מַסְתֵּר).
593 sn The servant is likened to a seriously ill person who is shunned by others because of his horrible disease.
595 tn The words “for something he had done” are supplied in the translation for clarification. The group now realizes he suffered because of his identification with them, not simply because he was a special target of divine anger.
596 tn The preposition מִן (min) has a causal sense (translated “because of”) here and in the following clause.
597 tn Heb “the punishment of our peace [was] on him.” שָׁלוֹם (shalom, “peace”) is here a genitive of result, i.e., “punishment that resulted in our peace.”
598 sn Continuing to utilize the imagery of physical illness, the group acknowledges that the servant’s willingness to carry their illnesses (v. 4) resulted in their being healed. Healing is a metaphor for forgiveness here.
599 tn Elsewhere the Hiphil of פָגַע (paga’) means “to intercede verbally” (Jer 15:11; 36:25) or “to intervene militarily” (Isa 59:16), but neither nuance fits here. Apparently here the Hiphil is the causative of the normal Qal meaning, “encounter, meet, touch.” The Qal sometimes refers to a hostile encounter or attack; when used in this way the object is normally introduced by the preposition -בְּ (bet, see Josh 2:16; Judg 8:21; 15:12, etc.). Here the causative Hiphil has a double object – the Lord makes “sin” attack “him” (note that the object attacked is introduced by the preposition -בְּ. In their sin the group was like sheep who had wandered from God’s path. They were vulnerable to attack; the guilt of their sin was ready to attack and destroy them. But then the servant stepped in and took the full force of the attack.
600 tn The translation assumes the Niphal is passive; another option is take the clause (note the subject + verb pattern) as concessive and the Niphal as reflexive, “though he humbled himself.”
601 sn This verse emphasizes the servant’s silent submission. The comparison to a sheep does not necessarily suggest a sacrificial metaphor. Sheep were slaughtered for food as well as for sacrificial rituals, and טֶבַח (tevakh) need not refer to sacrificial slaughter (see Gen 43:16; Prov 7:22; 9:2; Jer 50:27; note also the use of the related verb in Exod 21:37; Deut 28:31; 1 Sam 25:11).
602 tn The precise meaning of this line is uncertain. The present translation assumes that מִן (min) here has an instrumental sense (“by, through”) and understands עֹצֶר וּמִמִּשְׁפָּט (’otser umimmishpat, “coercion and legal decision”) as a hendiadys meaning “coercive legal decision,” thus “an unjust trial.” Other interpretive options include: (1) “without [for this sense of מִן, see BDB 578 s.v. 1.b] hindrance and proper judicial process,” i.e., “unfairly and with no one to defend him,” (2) “from [in the sense of “after,” see BDB 581 s.v. 4.b] arrest and judgment.”
603 tn Heb “and his generation, who considers?” (NASB similar). Some understand “his generation” as a reference to descendants. In this case the question would suggest that he will have none. However, אֶת (’et) may be taken here as specifying a new subject (see BDB 85 s.v. I אֵת 3). If “his generation” refers to the servant’s contemporary generation, one may then translate, “As for his contemporary generation, who took note?” The point would be that few were concerned about the harsh treatment he received.
605 tn The Hebrew text reads “my people,” a reading followed by most English versions, but this is problematic in a context where the first person plural predominates, and where God does not appear to speak again until v. 11b. Therefore, it is preferable to read with the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa עמו (“his people”). In this case, the group speaking in these verses is identified as the servant’s people (compare פְּשָׁעֵנוּ [pÿsha’enu, “our rebellious deeds”] in v. 5 with פֶּשַׁע עַמִּי [pesha’ ’ammi, “the rebellion of his people”] in v. 8).
606 tn Heb “one assigned his grave with criminals.” The subject of the singular is impersonal; English typically uses “they” in such constructions.
607 tn This line reads literally, “and with the rich in his death.” בְּמֹתָיו (bÿmotayv) combines a preposition, a plural form of the noun מוֹת (mot), and a third masculine singular suffix. The plural of the noun is problematic and the יו may be the result of virtual dittography. The form should probably be emended to בָּמָתוֹ (bamato, singular noun). The relationship between this line and the preceding one is uncertain. The parallelism appears to be synonymous (note “his grave” and “in his death”), but “criminals” and “the rich” hardly make a compatible pair in this context, for they would not be buried in the same kind of tomb. Some emend עָשִׁיר (’ashir, “rich”) to עָשֵׂי רָע (’ase ra’, “doers of evil”) but the absence of the ayin (ע) is not readily explained in this graphic environment. Others suggest an emendation to שְׂעִירִים (sÿ’irim, “he-goats, demons”), but the meaning in this case is not entirely transparent and the proposal assumes that the form suffered from both transposition and the inexplicable loss of a final mem. Still others relate עָשִׁיר (’ashir) to an alleged Arabic cognate meaning “mob.” See HALOT 896 s.v. עָשִׁיר. Perhaps the parallelism is antithetical, rather than synonymous. In this case, the point is made that the servant’s burial in a rich man’s tomb, in contrast to a criminal’s burial, was appropriate, for he had done nothing wrong.
608 tn If the second line is antithetical, then עַל (’al) is probably causal here, explaining why the servant was buried in a rich man’s tomb, rather than that of criminal. If the first two lines are synonymous, then עַל is probably concessive: “even though….”
609 tn The meaning of this line is uncertain. It reads literally, “if you/she makes, a reparation offering, his life.” The verb תָּשִׂים (tasim) could be second masculine singular,in which case it would have to be addressed to the servant or to God. However, the servant is only addressed once in this servant song (see 52:14a), and God either speaks or is spoken about in this servant song; he is never addressed. Furthermore, the idea of God himself making a reparation offering is odd. If the verb is taken as third feminine singular, then the feminine noun נֶפֶשׁ (nefesh) at the end of the line is the likely subject. In this case one can take the suffixed form of the noun as equivalent to a pronoun and translate, “if he [literally, “his life”] makes a reparation offering.”
sn What constitutes the servant’s reparation offering? Some might think his suffering, but the preceding context views this as past, while the verb here is imperfect in form. The offering appears to be something the servant does after his suffering has been completed. Perhaps the background of the language can be found in the Levitical code, where a healed leper would offer a reparation offering as part of the ritual to achieve ceremonial cleanliness (see Lev 14). The servant was pictured earlier in the song as being severely ill. This illness (a metaphor for the effects of the people’s sin) separated him from God. However, here we discover the separation is not final; once reparation is made, so to speak, he will again experience the Lord’s favor.
610 sn The idiomatic and stereotypical language emphasizes the servant’s restoration to divine favor. Having numerous descendants and living a long life are standard signs of divine blessing. See Job 42:13-16.
611 tn Heb “he will be satisfied by his knowledge,” i.e., “when he knows.” The preposition is understood as temporal and the suffix as a subjective genitive. Some take בְּדַעְתּוֹ (bÿda’to, “by his knowledge”) with what follows and translate “by knowledge of him,” understanding the preposition as instrumental and the suffix as objective.
613 tn Heb “he will acquit, a righteous one, my servant, many.” צַדִּיק (tsadiq) may refer to the servant, but more likely it is dittographic (note the preceding verb יַצְדִּיק, yatsdiq). The precise meaning of the verb (the Hiphil of צָדַק, tsadaq) is debated. Elsewhere the Hiphil is used at least six times in the sense of “make righteous” in a legal sense, i.e., “pronounce innocent, acquit” (see Exod 23:7; Deut 25:1; 1 Kgs 8:32 = 2 Chr 6:23; Prov 17:15; Isa 5:23). It can also mean “render justice” (as a royal function, see 2 Sam 15:4; Ps 82:3), “concede” (Job 27:5), “vindicate” (Isa 50:8), and “lead to righteousness” (by teaching and example, Dan 12:3). The preceding context and the next line suggest a legal sense here. Because of his willingness to carry the people’s sins, the servant is able to “acquit” them.
sn Some (e.g., H. M. Orlinsky, “The So-called ‘Suffering Servant’ in Isaiah 53,22,” VTSup 14 : 3-133) object to this legal interpretation of the language, arguing that it would be unjust for the righteous to suffer for the wicked and for the wicked to be declared innocent. However, such a surprising development is consistent with the ironic nature of this song. It does seem unfair for the innocent to die for the guilty. But what is God to do when all have sinned and wandered off like stray sheep (cf. v. 6)? Covenant law demands punishment, but punishment in this case would mean annihilation of what God has created. God’s justice, as demanded by the law, must be satisfied. To satisfy his justice, he does something seemingly unjust. He punishes his sinless servant, the only one who has not strayed off! In the progress of biblical revelation, we discover that the sinless servant is really God in the flesh, who offers himself because he is committed to the world he has created. If his justice can only be satisfied if he himself endures the punishment, then so be it. What appears to be an act of injustice is really love satisfying the demands of justice!
614 tn The circumstantial clause (note the vav [ו] + object + subject + verb pattern) is understood as causal here. The prefixed verb form is either a preterite or an imperfect used in a customary manner.
615 tn Scholars have debated the precise meaning of the term רַבִּים (rabbim) that occurs five times in this passage (Isa 52:14, 15; 53:11, 12 [2x]). Its two broad categories of translation are “much”/“many” and “great” (HALOT 1171-72 s.v. I רַב). Unlike other Hebrew terms for might or strength, this term is linked with numbers or abundance. In all sixteen uses outside of Isaiah 52:13-53:12 (articular and plural) it signifies an inclusive meaning: “the majority” or “the multitude” (J. Jeremias, TDNT 6:536-37). This term occurs in parallelism with עֲצוּמִים (’atsumim), which normally signifies “numerous” or “large” or “powerful” (through large numbers). Like רַבִּים (rabbim), it refers to greatness in numbers (cf. Deut 4:38; 7:1; 9:1; 11:34). It emphasizes the multitudes with whom the Servant will share the spoil of his victory. As J. Olley wrote: “Yahweh has won the victory and vindicates his Servant, giving to him many subservient people, together with their spoils. These numerous peoples in turn receive blessing, sharing in the “peace” resulting from Yahweh’s victory and the Servant’s suffering” (John W. Olley, “‘The Many’: How Is Isa 53,12a to Be Understood,” Bib 68 : 330-56).
616 sn The servant is compared here to a warrior who will be richly rewarded for his effort and success in battle.
617 tn Heb “because he laid bare his life”; traditionally, ASV “because he (+ hath KJV) poured out his soul (life NIV) unto death.”
618 tn The Hiphil of פָּגַע (paga’) can mean “cause to attack” (v. 6), “urge, plead verbally” (Jer 15:11; 36:25), or “intervene militarily” (Isa 59:16). Perhaps the third nuance fits best here, for military imagery is employed in the first two lines of the verse.
619 tn Heb “the curtains of our dwelling places let them stretch out.”
620 tn Heb “your stakes strengthen.”
621 tn Or “take possession of”; NAB “shall dispossess.”
622 tn Or “embarrassed”; NASB “humiliated…disgraced.”
623 tn Another option is to translate, “the disgrace of our widowhood” (so NRSV). However, the following context (vv. 6-7) refers to Zion’s husband, the Lord, abandoning her, not dying. This suggests that an אַלְמָנָה (’almanah) was a woman who had lost her husband, whether by death or abandonment.
626 tn Heb “like a woman abandoned and grieved in spirit.”
627 tn Or “forsook” (NASB).
628 tn According to BDB 1009 s.v. שֶׁטֶף the noun שֶׁצֶף here is an alternate form of שֶׁטֶף (shetef, “flood”). Some relate the word to an alleged Akkadian cognate meaning “strength.”
629 tn Heb “I hid my face from you.”
631 tc The Hebrew text reads literally, “For [or “indeed”] the waters of Noah [is] this to me.” כִּי־מֵי (ki-me, “for the waters of”) should be emended to כְּמֵי (kÿmey, “like the days of”), which is supported by the Qumran scroll 1QIsaa and all the ancient versions except LXX.
632 tn Heb “the waters of Noah” (so NAB, NIV, NRSV).
633 tn Heb “peace” (so many English versions); NLT “of blessing.”
634 tn Or, more literally, “windblown, storm tossed.”
635 tn Perhaps, “rubies” (so ASV, NAB, NIV, NRSV, NLT).
636 tn On the meaning of אֶקְדָּח (’eqdakh), which occurs only here, see HALOT 82 s.v.
637 tn Heb “border” (so ASV); NASB “your entire wall.”
638 tn Heb “delightful”; KJV “pleasant.”
639 tn Heb “and great [will be] the peace of your sons.”
640 tn Heb “in righteousness [or “vindication”] you will be established.” The precise meaning of צְדָקָה (tsÿdaqah) here is uncertain. It could mean “righteousness, justice,” indicating that the city will be a center for justice. But the context focuses on deliverance, suggesting that the term means “deliverance, vindication” here.
641 tn Heb “Be far from oppression!” The imperative is used here in a rhetorical manner to express certainty and assurance. See GKC 324 §110.c.
642 tn Heb “from terror.” The rhetorical command, “be far” is understood by ellipsis here. Note the preceding context.
643 tn Heb “it,” i.e., the “terror” just mentioned.
644 tn The infinitive absolute precedes the finite verb here for emphasis.
645 tn Heb “will fall over you.” The expression נָפַל עַל (nafal ’al) can mean “attack,” but here it means “fall over to,” i.e., “surrender to.”
646 tn Heb “who brings out an implement for his work.”
647 tn Heb “and every tongue that rises up for judgment with you will prove to be guilty.”
648 tn Heb “this is the inheritance of the servants of the Lord, and their vindication from me.”
649 tn The Hebrew term הוֹי (hoy, “woe, ah”) was used in funeral laments and is often prefixed to judgment oracles for rhetorical effect. But here it appears to be a simple interjection, designed to grab the audience’s attention. Perhaps there is a note of sorrow or pity. See BDB 223 s.v.
650 sn The statement is an oxymoron. Its ironic quality adds to its rhetorical impact. The statement reminds one of the norm (one must normally buy commodities) as it expresses the astounding offer. One might paraphrase the statement: “Come and take freely what you normally have to pay for.”
651 tn Heb “for what is not food.”
652 tn The interrogative particle and the verb “spend” are understood here by ellipsis (note the preceding line).
653 tn Heb “your labor,” which stands by metonymy for that which one earns.
654 tn The infinitive absolute follows the imperative and lends emphasis to the exhortation.
655 tn Heb “good” (so NASB, NIV, NRSV).
656 tn Heb “Let your appetite delight in fine food.”
sn Nourishing, fine food here represents the blessings God freely offers. These include forgiveness, a new covenantal relationship with God, and national prominence (see vv. 3-6).
657 tn The jussive with vav (ו) conjunctive following the imperative indicates purpose/result.
658 tn Or “an eternal covenant with.”
659 tn Heb “the reliable expressions of loyalty of David.” The syntactical relationship of חַסְדֵי (khasde, “expressions of loyalty”) to the preceding line is unclear. If the term is appositional to בְּרִית (bÿrit, “covenant”), then the Lord here transfers the promises of the Davidic covenant to the entire nation. Another option is to take חַסְדֵי (khasde) as an adverbial accusative and to translate “according to the reliable covenantal promises.” In this case the new covenantal arrangement proposed here is viewed as an extension or perhaps fulfillment of the Davidic promises. A third option, the one reflected in the above translation, is to take the last line as comparative. In this case the new covenant being proposed is analogous to the Davidic covenant. Verses 4-5, which compare David’s international prominence to what Israel will experience, favors this view. In all three of these interpretations, “David” is an objective genitive; he is the recipient of covenantal promises. A fourth option would be to take David as a subjective genitive and understand the line as giving the basis for the preceding promise: “Then I will make an unconditional covenantal promise to you, because of David’s faithful acts of covenantal loyalty.”
661 tn Heb “a nation,” but the singular is collective here, as the plural verbs in the next line indicate (note that both “know” and “run” are third plural forms).
662 tn Heb “a nation,” but the singular is collective here, as the plural verbs that follow indicate.
664 tn Heb “while he allows himself to be found.” The Niphal form has a tolerative force here.
665 tn Heb “Let the wicked one abandon his way.” The singular is collective.
666 tn Heb “and the man of evil his thoughts.” The singular is collective.
667 tn Heb “let him return.” The singular is collective, meaning “let them.”
668 tn The imperfect with vav (ו) conjunctive after the jussive indicates purpose/result.
670 tn Or “For” (KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV).
671 tn Or “thoughts” (so many English versions).
673 tn Heb “ways” (so many English versions).
675 tn Or “the heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavens” or “sky” depending on the context.
676 tn Heb “ways” (so many English versions).
677 tn Heb “are higher than.”
678 tn Or “thoughts” (so many English versions).
679 tn This verse begins in the Hebrew text with כִּי כַּאֲשֶׁר (ki ka’asher, “for, just as”), which is completed by כֵּן (ken, “so, in the same way”) at the beginning of v. 11. For stylistic reasons, this lengthy sentence is divided up into separate sentences in the translation.
681 tn Heb “but it accomplishes what I desire, and succeeds [on the mission] which I send it.”
sn Verses 8-11 focus on the reliability of the divine word and support the promises before (vv. 3-5, 7b) and after (vv. 12-13) this. Israel can be certain that repentance will bring forgiveness and a new covenantal relationship because God’s promises are reliable. In contrast to human plans (or “thoughts”), which are destined to fail (Ps 94:11) apart from divine approval (Prov 19:21), and human deeds (or “ways”), which are evil and lead to destruction (Prov 1:15-19; 3:31-33; 4:19), God’s plans are realized and his deeds accomplish something positive.
683 tn Or, more literally, “a permanent sign that will not be cut off.”