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Isaiah 14:9

Context

14:9 Sheol 1  below is stirred up about you,

ready to meet you when you arrive.

It rouses 2  the spirits of the dead for you,

all the former leaders of the earth; 3 

it makes all the former kings of the nations

rise from their thrones. 4 

Isaiah 26:14

Context

26:14 The dead do not come back to life,

the spirits of the dead do not rise. 5 

That is because 6  you came in judgment 7  and destroyed them,

you wiped out all memory of them.

Isaiah 26:19

Context

26:19 8 Your dead will come back to life;

your corpses will rise up.

Wake up and shout joyfully, you who live in the ground! 9 

For you will grow like plants drenched with the morning dew, 10 

and the earth will bring forth its dead spirits. 11 

1 sn Sheol is the proper name of the subterranean world which was regarded as the land of the dead.

2 tn Heb “arousing.” The form is probably a Polel infinitive absolute, rather than a third masculine singular perfect, for Sheol is grammatically feminine (note “stirred up”). See GKC 466 §145.t.

3 tn Heb “all the rams of the earth.” The animal epithet is used metaphorically here for leaders. See HALOT 903 s.v. *עַתּוּד.

4 tn Heb “lifting from their thrones all the kings of the nations.” הֵקִים (heqim, a Hiphil perfect third masculine singular) should be emended to an infinitive absolute (הָקֵים, haqem). See the note on “rouses” earlier in the verse.

5 sn In light of what is said in verse 14b, the “dead” here may be the “masters” mentioned in verse 13.

6 tn The Hebrew term לָכֵן (lakhen) normally indicates a cause-effect relationship between what precedes and follows and is translated, “therefore.” Here, however, it infers the cause from the effect and brings out what is implicit in the previous statement. See BDB 487 s.v.

7 tn Heb “visited [for harm]” (cf. KJV, ASV); NAB, NRSV “you have punished.”

8 sn At this point the Lord (or prophet) gives the people an encouraging oracle.

9 tn Heb “dust” (so KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV).

10 tn Heb “for the dew of lights [is] your dew.” The pronominal suffix on “dew” is masculine singular, like the suffixes on “your dead” and “your corpses” in the first half of the verse. The statement, then, is addressed to collective Israel, the speaker in verse 18. The plural form אוֹרֹת (’orot) is probably a plural of respect or magnitude, meaning “bright light” (i.e., morning’s light). Dew is a symbol of fertility and life. Here Israel’s “dew,” as it were, will soak the dust of the ground and cause the corpses of the dead to spring up to new life, like plants sprouting up from well-watered soil.

11 sn It is not certain whether the resurrection envisioned here is intended to be literal or figurative. A comparison with 25:8 and Dan 12:2 suggests a literal interpretation, but Ezek 37:1-14 uses resurrection as a metaphor for deliverance from exile and the restoration of the nation (see Isa 27:12-13).



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