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Isaiah 14:9

Context

14:9 Sheol 1  below is stirred up about you,

ready to meet you when you arrive.

It rouses 2  the spirits of the dead for you,

all the former leaders of the earth; 3 

it makes all the former kings of the nations

rise from their thrones. 4 

1 sn Sheol is the proper name of the subterranean world which was regarded as the land of the dead.

2 tn Heb “arousing.” The form is probably a Polel infinitive absolute, rather than a third masculine singular perfect, for Sheol is grammatically feminine (note “stirred up”). See GKC 466 §145.t.

3 tn Heb “all the rams of the earth.” The animal epithet is used metaphorically here for leaders. See HALOT 903 s.v. *עַתּוּד.

4 tn Heb “lifting from their thrones all the kings of the nations.” הֵקִים (heqim, a Hiphil perfect third masculine singular) should be emended to an infinitive absolute (הָקֵים, haqem). See the note on “rouses” earlier in the verse.



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