8:9 They have gone up to Assyria,
like a wild donkey that wanders off.
Ephraim has hired prostitutes as lovers. 1
I will soon gather them together for judgment. 3
Then 4 they will begin to waste away
under the oppression of a mighty king. 5
1 tn Or “has hired herself out to lovers”; cf. NIV “has sold herself to lovers.”
2 tn Or “they have hired themselves out to lovers”; cf. NASB “they hire allies among the nations.”
3 tn The Piel stem of קָבַץ (qavats) is often used in a positive sense, meaning “to regather” a dispersed people (HALOT 1063 s.v. קבץ 3.a; BDB 868 s.v. קָבַץ 1.α). However, in Hosea 8:10 it is used in a negative sense, meaning “to assemble (people) for judgment” (e.g., Ezek 20:34; Hos 9:6; HALOT 1063 s.v. 3.e.i). Cf. JPS “I will hold them fast” (in judgment, see the parallel in 9:6).
4 tn The vav consecutive + preterite וַיָּחֵלּוּ (vayyakhellu, Hiphil preterite 3rd person common plural from חָלַל, khalal, “to begin”]) denotes temporal subordination to the preceding clause: “then…” (so NLT); cf. TEV, CEV “Soon.”
5 tn Heb “a king of princes” (cf. KJV, NASB); TEV “the emperor of Assyria.”