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Hosea 8:9-10

Context
The Willful Donkey and the Wanton Harlot

8:9 They have gone up to Assyria,

like a wild donkey that wanders off.

Ephraim has hired prostitutes as lovers. 1 

8:10 Even though they have hired lovers among the nations, 2 

I will soon gather them together for judgment. 3 

Then 4  they will begin to waste away

under the oppression of a mighty king. 5 

1 tn Or “has hired herself out to lovers”; cf. NIV “has sold herself to lovers.”

2 tn Or “they have hired themselves out to lovers”; cf. NASB “they hire allies among the nations.”

3 tn The Piel stem of קָבַץ (qavats) is often used in a positive sense, meaning “to regather” a dispersed people (HALOT 1063 s.v. קבץ 3.a; BDB 868 s.v. קָבַץ 1.α). However, in Hosea 8:10 it is used in a negative sense, meaning “to assemble (people) for judgment” (e.g., Ezek 20:34; Hos 9:6; HALOT 1063 s.v. 3.e.i). Cf. JPS “I will hold them fast” (in judgment, see the parallel in 9:6).

4 tn The vav consecutive + preterite וַיָּחֵלּוּ (vayyakhellu, Hiphil preterite 3rd person common plural from חָלַל, khalal, “to begin”]) denotes temporal subordination to the preceding clause: “then…” (so NLT); cf. TEV, CEV “Soon.”

5 tn Heb “a king of princes” (cf. KJV, NASB); TEV “the emperor of Assyria.”



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