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Hosea 9:7

Context

9:7 The time of judgment 1  is about to arrive! 2 

The time of retribution 3  is imminent! 4 

Let Israel know! 5 

Israel Rejects Hosea’s Prophetic Exhortations

The prophet is considered a fool 6 

the inspired man 7  is viewed as a madman 8 

because of the multitude of your sins

and your intense 9  animosity.

1 tn Heb “the days of the visitation”; NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV “the days of punishment.”

2 tn Heb “has come” (בָּאוּ, bau). The two perfect tense (suffix-conjugation) verbs בָּאוּ (Qal perfect 3rd person common plural from בּוֹא, bo’, “to come”) repeated in this verse are both examples of the so-called “prophetic perfect”: the perfect, which connotes completed or factual action, is used in reference to future events to emphasize the certainty of the announced event taking place.

3 tn Heb “the days of the retribution”; NIV “of reckoning”; NRSV “of recompense.”

4 tn Heb “has come”; NIV “are at hand”; NLT “is almost here.”

5 tc The Aleppo Codex and Leningrad Codex (the MT ms employed for BHS) both place the atnach (colon-divider) after יֵדְעוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל (yedÿu yisrael, “Let Israel know!”), indicating that this line belongs with 9:7a (cf. NAB, NASB, NIV). However, the LXX reads κακωθήσεται (kakwqhsetai) which reflects an underlying Vorlage of יָרֵעוּ (yareu, Qal imperfect 3rd person common plural from יָרַע, yara’, “to cry”), as opposed to the MT יֵדְעוּ (yedÿu, Qal jussive 3rd common plural from יָדַע, yada’, “to know”). The Old Greek connects יֵדְעוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל (“Israel cries out”) with the following lines (cf. NRSV), which appear to be quotations of Israel mocking Hosea. Aquila (ἔγνω, egnw) and Symmachus (γνώσεται, gnwsetai) both reflect the proto-MT tradition. For a discussion of this textual and syntactical problem, see H. W. Wolff, Hosea (Hermeneia), 150.

6 tn Or “is distraught”; cf. CEV, NLT “are crazy.”

7 tn Heb “the man of the Spirit”; NAB, NRSV “spirit.”

8 tn Or “is driven to despair.” The term מְשֻׁגָּע (mÿshugga’, Pual participle masculine singular from שָׁגַע, shaga’, “to be mad”) may be understood in two senses: (1) It could be a predicate adjective which is a figure of speech: “to be maddened,” to be driven to despair (Deut 28:34); or (2) it could be a substantive: “a madman,” referring to prophets who attempted to enter into a prophetic state through whipping themselves into a frenzy (1 Sam 21:16; 2 Kgs 9:11; Jer 29:26; see BDB 993 s.v. שָׁגַע). The prophetic context of 9:7 favors the latter option (which is followed by most English versions). Apparently, the general populace viewed these mantics with suspicion and questioned the legitimacy of their claim to be true prophets (e.g., 2 Kgs 9:11; Jer 29:26).

9 tn Heb “great.”



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