Soon 2 the Lord will put them out to pasture
like a lamb in a broad field! 3
10:11 Ephraim was a well-trained heifer who loved to thresh grain;
I myself put a fine yoke 4 on her neck.
I will harness Ephraim.
Let Judah plow! 5
Let Jacob break up 6 the unplowed ground for himself!
1 tn The Hebrew verb “has rebelled” (סָרַר, sarar) can also mean “to be stubborn.” This is the same root used in the simile: “like a stubborn (סֹרֵרָה, sorerah) heifer.” The similarity between Israel and a stubborn heifer is emphasized by the repetition of the same term.
2 tn The particle עַתָּה (’attah) often refers to the imminent or the impending future: “very soon” (BDB 774 s.v. עַתָּה 1.b). In Hosea it normally introduces imminent judgment (Hos 2:12; 4:16; 5:7; 8:8, 13; 10:2).
3 tn Or “How can the
4 tc The MT is unintelligible: עַל־טוּב (’al-tuv, “upon a fine [thing]”?). Cf. KJV “I passed over upon her fair neck”; NRSV “I spared her fair neck.” The BHS editors suggest the revocalization עֹל־טוּב (’ol-tuv, “a fine yoke”), followed by many modern English versions (e.g., NAB, NASB, NIV, NCV, TEV, NLT). The noun עֹל (’ol, “yoke”) also appears in 11:4 in a metaphor which compares Israel to a young heifer as well.
5 tn Or “Judah will plow” (so NASB); NIV, NRSV, CEV “Judah must plow.”
6 tn Or “Jacob will break up.”