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Hosea 2:5

Context

2:5 For their mother has committed adultery;

she who conceived them has acted shamefully.

For she said, “I will seek out 1  my lovers; 2 

they are the ones who give me my bread and my water,

my wool, my flax, my olive oil, and my wine. 3 

Hosea 2:17

Context

2:17 For 4  I will remove the names of the Baal idols 5  from your lips, 6 

so that you will never again utter their names!” 7 

Hosea 9:9

Context
The Best of Times, the Worst of Times

9:9 They have sunk deep into corruption 8 

as in the days of Gibeah.

He will remember their wrongdoing.

He will repay them for their sins.

Hosea 10:9

Context
Failure to Learn from the Sin and Judgment of Gibeah

10:9 O Israel, you have sinned since the time 9  of Gibeah,

and there you have remained.

Did not war overtake the evildoers in Gibeah?

1 tn Heb “I will go after” (so KJV, NAB, NIV, NRSV).

2 sn This statement alludes to the practice of sexual rites in the Canaanite fertility cult which attempted to secure agricultural fertility from the Canaanite gods (note the following reference to wool, flax, olive oil, and wine).

3 tn Heb “my drinks.” Many English versions use the singular “drink” here, but cf. NCV, TEV, CEV “wine.”

4 tn The vav consecutive prefixed to וַהֲסִרֹתִי (vahasiroti) “I will remove” (vav consecutive + Hiphil perfect 1st person common singular) introduces an explanatory clause.

5 tn Heb “the Baals.” The singular term בַּעַל (baal) refers to the Canaanite god Baal himself, while the plural form הַבְּעָלִים (habbéalim) refers to the manifestations of the god (i.e., idols; BDB 127 s.v. בָּעַל II.1).

6 tn Heb “from her mouth.” In the translation this is rendered as second person for consistency.

7 tn Heb “they will no longer be mentioned by their name.”

8 tn Or more literally, “they are deeply corrupted.” The two verbs הֶעְמִיקוּ־שִׁחֵתוּ (hemiqu-shikhetu; literally, “they have made deep, they act corruptly”) are coordinated without a conjunction vav to form a verbal hendiadys: the second verb represents the main idea, while the first functions adverbially (GKC 386-87 §120.g). Here Gesenius suggests “they are deeply/radically corrupted.” Several translations mirror the syntax of this hendiadys: “They have deeply corrupted themselves” (KJV, ASV, NRSV), “They have been grievously corrupt” (NJPS), and “They are hopelessly evil” (TEV). Others reverse the syntax for the sake of a more graphic English idiom: “They have gone deep in depravity” (NASB) and “They have sunk deep into corruption” (NIV). Some translations fail to represent the hendiadys at all: “You are brutal and corrupt” (CEV). The translation “They are deeply corrupted” mirrors the Hebrew syntax, but “They have sunk deep into corruption” is a more graphic English idiom and is preferred here (cf. NAB “They have sunk to the depths of corruption”).

9 tn Heb “days” (so KJV, NAB, NIV, NRSV).



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