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Hosea 2:18

Context
New Covenant Relationship with Repentant Israel

2:18 “At that time 1  I will make a covenant for them with the wild animals,

the birds of the air, and the creatures that crawl on the ground.

I will abolish 2  the warrior’s bow and sword

– that is, every weapon of warfare 3  – from the land,

and I will allow them to live securely.” 4 

Hosea 2:21

Context
Agricultural Fertility Restored to the Repentant Nation

2:21 “At that time, 5  I will willingly respond,” 6  declares the Lord.

“I will respond to the sky,

and the sky 7  will respond to the ground;

1 tn Heb “And in that day” (so KJV, ASV).

2 tn Heb “I will break”; NAB “I will destroy”; NCV “I will smash”; NLT “I will remove.”

3 tn Heb “bow and sword and warfare.” The first two terms in the triad וְקֶשֶׁת וְחֶרֶב וּמִלְחָמָה (vÿqeshet vÿkherev umilkhamah, literally, “bow and sword and warfare”) are examples of synecdoche of specific (bow and sword) for general (weapons of war, so CEV). However, they might be examples of metonymy (bow and sword) of association (warfare).

4 tn Heb “and I will cause them to lie down in safety.” The causative nuance (“will make them”) is retained in several English versions (e.g., KJV, ASV, NASB, NRSV).

5 tn Heb “And in that day”; NAB, NRSV “On that day.”

6 tn The verb עָנָה, (’anah) which is used throughout 2:23-24, is related to the root I עָנָה (’anah), “to answer, listen attentively, react willingly” (BDB 772 s.v. 1.b; HALOT 852 s.v. ענה 3.b).

7 tn Heb “and they.” In the Hebrew text the plural pronoun is used because it refers back to the term translated “sky,” which is a dual form in Hebrew. Many English versions (e.g., NAB, NASB, NRSV) use the plural term “heavens” here, which agrees with a plural pronoun (cf. also NIV, NCV “skies”).



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