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Hebrews 9:6-15

Context
9:6 So with these things prepared like this, the priests enter continually into the outer tent 1  as they perform their duties. 9:7 But only the high priest enters once a year into the inner tent, 2  and not without blood that he offers for himself and for the sins of the people committed in ignorance. 3  9:8 The Holy Spirit is making clear that the way into the holy place had not yet appeared as long as the old tabernacle 4  was standing. 9:9 This was a symbol for the time then present, when gifts and sacrifices were offered that could not perfect the conscience of the worshiper. 9:10 They served only for matters of food and drink 5  and various washings; they are external regulations 6  imposed until the new order came. 7 

Christ’s Service in the Heavenly Sanctuary

9:11 But now Christ has come 8  as the high priest of the good things to come. He passed through the greater and more perfect tent not made with hands, that is, not of this creation, 9:12 and he entered once for all into the most holy place not by the blood of goats and calves but by his own blood, and so he himself secured 9  eternal redemption. 9:13 For if the blood of goats and bulls and the ashes of a young cow sprinkled on those who are defiled consecrated them and provided ritual purity, 10  9:14 how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish to God, purify our 11  consciences from dead works to worship the living God.

9:15 And so he is the mediator 12  of a new covenant, so that those who are called may receive the eternal inheritance he has promised, 13  since he died 14  to set them free from the violations committed under the first covenant.

Hebrews 10:1-18

Context
Concluding Exposition: Old and New Sacrifices Contrasted

10:1 For the law possesses a shadow of the good things to come but not the reality itself, and is therefore completely unable, by the same sacrifices offered continually, year after year, to perfect those who come to worship. 15  10:2 For otherwise would they not have ceased to be offered, since the worshipers would have been purified once for all and so have 16  no further consciousness of sin? 10:3 But in those sacrifices 17  there is a reminder of sins year after year. 10:4 For the blood of bulls and goats cannot take away sins. 18  10:5 So when he came into the world, he said,

Sacrifice and offering you did not desire, but a body you prepared for me.

10:6Whole burnt offerings and sin-offerings you took no delight in.

10:7Then I said,Here I am: 19  I have come – it is written of me in the scroll of the book – to do your will, O God.’” 20 

10:8 When he says above, “Sacrifices and offerings and whole burnt offerings and sin-offerings you did not desire nor did you take delight in them” 21  (which are offered according to the law), 10:9 then he says, “Here I am: I have come to do your will.” 22  He does away with 23  the first to establish the second. 10:10 By his will 24  we have been made holy through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. 10:11 And every priest stands day after day 25  serving and offering the same sacrifices again and again – sacrifices that can never take away sins. 10:12 But when this priest 26  had offered one sacrifice for sins for all time, he sat down at the right hand 27  of God, 10:13 where he is now waiting 28  until his enemies are made a footstool for his feet. 29  10:14 For by one offering he has perfected for all time those who are made holy. 10:15 And the Holy Spirit also witnesses to us, for after saying, 30  10:16This is the covenant that I will establish with them after those days, says the Lord. I will put 31  my laws on their hearts and I will inscribe them on their minds,” 32  10:17 then he says, 33 Their sins and their lawless deeds I will remember no longer.” 34  10:18 Now where there is forgiveness of these, there is no longer any offering for sin.

1 tn Grk “the first tent.”

2 tn Grk “the second tent.”

3 tn Or perhaps “the unintentional sins of the people”; Grk “the ignorances of the people.” Cf. BDAG 13 s.v. ἀγνόημα, “sin committed in ignorance/unintentionally.” This term seems to be simply a synonym for “sins” (cf. Heb 5:2) and does not pick up the distinction made in Num 15:22-31 between unwitting sin and “high-handed” sin. The Day of Atonement ritual in Lev 16 covered all the sins of the people, not just the unwitting ones.

4 tn Grk “the first tent.” The literal phrase “the first tent” refers to either (1) the outer chamber of the tabernacle in the wilderness (as in vv. 2, 6) or (2) the entire tabernacle as a symbol of the OT system of approaching God. The second is more likely given the contrast that follows in vv. 11-12.

5 tn Grk “only for foods and drinks.”

6 tc Most witnesses (D1 Ï) have “various washings, and external regulations” (βαπτισμοῖς καὶ δικαιώμασιν, baptismoi" kai dikaiwmasin), with both nouns in the dative. The translation “washings; they are… regulations” renders βαπτισμοῖς, δικαιώματα (baptismoi", dikaiwmata; found in such important mss as Ì46 א* A I P 0278 33 1739 1881 al sa) in which case δικαιώματα is taken as the nominative subject of the participle ἐπικείμενα (epikeimena). It seems far more likely that scribes would conform δικαιώματα to the immediately preceding datives and join it to them by καί than they would to the following nominative participle. Both on external and internal evidence the text is thus secure as reading βαπτισμοῖς, δικαιώματα.

7 tn Grk “until the time of setting things right.”

8 tn Grk “But Christ, when he came,” introducing a sentence that includes all of Heb 9:11-12. The main construction is “Christ, having come…, entered…, having secured…,” and everything else describes his entrance.

9 tn This verb occurs in the Greek middle voice, which here intensifies the role of the subject, Christ, in accomplishing the action: “he alone secured”; “he and no other secured.”

10 tn Grk “for the purifying of the flesh.” The “flesh” here is symbolic of outward or ritual purity in contrast to inner purity, that of the conscience (cf. Heb 9:9).

11 tc The reading adopted by the translation is attested by many authorities (A D* K P 365 1739* al). But many others (א D2 0278 33 1739c 1881 Ï lat sa) read “your” instead of “our.” The diversity of evidence makes this a difficult case to decide from external evidence alone. The first and second person pronouns differ by only one letter in Greek, as in English, also making this problem difficult to decide based on internal evidence and transcriptional probability. In the context, the author’s description of sacrificial activities seems to invite the reader to compare his own possible participation in OT liturgy as over against the completed work of Christ, so the second person pronoun “your” might make more sense. On the other hand, TCGNT 599 argues that “our” is preferable because the author of Hebrews uses direct address (i.e., the second person) only in the hortatory sections. What is more, the author seems to prefer the first person in explanatory remarks or when giving the logical grounds for an assertion (cf. Heb 4:15; 7:14). It is hard to reach a definitive conclusion in this case, but the data lean slightly in favor of the first person pronoun.

12 tn The Greek word μεσίτης (mesith", “mediator”) in this context does not imply that Jesus was a mediator in the contemporary sense of the word, i.e., he worked for compromise between opposing parties. Here the term describes his function as the one who was used by God to enact a new covenant which established a new relationship between God and his people, but entirely on God’s terms.

13 tn Grk “the promise of the eternal inheritance.”

14 tn Grk “a death having occurred.”

15 tn Grk “those who approach.”

16 tn Grk “the worshipers, having been purified once for all, would have.”

17 tn Grk “in them”; the referent (those sacrifices) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

18 tn Grk “for it is impossible for the blood of bulls and goats to take away sins.”

19 tn Grk “behold,” but this construction often means “here is/there is” (cf. BDAG 468 s.v. ἰδού 2).

20 sn A quotation from Ps 40:6-8 (LXX). The phrase a body you prepared for me (in v. 5) is apparently an interpretive expansion of the HT reading “ears you have dug out for me.”

21 sn Various phrases from the quotation of Ps 40:6 in Heb 10:5-6 are repeated in Heb 10:8.

22 tc The majority of mss, especially the later ones (א2 0278vid 1739 Ï lat), have ὁ θεός (Jo qeo", “God”) at this point, while most of the earliest and best witnesses lack such an explicit addressee (so Ì46 א* A C D K P Ψ 33 1175 1881 2464 al). The longer reading is a palpable corruption, apparently motivated in part by the wording of Ps 40:8 (39:9 LXX) and by the word order of this same verse as quoted in Heb 10:7.

23 tn Or “abolishes.”

24 tn Grk “by which will.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

25 tn Or “daily,” “every day.”

26 tn Grk “this one.” This pronoun refers to Jesus, but “this priest” was used in the translation to make the contrast between the Jewish priests in v. 11 and Jesus as a priest clearer in English.

27 sn An allusion to Ps 110:1.

28 tn Grk “from then on waiting.”

29 sn An allusion to Ps 110:1.

30 tn Grk “after having said,” emphasizing the present impact of this utterance.

31 tn Grk “putting…I will inscribe.”

32 sn A quotation from Jer 31:33.

33 tn Grk “and.”

34 sn A quotation from Jer 31:34.



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