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Hebrews 7:1--10:39

Context
The Nature of Melchizedek’s Priesthood

7:1 Now this Melchizedek, king of Salem, priest of the most high God, met Abraham as he was returning from defeating the kings and blessed him. 1  7:2 To him 2  also Abraham apportioned a tithe 3  of everything. 4  His name first means 5  king of righteousness, then king of Salem, that is, king of peace. 7:3 Without father, without mother, without genealogy, he has neither beginning of days nor end of life but is like the son of God, and he remains a priest for all time. 7:4 But see how great he must be, if 6  Abraham the patriarch gave him a tithe 7  of his plunder. 7:5 And those of the sons of Levi who receive the priestly office 8  have authorization according to the law to collect a tithe from the people, that is, from their fellow countrymen, 9  although they too are descendants of Abraham. 10  7:6 But Melchizedek 11  who does not share their ancestry 12  collected a tithe 13  from Abraham and blessed 14  the one who possessed the promise. 7:7 Now without dispute the inferior is blessed by the superior, 7:8 and in one case tithes are received by mortal men, while in the other by him who is affirmed to be alive. 7:9 And it could be said that Levi himself, who receives tithes, paid a tithe through Abraham. 7:10 For he was still in his ancestor Abraham’s loins 15  when Melchizedek met him.

Jesus and the Priesthood of Melchizedek

7:11 So if perfection had in fact been possible through the Levitical priesthood – for on that basis 16  the people received the law – what further need would there have been for another priest to arise, said to be in the order of Melchizedek and not in Aaron’s order? 7:12 For when the priesthood changes, a change in the law must come 17  as well. 7:13 Yet the one these things are spoken about belongs to 18  a different tribe, and no one from that tribe 19  has ever officiated at the altar. 7:14 For it is clear that our Lord is descended from Judah, yet Moses said nothing about priests in connection with that tribe. 7:15 And this is even clearer if another priest arises in the likeness of Melchizedek, 7:16 who has become a priest not by a legal regulation about physical descent 20  but by the power of an indestructible life. 7:17 For here is the testimony about him: 21 You are a priest forever in the order of Melchizedek.” 22  7:18 On the one hand a former command is set aside 23  because it is weak and useless, 24  7:19 for the law made nothing perfect. On the other hand a better hope is introduced, through which we draw near to God. 7:20 And since 25  this was not done without a sworn affirmation – for the others have become priests without a sworn affirmation, 7:21 but Jesus 26  did so 27  with a sworn affirmation by the one who said to him, “The Lord has sworn and will not change his mind,You are a priest forever’” 28 7:22 accordingly Jesus has become the guarantee 29  of a better covenant. 7:23 And the others 30  who became priests were numerous, because death prevented them 31  from continuing in office, 32  7:24 but he holds his priesthood permanently since he lives forever. 7:25 So he is able to save completely those who come to God through him, because he always lives to intercede for them. 7:26 For it is indeed fitting for us to have such a high priest: holy, innocent, undefiled, separate from sinners, and exalted above the heavens. 7:27 He has no need to do every day what those priests do, to offer sacrifices first for their own sins and then for the sins of the people, since he did this in offering himself once for all. 7:28 For the law appoints as high priests men subject to weakness, 33  but the word of solemn affirmation that came after the law appoints a son made perfect forever.

The High Priest of a Better Covenant

8:1 Now the main point of what we are saying is this: 34  We have such a high priest, one who sat down at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in heaven, 35  8:2 a minister in the sanctuary and the true tabernacle that the Lord, not man, set up. 8:3 For every high priest is appointed to offer both gifts and sacrifices. So this one too had to have something to offer. 8:4 Now if he were on earth, he would not be a priest, since there are already priests who offer 36  the gifts prescribed by the law. 8:5 The place where they serve is 37  a sketch 38  and shadow of the heavenly sanctuary, just as Moses was warned by God as he was about to complete the tabernacle. For he says, “See that you make everything according to the design 39  shown to you on the mountain.” 40  8:6 But 41  now Jesus 42  has obtained a superior ministry, since 43  the covenant that he mediates is also better and is enacted 44  on better promises. 45 

8:7 For if that first covenant had been faultless, no one would have looked for a second one. 46  8:8 But 47  showing its fault, 48  God 49  says to them, 50 

Look, the days are coming, says the Lord, when I will complete a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah.

8:9It will not be like the covenant 51  that I made with their fathers, on the day when I took them by the hand to lead them out of Egypt, because they did not continue in my covenant and I had no regard for them, says the Lord.

8:10For this is the covenant that I will establish with the house of Israel after those days, says the Lord. I will put 52  my laws in their minds 53  and I will inscribe them on their hearts. And I will be their God and they will be my people. 54 

8:11And there will be no need at all 55  for each one to teach his countryman or each one to teach his brother saying,Know the Lord,since they will all know me, from the least to the greatest. 56 

8:12For I will be merciful toward their evil deeds, and their sins I will remember no longer. 57 

8:13 When he speaks of a new covenant, 58  he makes the first obsolete. Now what is growing obsolete and aging is about to disappear. 59 

The Arrangement and Ritual of the Earthly Sanctuary

9:1 Now the first covenant, 60  in fact, had regulations for worship and its earthly sanctuary. 9:2 For a tent was prepared, the outer one, 61  which contained 62  the lampstand, the table, and the presentation of the loaves; this 63  is called the holy place. 9:3 And after the second curtain there was a tent called the holy of holies. 9:4 It contained the golden altar of incense and the ark of the covenant covered entirely with gold. In this ark 64  were the golden urn containing the manna, Aaron’s rod that budded, and the stone tablets of the covenant. 9:5 And above the ark 65  were the cherubim 66  of glory overshadowing the mercy seat. Now is not the time to speak of these things in detail. 9:6 So with these things prepared like this, the priests enter continually into the outer tent 67  as they perform their duties. 9:7 But only the high priest enters once a year into the inner tent, 68  and not without blood that he offers for himself and for the sins of the people committed in ignorance. 69  9:8 The Holy Spirit is making clear that the way into the holy place had not yet appeared as long as the old tabernacle 70  was standing. 9:9 This was a symbol for the time then present, when gifts and sacrifices were offered that could not perfect the conscience of the worshiper. 9:10 They served only for matters of food and drink 71  and various washings; they are external regulations 72  imposed until the new order came. 73 

Christ’s Service in the Heavenly Sanctuary

9:11 But now Christ has come 74  as the high priest of the good things to come. He passed through the greater and more perfect tent not made with hands, that is, not of this creation, 9:12 and he entered once for all into the most holy place not by the blood of goats and calves but by his own blood, and so he himself secured 75  eternal redemption. 9:13 For if the blood of goats and bulls and the ashes of a young cow sprinkled on those who are defiled consecrated them and provided ritual purity, 76  9:14 how much more will the blood of Christ, who through the eternal Spirit offered himself without blemish to God, purify our 77  consciences from dead works to worship the living God.

9:15 And so he is the mediator 78  of a new covenant, so that those who are called may receive the eternal inheritance he has promised, 79  since he died 80  to set them free from the violations committed under the first covenant. 9:16 For where there is a will, the death of the one who made it must be proven. 81  9:17 For a will takes effect only at death, since it carries no force while the one who made it is alive. 9:18 So even the first covenant was inaugurated with blood. 82  9:19 For when Moses had spoken every command to all the people according to the law, he took the blood of calves and goats with water and scarlet wool and hyssop and sprinkled both the book itself and all the people, 9:20 and said, “This is the blood of the covenant that God has commanded you to keep.” 83  9:21 And both the tabernacle and all the utensils of worship he likewise sprinkled with blood. 9:22 Indeed according to the law almost everything was purified with blood, and without the shedding of blood there is no forgiveness. 9:23 So it was necessary for the sketches 84  of the things in heaven to be purified with these sacrifices, 85  but the heavenly things themselves required 86  better sacrifices than these. 9:24 For Christ did not enter a sanctuary made with hands – the representation 87  of the true sanctuary 88  – but into heaven itself, and he appears now in God’s presence for us. 9:25 And he did not enter to offer 89  himself again and again, the way the high priest enters the sanctuary year after year with blood that is not his own, 9:26 for then he would have had to suffer again and again since the foundation of the world. But now he has appeared once for all at the consummation of the ages to put away sin by his sacrifice. 9:27 And just as people 90  are appointed to die once, and then to face judgment, 91  9:28 so also, after Christ was offered once to bear the sins of many, 92  to those who eagerly await him he will appear a second time, not to bear sin 93  but to bring salvation. 94 

Concluding Exposition: Old and New Sacrifices Contrasted

10:1 For the law possesses a shadow of the good things to come but not the reality itself, and is therefore completely unable, by the same sacrifices offered continually, year after year, to perfect those who come to worship. 95  10:2 For otherwise would they not have ceased to be offered, since the worshipers would have been purified once for all and so have 96  no further consciousness of sin? 10:3 But in those sacrifices 97  there is a reminder of sins year after year. 10:4 For the blood of bulls and goats cannot take away sins. 98  10:5 So when he came into the world, he said,

Sacrifice and offering you did not desire, but a body you prepared for me.

10:6Whole burnt offerings and sin-offerings you took no delight in.

10:7Then I said,Here I am: 99  I have come – it is written of me in the scroll of the book – to do your will, O God.’” 100 

10:8 When he says above, “Sacrifices and offerings and whole burnt offerings and sin-offerings you did not desire nor did you take delight in them” 101  (which are offered according to the law), 10:9 then he says, “Here I am: I have come to do your will.” 102  He does away with 103  the first to establish the second. 10:10 By his will 104  we have been made holy through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all. 10:11 And every priest stands day after day 105  serving and offering the same sacrifices again and again – sacrifices that can never take away sins. 10:12 But when this priest 106  had offered one sacrifice for sins for all time, he sat down at the right hand 107  of God, 10:13 where he is now waiting 108  until his enemies are made a footstool for his feet. 109  10:14 For by one offering he has perfected for all time those who are made holy. 10:15 And the Holy Spirit also witnesses to us, for after saying, 110  10:16This is the covenant that I will establish with them after those days, says the Lord. I will put 111  my laws on their hearts and I will inscribe them on their minds,” 112  10:17 then he says, 113 Their sins and their lawless deeds I will remember no longer.” 114  10:18 Now where there is forgiveness of these, there is no longer any offering for sin.

Drawing Near to God in Enduring Faith

10:19 Therefore, brothers and sisters, 115  since we have confidence to enter the sanctuary by the blood of Jesus, 10:20 by the fresh and living way that he inaugurated for us 116  through the curtain, that is, through his flesh, 117  10:21 and since we have a great priest 118  over the house of God, 10:22 let us draw near with a sincere heart in the assurance that faith brings, 119  because we have had our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience 120  and our bodies washed in pure water. 10:23 And let us hold unwaveringly to the hope that we confess, for the one who made the promise is trustworthy. 10:24 And let us take thought of how to spur one another on to love and good works, 121  10:25 not abandoning our own meetings, as some are in the habit of doing, but encouraging each other, and even more so because you see the day 122  drawing near. 123 

10:26 For if we deliberately keep on sinning after receiving the knowledge of the truth, no further sacrifice for sins is left for us, 124  10:27 but only a certain fearful expectation of judgment and a fury 125  of fire that will consume God’s enemies. 126  10:28 Someone who rejected the law of Moses was put to death 127  without mercy on the testimony of two or three witnesses. 128  10:29 How much greater punishment do you think that person deserves who has contempt for 129  the Son of God, and profanes 130  the blood of the covenant that made him holy, 131  and insults the Spirit of grace? 10:30 For we know the one who said, “Vengeance is mine, I will repay,” 132  and again, “The Lord will judge his people.” 133  10:31 It is a terrifying thing to fall into the hands of the living God.

10:32 But remember the former days when you endured a harsh conflict of suffering after you were enlightened. 10:33 At times you were publicly exposed to abuse and afflictions, and at other times you came to share with others who were treated in that way. 10:34 For in fact you shared the sufferings of those in prison, 134  and you accepted the confiscation of your belongings with joy, because you knew that you certainly 135  had a better and lasting possession. 10:35 So do not throw away your confidence, because it 136  has great reward. 10:36 For you need endurance in order to do God’s will and so receive what is promised. 137  10:37 For just a little longer 138  and he who is coming will arrive and not delay. 139  10:38 But my righteous one will live by faith, and if he shrinks back, I 140  take no pleasure in him. 141  10:39 But we are not among those who shrink back and thus perish, but are among those who have faith and preserve their souls. 142 

1 sn A series of quotations from Gen 14:17-19.

2 tn Grk “to whom,” continuing the description of Melchizedek. Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

3 tn Or “a tenth part.”

4 sn A quotation from Gen 14:20.

5 tn Grk “first being interpreted,” describing Melchizedek.

6 tn Grk “to whom.”

7 tn Or “a tenth part.”

8 tn Or “the priesthood.”

9 tn Grk “from their brothers.” See BDAG 18-19 s.v. ἀδελφός 2.b.

10 tn Grk “have come from the loins of Abraham.”

11 tn Grk “the one”; in the translation the referent (Melchizedek) has been specified for clarity.

12 tn Grk “is not descended from them.”

13 tn Or “a tenth part.”

14 sn The verbs “collected…and blessed” emphasize the continuing effect of the past actions, i.e., Melchizedek’s importance.

15 tn Grk “in the loins of his father” (a reference to Abraham). The name “Abraham” has been repeated in the translation at this point (cf. v. 9) in order to clarify the referent (i.e., what ancestor was in view).

sn The point of the phrase still in his ancestor’s loins is that Levi was as yet unborn, still in his ancestor Abraham’s body. Thus Levi participated in Abraham’s action when Abraham paid tithes to Melchizedek.

16 tn Grk “based on it.”

17 tn Grk “of necessity a change in the law comes to pass.”

18 tn Grk “shares in.”

19 tn Grk “from which no one.”

20 tn Grk “a law of a fleshly command.”

21 tn Grk “for he/it is witnessed that.”

22 sn A quotation from Ps 110:4 (see Heb 5:6 and 6:20).

23 tn Grk “the setting aside of a former command comes to pass.”

24 tn Grk “because of its weakness and uselessness.”

25 sn The Greek text contains an elaborate comparison between v. 20a and v. 22, with a parenthesis (vv. 20b-21) in between; the comparison is literally, “by as much as…by so much” or “to the degree that…to that same degree.”

26 tn Grk “he”; the referent (Jesus) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

27 tn The words “did so” are not in the Greek text, but are implied.

28 sn A quotation from Ps 110:4 (see Heb 5:6, 6:20, and 7:17).

29 tn Or “surety.”

30 tn Grk “they on the one hand” in contrast with “he on the other hand” in v. 24.

31 tn Grk “they were prevented by death.”

32 tn Grk “from continuing” (the words “in office” are supplied for clarity).

33 sn See Heb 5:2 where this concept was introduced.

34 tn Grk “the main point of the things being said.”

35 sn An allusion to Ps 110:1; see Heb 1:3, 13.

36 tn Grk “there are those who offer.”

37 tn Grk “who serve in,” referring to the Levitical priests, but focusing on the provisional and typological nature of the tabernacle in which they served.

38 tn Or “prototype,” “outline.” The Greek word ὑπόδειγμα (Jupodeigma) does not mean “copy,” as it is often translated; it means “something to be copied,” a basis for imitation. BDAG 1037 s.v. 2 lists both Heb 8:5 and 9:23 under the second category of usage, “an indication of someth. that appears at a subsequent time,” emphasizing the temporal progression between the earthly and heavenly sanctuaries.

sn There are two main options for understanding the conceptual background of the heavenly sanctuary imagery. The first is to understand the imagery to be functioning on a vertical plane. This background is Hellenistic, philosophical, and spatial in orientation and sees the earthly sanctuary as a copy of the heavenly reality. The other option is to see the imagery functioning on a horizontal plane. This background is Jewish, eschatological, and temporal and sees the heavenly sanctuary as the fulfillment and true form of the earthly sanctuary which preceded it. The second option is preferred, both for lexical reasons (see tn above) and because it fits the Jewish context of the book (although many scholars prefer to emphasize the relationship the book has to Hellenistic thought).

39 tn The word τύπος (tupos) here has the meaning “an archetype serving as a model, type, pattern, model” (BDAG 1020 s.v. 6.a). This is in keeping with the horizontal imagery accepted for this verse (see sn on “sketch” earlier in the verse). Here Moses was shown the future heavenly sanctuary which, though it did not yet exist, became the outline for the earthly sanctuary.

40 sn A quotation from Exod 25:40.

41 sn The Greek text indicates a contrast between vv. 4-5 and v. 6 that is difficult to render in English: Jesus’ status in the old order of priests (vv. 4-5) versus his superior ministry (v. 6).

42 tn Grk “he”; in the translation the referent (Jesus) has been specified for clarity.

43 tn Grk “to the degree that.”

44 tn Grk “which is enacted.”

45 sn This linkage of the change in priesthood with a change in the law or the covenant goes back to Heb 7:12, 22 and is picked up again in Heb 9:6-15 and 10:1-18.

46 tn Grk “no occasion for a second one would have been sought.”

47 tn Grk “for,” but providing an explanation of the God-intended limitation of the first covenant from v. 7.

48 sn The “fault” or limitation in the first covenant was not in its inherent righteousness, but in its design from God himself. It was never intended to be his final revelation or provision for mankind; it was provisional, always pointing toward the fulfillment to come in Christ.

49 tn Grk “he”; the referent (God) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

50 tc ‡ Several witnesses (א* A D* I K P Ψ 33 81 326 365 1505 2464 al latt co Cyr) have αὐτούς (autous) here, “[in finding fault with] them, [he says],” alluding to Israel’s failings mentioned in v. 9b. (The verb μέμφομαι [memfomai, “to find fault with”] can take an accusative or dative direct object.) The reading behind the text above (αὐτοίς, autoi"), supported by Ì46 א2 B D2 0278 1739 1881 Ï, is perhaps a harder reading theologically, and is more ambiguous in meaning. If αὐτοίς goes with μεμφόμενος (memfomeno", here translated “showing its fault”), the clause could be translated “in finding fault with them” or “in showing [its] faults to them.” If αὐτοίς goes with the following λέγει (legei, “he says”), the clause is best translated, “in finding/showing [its] faults, he says to them.” The accusative pronoun suffers no such ambiguity, for it must be the object of μεμφόμενος rather than λέγει. Although a decision is difficult, the dative form of the pronoun best explains the rise of the other reading and is thus more likely to be original.

51 tn Grk “not like the covenant,” continuing the description of v. 8b.

52 tn Grk “putting…I will inscribe.”

53 tn Grk “mind.”

54 tn Grk “I will be to them for a God and they will be to me for a people,” following the Hebrew constructions of Jer 31.

55 tn Grk “they will not teach, each one his fellow citizen…” The Greek makes this negation emphatic: “they will certainly not teach.”

56 tn Grk “from the small to the great.”

57 sn A quotation from Jer 31:31-34.

58 tn Grk “when he says, ‘new,’” (referring to the covenant).

59 tn Grk “near to disappearing.”

60 tn Grk “the first” (referring to the covenant described in Heb 8:7, 13). In the translation the referent (covenant) has been specified for clarity.

61 tn Grk “the first,” in order of approach in the ritual.

62 tn Grk “in which [were].”

63 tn Grk “which,” describing the outer tent.

64 tn Grk “in which”; in the translation the referent (the ark) has been specified for clarity.

65 tn Grk “above it”; in the translation the referent (the ark) has been specified for clarity.

66 sn The cherubim (pl.) were an order of angels mentioned repeatedly in the OT but only here in the NT. They were associated with God’s presence, glory, and holiness. Their images that sat on top of the ark of the covenant are described in Exod 25:18-20.

67 tn Grk “the first tent.”

68 tn Grk “the second tent.”

69 tn Or perhaps “the unintentional sins of the people”; Grk “the ignorances of the people.” Cf. BDAG 13 s.v. ἀγνόημα, “sin committed in ignorance/unintentionally.” This term seems to be simply a synonym for “sins” (cf. Heb 5:2) and does not pick up the distinction made in Num 15:22-31 between unwitting sin and “high-handed” sin. The Day of Atonement ritual in Lev 16 covered all the sins of the people, not just the unwitting ones.

70 tn Grk “the first tent.” The literal phrase “the first tent” refers to either (1) the outer chamber of the tabernacle in the wilderness (as in vv. 2, 6) or (2) the entire tabernacle as a symbol of the OT system of approaching God. The second is more likely given the contrast that follows in vv. 11-12.

71 tn Grk “only for foods and drinks.”

72 tc Most witnesses (D1 Ï) have “various washings, and external regulations” (βαπτισμοῖς καὶ δικαιώμασιν, baptismoi" kai dikaiwmasin), with both nouns in the dative. The translation “washings; they are… regulations” renders βαπτισμοῖς, δικαιώματα (baptismoi", dikaiwmata; found in such important mss as Ì46 א* A I P 0278 33 1739 1881 al sa) in which case δικαιώματα is taken as the nominative subject of the participle ἐπικείμενα (epikeimena). It seems far more likely that scribes would conform δικαιώματα to the immediately preceding datives and join it to them by καί than they would to the following nominative participle. Both on external and internal evidence the text is thus secure as reading βαπτισμοῖς, δικαιώματα.

73 tn Grk “until the time of setting things right.”

74 tn Grk “But Christ, when he came,” introducing a sentence that includes all of Heb 9:11-12. The main construction is “Christ, having come…, entered…, having secured…,” and everything else describes his entrance.

75 tn This verb occurs in the Greek middle voice, which here intensifies the role of the subject, Christ, in accomplishing the action: “he alone secured”; “he and no other secured.”

76 tn Grk “for the purifying of the flesh.” The “flesh” here is symbolic of outward or ritual purity in contrast to inner purity, that of the conscience (cf. Heb 9:9).

77 tc The reading adopted by the translation is attested by many authorities (A D* K P 365 1739* al). But many others (א D2 0278 33 1739c 1881 Ï lat sa) read “your” instead of “our.” The diversity of evidence makes this a difficult case to decide from external evidence alone. The first and second person pronouns differ by only one letter in Greek, as in English, also making this problem difficult to decide based on internal evidence and transcriptional probability. In the context, the author’s description of sacrificial activities seems to invite the reader to compare his own possible participation in OT liturgy as over against the completed work of Christ, so the second person pronoun “your” might make more sense. On the other hand, TCGNT 599 argues that “our” is preferable because the author of Hebrews uses direct address (i.e., the second person) only in the hortatory sections. What is more, the author seems to prefer the first person in explanatory remarks or when giving the logical grounds for an assertion (cf. Heb 4:15; 7:14). It is hard to reach a definitive conclusion in this case, but the data lean slightly in favor of the first person pronoun.

78 tn The Greek word μεσίτης (mesith", “mediator”) in this context does not imply that Jesus was a mediator in the contemporary sense of the word, i.e., he worked for compromise between opposing parties. Here the term describes his function as the one who was used by God to enact a new covenant which established a new relationship between God and his people, but entirely on God’s terms.

79 tn Grk “the promise of the eternal inheritance.”

80 tn Grk “a death having occurred.”

81 tn Grk “there is a necessity for the death of the one who made it to be proven.”

82 sn The Greek text reinforces this by negating the opposite (“not even the first covenant was inaugurated without blood”), but this double negation is not used in contemporary English.

83 tn Grk “which God commanded for you (or in your case).”

sn A quotation from Exod 24:8.

84 tn Or “prototypes,” “outlines,” referring to the earthly sanctuary. See Heb 8:5 above for the prior use of this term.

85 tn Grk “with these”; in the translation the referent (sacrifices) has been specified for clarity.

86 tn Grk “the heavenly things themselves with better sacrifices than these.”

87 tn Or “prefiguration.”

88 tn The word “sanctuary” is not in the Greek text at this point, but has been supplied for clarity.

89 tn Grk “and not that he might offer,” continuing the previous construction.

90 tn Here ἀνθρώποις (anqrwpoi") has been translated as a generic noun (“people”).

91 tn Grk “and after this – judgment.”

92 sn An allusion to Isa 53:12.

93 tn Grk “without sin,” but in context this does not refer to Christ’s sinlessness (as in Heb 4:15) but to the fact that sin is already dealt with by his first coming.

94 tn Grk “for salvation.” This may be construed with the verb “await” (those who wait for him to bring them salvation), but the connection with “appear” (as in the translation) is more likely.

95 tn Grk “those who approach.”

96 tn Grk “the worshipers, having been purified once for all, would have.”

97 tn Grk “in them”; the referent (those sacrifices) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

98 tn Grk “for it is impossible for the blood of bulls and goats to take away sins.”

99 tn Grk “behold,” but this construction often means “here is/there is” (cf. BDAG 468 s.v. ἰδού 2).

100 sn A quotation from Ps 40:6-8 (LXX). The phrase a body you prepared for me (in v. 5) is apparently an interpretive expansion of the HT reading “ears you have dug out for me.”

101 sn Various phrases from the quotation of Ps 40:6 in Heb 10:5-6 are repeated in Heb 10:8.

102 tc The majority of mss, especially the later ones (א2 0278vid 1739 Ï lat), have ὁ θεός (Jo qeo", “God”) at this point, while most of the earliest and best witnesses lack such an explicit addressee (so Ì46 א* A C D K P Ψ 33 1175 1881 2464 al). The longer reading is a palpable corruption, apparently motivated in part by the wording of Ps 40:8 (39:9 LXX) and by the word order of this same verse as quoted in Heb 10:7.

103 tn Or “abolishes.”

104 tn Grk “by which will.” Because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence, a new sentence was started here in the translation.

105 tn Or “daily,” “every day.”

106 tn Grk “this one.” This pronoun refers to Jesus, but “this priest” was used in the translation to make the contrast between the Jewish priests in v. 11 and Jesus as a priest clearer in English.

107 sn An allusion to Ps 110:1.

108 tn Grk “from then on waiting.”

109 sn An allusion to Ps 110:1.

110 tn Grk “after having said,” emphasizing the present impact of this utterance.

111 tn Grk “putting…I will inscribe.”

112 sn A quotation from Jer 31:33.

113 tn Grk “and.”

114 sn A quotation from Jer 31:34.

115 tn Grk “brothers.” See note on the phrase “brothers and sisters” in 2:11.

116 tn Grk “that he inaugurated for us as a fresh and living way,” referring to the entrance mentioned in v. 19.

117 sn Through his flesh. In a bold shift the writer changes from a spatial phrase (Christ opened the way through the curtain into the inner sanctuary) to an instrumental phrase (he did this through [by means of] his flesh in his sacrifice of himself), associating the two in an allusion to the splitting of the curtain in the temple from top to bottom (Matt 27:51; Mark 15:38; Luke 23:45). Just as the curtain was split, so Christ’s body was broken for us, to give us access into God’s presence.

118 tn Grk “and a great priest,” continuing the construction begun in v. 19.

119 tn Grk “in assurance of faith.”

120 sn The phrase our hearts sprinkled clean from an evil conscience combines the OT imagery of the sprinkling with blood to give ritual purity with the emphasis on the interior cleansing provided by the new covenant: It is the heart that is cleansed and the conscience made perfect (cf. Heb 8:10; 9:9, 14; 10:2, 16).

121 tn Grk “let us consider one another for provoking of love and good deeds.”

122 sn The day refers to that well-known time of Christ’s coming and judgment in the future; see a similar use of “day” in 1 Cor 3:13.

123 tn This paragraph (vv. 19-25) is actually a single, skillfully composed sentence in Greek, but it must be broken into shorter segments for English idiom. It begins with several subordinate phrases (since we have confidence and a great priest), has three parallel exhortations as its main verbs (let us draw near, hold, and take thought), and concludes with several subordinate phrases related to the final exhortation (not abandoning but encouraging).

124 tn Grk “is left,” with “for us” implied by the first half of the verse.

125 tn Grk “zeal,” recalling God’s jealous protection of his holiness and honor (cf. Exod 20:5).

sn An allusion to Zeph 1:18.

126 tn Grk “the enemies.”

sn An allusion to Isa 26:11.

127 tn Grk “dies.”

128 sn An allusion to Deut 17:6.

129 tn Grk “tramples under foot.”

130 tn Grk “regarded as common.”

131 tn Grk “by which he was made holy.”

132 sn A quotation from Deut 32:35.

133 sn A quotation from Deut 32:36.

134 tc Most witnesses, including some important ones (א D2 1881 Ï), read δεσμοῖς μου (desmoi" mou, “my imprisonment”) here, a reading that is probably due to the widespread belief in the early Christian centuries that Paul was the author of Hebrews (cf. Phil 1:7; Col 4:18). It may have been generated by the reading δεσμοῖς without the μου (so Ì46 Ψ 104 pc), the force of which is so ambiguous (lit., “you shared the sufferings with the bonds”) as to be virtually nonsensical. Most likely, δεσμοῖς resulted when a scribe made an error in copying δεσμίοις (desmioi"), a reading which makes excellent sense (“[of] those in prison”) and is strongly supported by early and significant witnesses of the Alexandrian and Western texttypes (A D* H 6 33 81 1739 lat sy co). Thus, δεσμίοις best explains the rise of the other readings on both internal and external grounds and is strongly preferred.

135 tn Grk “you yourselves.”

136 tn Grk “which,” but showing the reason.

137 tn Grk “the promise,” referring to the thing God promised, not to the pledge itself.

138 sn A quotation from Isa 26:20.

139 sn A quotation from Hab 2:3.

140 tn Grk “my soul.”

141 sn A quotation from Hab 2:4.

142 tn Grk “not…of shrinking back to perdition but of faith to the preservation of the soul.”



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