1:2 in these last days he has spoken to us in a son, 1 whom he appointed heir of all things, and through whom he created the world. 2
1:6 But when he again brings 3 his firstborn into the world, he says, “Let all the angels of God worship him!” 4 1:7 And he says 5 of the angels, “He makes 6 his angels spirits and his ministers a flame of fire,” 7 1:8 but of 8 the Son he says, 9
“Your throne, O God, is forever and ever, 10
and a righteous scepter 11 is the scepter of your kingdom.
1:9 You have loved righteousness and hated lawlessness.
“You founded the earth in the beginning, Lord, 14
and the heavens are the works of your hands.
1:11 They will perish, but you continue.
And they will all grow old like a garment,
1:12 and like a robe you will fold them up
and like a garment 15 they will be changed,
but you are the same and your years will never run out.” 16
1:13 But to which of the angels 17 has he ever said, “Sit at my right hand until I make your enemies a footstool for your feet”? 18 1:14 Are they not all ministering spirits, sent out to serve those 19 who will inherit salvation?
1 tn The Greek puts an emphasis on the quality of God’s final revelation. As such, it is more than an indefinite notion (“a son”) though less than a definite one (“the son”), for this final revelation is not just through any son of God, nor is the emphasis specifically on the person himself. Rather, the focus here is on the nature of the vehicle of God’s revelation: He is no mere spokesman (or prophet) for God, nor is he merely a heavenly messenger (or angel); instead, this final revelation comes through one who is intimately acquainted with the heavenly Father in a way that only a family member could be. There is, however, no exact equivalent in English (“in son” is hardly good English style).
sn The phrase in a son is the fulcrum of Heb 1:1-4. It concludes the contrast of God’s old and new revelation and introduces a series of seven descriptions of the Son. These descriptions show why he is the ultimate revelation of God.
3 tn Or “And again when he brings.” The translation adopted in the text looks forward to Christ’s second coming to earth. Some take “again” to introduce the quotation (as in 1:5) and understand this as Christ’s first coming, but this view does not fit well with Heb 2:7. Others understand it as his exaltation/ascension to heaven, but this takes the phrase “into the world” in an unlikely way.
5 sn The Greek correlative conjunctions μέν and δέ (men and de) emphasize the contrastive parallelism of vs. 7 (what God says about the angels) over against vv. 8-9 and vv. 10-12 (what God says about the son).
6 tn Grk “He who makes.”
8 tn Or “to.”
10 tn Or possibly, “Your throne is God forever and ever.” This translation is quite doubtful, however, since (1) in the context the Son is being contrasted to the angels and is presented as far better than they. The imagery of God being the Son’s throne would seem to be of God being his authority. If so, in what sense could this not be said of the angels? In what sense is the Son thus contrasted with the angels? (2) The μέν…δέ (men…de) construction that connects v. 7 with v. 8 clearly lays out this contrast: “On the one hand, he says of the angels…on the other hand, he says of the Son.” Thus, although it is grammatically possible that θεός (qeos) in v. 8 should be taken as a predicate nominative, the context and the correlative conjunctions are decidedly against it. Hebrews 1:8 is thus a strong affirmation of the deity of Christ.
11 tn Grk “the righteous scepter,” but used generically.
12 sn God…has anointed you over your companions. God’s anointing gives the son a superior position and authority over his fellows.
14 sn You founded the earth…your years will never run out. In its original setting Ps 102:25-27 refers to the work of God in creation, but here in Hebrews 1:10-12 the writer employs it in reference to Christ, the Lord, making a strong argument for the essential deity of the Son.
15 tc The words “like a garment” (ὡς ἱμάτιον, Jw" Jimation) are found in excellent and early
sn The phrase like a garment here is not part of the original OT text (see tc note above); for this reason it has been printed in normal type.
19 tn Grk “sent for service for the sake of those.”