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Haggai 2:21

Context
2:21 Tell Zerubbabel governor of Judah: ‘I am ready 1  to shake the sky 2  and the earth.

Haggai 2:23

Context
2:23 On that day,’ 3  says the Lord who rules over all, ‘I will take you, Zerubbabel son of Shealtiel, my servant,’ 4  says the Lord, ‘and I will make you like a signet ring, 5  for I have chosen you,’ says the Lord who rules over all.” 6 

1 tn The participle here suggests an imminent undertaking of action (cf. NRSV, TEV, NLT “I am about to”). The overall language of the passage is eschatological, but eschatology finds its roots in the present.

2 tn See the note on the word “sky” in 2:6. Most English translations render the Hebrew term as “heavens” here.

3 sn The expression on that day appears as a technical eschatological term in a number of other OT passages (cf., e.g., Isa 2:11, 17, 20; 3:7, 18; Amos 8:3, 9; Hos 2:18, 21).

4 sn My servant. The collocation of “servant” and “chosen” bears strong messianic overtones. See the so-called “Servant Songs” and other messianic texts in Isaiah (Isa 41:8; 42:1; 44:4; 49:7).

5 sn The noun signet ring, used also to describe Jehoiachin (Jer 22:24-30), refers to a ring seal worn by a king or other important person and used as his signature. Zerubbabel was a grandson of King Jehoiachin (1 Chr 3:17-19; Matt 1:12); God once pronounced that none of Jehoiachin’s immediate descendants would rule (Jer 22:24-30), but here he reverses that judgment. Zerubbabel never ascended to such a lofty position of rulership; he is rather a prototype of the Messiah who would sit on David’s throne.

6 tn The repetition of the formula “says the Lord who rules over all” in v. 23 emphasizes the solemn and divine nature of the promise.



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