1:5 Here then is what the Lord who rules over all says: ‘Think carefully about what you are doing. 1
1:9 ‘You expected a large harvest, but instead 3 there was little, and when you brought it home it disappeared right away. 4 Why?’ asks the Lord who rules over all. ‘Because my temple remains in ruins, thanks to each of you favoring his own house! 5
1:14 So the Lord energized and encouraged 6 Zerubbabel 7 son of Shealtiel, governor of Judah, the high priest Joshua son of Jehozadak, 8 and the whole remnant of the people. 9 They came and worked on the temple of their God, the Lord who rules over all.
2:4 Even so, take heart, Zerubbabel,’ says the Lord. ‘Take heart, Joshua son of Jehozadak, the high priest, and 10 all you citizens of the land,’ 11 says the Lord, ‘and begin to work. For I am with you,’ says the Lord who rules over all.
2:6 Moreover, the Lord who rules over all says: ‘In just a little while 12 I will once again shake the sky 13 and the earth, the sea and the dry ground. 2:7 I will also shake up all the nations, and they 14 will offer their treasures; 15 then I will fill this temple with glory,’ says the Lord who rules over all. 2:8 ‘The silver and gold will be mine,’ says the Lord who rules over all. 2:9 ‘The future splendor of this temple will be greater than that of former times,’ 16 the Lord who rules over all declares, ‘and in this place I will give peace.’” 17
2:11 “The Lord who rules over all says, ‘Ask the priests about the law. 18
2:23 On that day,’ 19 says the Lord who rules over all, ‘I will take you, Zerubbabel son of Shealtiel, my servant,’ 20 says the Lord, ‘and I will make you like a signet ring, 21 for I have chosen you,’ says the Lord who rules over all.” 22
3 tn Heb “look!” (הִנֵּה, hinneh). The term, an interjection, draws attention to the point being made.
4 tn Heb “I blew it away” (so NRSV, TEV, NLT). The imagery here suggests that human achievements are so fragile and temporal that a mere breath from God can destroy them (see Ezek 22:20, 21; and Isa 40:7 with נָשַׁב, nashav).
5 tn Heb “and each of you runs to his own house”; NIV “is busy with”; TEV “is busy working on”; NCV “work hard for.”
6 tn Heb “stirred up” (as in many English versions). Only one verb appears in the Hebrew text, but the translation “energized and encouraged” brings out its sense in this context. Cf. TEV “inspired”; NLT “sparked the enthusiasm of”; CEV “made everyone eager to work.”
sn It was God who initiated the rebuilding by providing the people with motivation and ability.
7 tn Heb “the spirit of Zerubbabel” (so NAB, NIV, NRSV).
9 tn Heb “and the spirit of all the remnant of the people.” The Hebrew phrase שְׁאֵרִית הָעָם (shÿ’erit ha’am) in this postexilic context is used as a technical term to refer to the returned remnant; see the note on the phrase “the whole remnant of the people” in v. 12.
10 tn Heb “and take heart.” Although emphatic, the repetition of the verb is redundant in contemporary English style and has been left untranslated.
11 tn Heb “the people of the land” (עַם הָאָרֶץ, ’am ha’arets); this is a technical term referring to free citizens as opposed to slaves.
12 tc The difficult MT reading עוֹד אַחַת מְעַט הִיא (’od ’akhat mÿ’at hi’, “yet once, it is little”; cf. NAB “One moment yet, a little while”) appears as “yet once” in the LXX, omitting the last two Hebrew words. However, the point being made is that the anticipated action is imminent; thus the repetition provides emphasis.
13 tn Or “the heavens.” The same Hebrew word, שָׁמַיִם (shamayim), may be translated “sky” or “heavens” depending on the context. Although many English versions translate the term as “heavens” here, the other three elements present in this context (earth, sea, dry ground) suggest “sky” is in view.
14 tn Heb “all the nations.”
15 tn Though the subject here is singular (חֶמְדַּה, khemdah; “desire”), the preceding plural predicate mandates a collective subject, “desired (things)” or, better, an emendation to a plural form, חֲמֻדֹת (khamudot, “desirable [things],” hence “treasures”). Cf. ASV “the precious things”; NASB “the wealth”; NRSV “the treasure.” In the OT context this has no direct reference to the coming of the Messiah.
16 tn Heb “greater will be the latter splendor of this house than the former”; NAB “greater will be the future glory.”
17 tn In the Hebrew text there is an implicit play on words in the clause “in this place [i.e., Jerusalem] I will give peace”: in יְרוּשָׁלַיִם (yÿrushalayim) there will be שָׁלוֹם (shalom).
18 tn Heb “Ask the priests a torah, saying”; KJV “concerning the law”; NAB “for a decision”; NCV “for a teaching”; NRSV “for a ruling.”
21 sn The noun signet ring, used also to describe Jehoiachin (Jer 22:24-30), refers to a ring seal worn by a king or other important person and used as his signature. Zerubbabel was a grandson of King Jehoiachin (1 Chr 3:17-19; Matt 1:12); God once pronounced that none of Jehoiachin’s immediate descendants would rule (Jer 22:24-30), but here he reverses that judgment. Zerubbabel never ascended to such a lofty position of rulership; he is rather a prototype of the Messiah who would sit on David’s throne.