38:15 When Judah saw her, he thought she was a prostitute 3 because she had covered her face. 38:16 He turned aside to her along the road and said, “Come on! I want to have sex with you.” 4 (He did not realize 5 it was his daughter-in-law.) She asked, “What will you give me in exchange for having sex with you?” 6 38:17 He replied, “I’ll send you a young goat from the flock.” She asked, “Will you give me a pledge until you send it?” 7 38:18 He said, “What pledge should I give you?” She replied, “Your seal, your cord, and the staff that’s in your hand.” So he gave them to her and had sex with her. 8 She became pregnant by him. 38:19 She left immediately, 9 removed her veil, and put on her widow’s clothes.
38:20 Then Judah had his friend Hirah 10 the Adullamite take a young goat to get back from the woman the items he had given in pledge, 11 but Hirah 12 could not find her. 38:21 He asked the men who were there, 13 “Where is the cult prostitute 14 who was at Enaim by the road?” But they replied, “There has been no cult prostitute here.” 38:22 So he returned to Judah and said, “I couldn’t find her. Moreover, the men of the place said, ‘There has been no cult prostitute here.’” 38:23 Judah said, “Let her keep the things 15 for herself. Otherwise we will appear to be dishonest. 16 I did indeed send this young goat, but you couldn’t find her.”
1 tn The Hebrew text simply has “because,” connecting this sentence to what precedes. For stylistic reasons the words “she did this” are supplied in the translation and a new sentence begun.
2 tn Heb “she saw that Shelah had grown up, but she was not given to him as a wife.”
3 tn Heb “he reckoned her for a prostitute,” which was what Tamar had intended for him to do. She obviously had some idea of his inclinations, or she would not have tried this risky plan.
4 tn Heb “I will go to you.” The imperfect verbal form probably indicates his desire here. The expression “go to” is a euphemism for sexual intercourse.
5 tn Heb “for he did not know that.”
6 tn Heb “when you come to me.” This expression is a euphemism for sexual intercourse.
7 tn Heb “until you send.”
8 tn Heb “and he went to her.” This expression is a euphemism for sexual intercourse.
9 tn Heb “and she arose and left,” the first verb in the pair emphasizing that she wasted no time.
10 tn Heb “sent by the hand of his friend.” Here the name of the friend (“Hirah”) has been included in the translation for clarity.
11 tn Heb “to receive the pledge from the woman’s hand.”
12 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Judah’s friend Hirah the Adullamite) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
13 tn Heb “the men of her place,” that is, who lived at the place where she had been.
14 sn The Hebrew noun translated “cult prostitute” is derived from a verb meaning “to be set apart; to be distinct.” Thus the term refers to a woman who did not marry, but was dedicated to temple service as a cult prostitute. The masculine form of this noun is used for male cult prostitutes. Judah thought he had gone to an ordinary prostitute (v. 15); but Hirah went looking for a cult prostitute, perhaps because it had been a sheep-shearing festival. For further discussion see E. M. Yamauchi, “Cultic Prostitution,” Orient and Occident (AOAT), 213-23.
15 tn The words “the things” have been supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.
16 tn Heb “we will become contemptible.” The Hebrew word בּוּז (buz) describes the contempt that a respectable person would have for someone who is worthless, foolish, or disreputable.