18:2 Abraham 1 looked up 2 and saw 3 three men standing across 4 from him. When he saw them 5 he ran from the entrance of the tent to meet them and bowed low 6 to the ground. 7
18:17 Then the Lord said, “Should I hide from Abraham what I am about to do? 10
1 tn Heb “he”; the referent (Abraham) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
2 tn Heb “lifted up his eyes.”
3 tn Heb “and saw, and look.” The particle הִנֵּה (hinneh) draws attention to what he saw. The drawn-out description focuses the reader’s attention on Abraham’s deliberate, fixed gaze and indicates that what he is seeing is significant.
4 tn The Hebrew preposition עַל (’al) indicates the three men were nearby, but not close by, for Abraham had to run to meet them.
5 tn The pronoun “them” has been supplied in the translation for clarification. In the Hebrew text the verb has no stated object.
6 tn The form וַיִּשְׁתַּחוּ (vayyishtakhu, “and bowed low”) is from the verb הִשְׁתַּחֲוָה (hishtakhavah, “to worship, bow low to the ground”). It is probably from a root חָוָה (khavah), though some derive it from שָׁחָה (shakhah).
7 sn The reader knows this is a theophany. The three visitors are probably the
8 tn Heb “Why, this?” The demonstrative pronoun following the interrogative pronoun is enclitic, emphasizing the
9 tn The Hebrew construction uses both הַאַף (ha’af) and אֻמְנָם (’umnam): “Indeed, truly, will I have a child?”
10 tn The active participle here refers to an action that is imminent.
11 tn Heb “And the men turned from there.” The word “two” is not in the Hebrew text, but is supplied here for clarity. Gen 19:1 mentions only two individuals (described as “angels”), while Abraham had entertained three visitors (18:2). The implication is that the
12 tn Heb “went.”
13 tc An ancient Hebrew scribal tradition reads “but the