10:5 From these the coastlands of the nations were separated into their lands, every one according to its language, according to their families, by their nations.
10:10 The primary regions 1 of his kingdom were Babel, 2 Erech, 3 Akkad, 4 and Calneh 5 in the land of Shinar. 6
10:20 These are the sons of Ham, according to their families, according to their languages, by their lands, and by their nations.
10:31 These are the sons of Shem according to their families, according to their languages, by their lands, and according to their nations.
2 tn Or “Babylon.”
3 sn Erech (ancient Uruk, modern Warka), one of the most ancient civilizations, was located southeast of Babylon.
4 sn Akkad, or ancient Agade, was associated with Sargon and located north of Babylon.
5 tn No such place is known in Shinar (i.e., Babylonia). Therefore some have translated the Hebrew term כַלְנֵה (khalneh) as “all of them,” referring to the three previous names (cf. NRSV).
6 sn Shinar is another name for Babylonia.