10:10 The primary regions 1 of his kingdom were Babel, 2 Erech, 3 Akkad, 4 and Calneh 5 in the land of Shinar. 6
11:2 When the people 7 moved eastward, 8 they found a plain in Shinar 9 and settled there.
14:9 Kedorlaomer king of Elam, Tidal king of nations, 13 Amraphel king of Shinar, and Arioch king of Ellasar. Four kings fought against 14 five.
2 tn Or “Babylon.”
3 sn Erech (ancient Uruk, modern Warka), one of the most ancient civilizations, was located southeast of Babylon.
4 sn Akkad, or ancient Agade, was associated with Sargon and located north of Babylon.
5 tn No such place is known in Shinar (i.e., Babylonia). Therefore some have translated the Hebrew term כַלְנֵה (khalneh) as “all of them,” referring to the three previous names (cf. NRSV).
6 sn Shinar is another name for Babylonia.
7 tn Heb “they”; the referent (the people) has been specified in the translation for clarity.
8 tn Or perhaps “from the east” (NRSV) or “in the east.”
9 tn Heb “in the land of Shinar.”
sn Shinar is the region of Babylonia.
10 tn The sentence begins with the temporal indicator וַיְהִי (vayÿhi) followed by “in the days of.”
12 tn Or “king of Goyim.” The Hebrew term גּוֹיִם (goyim) means “nations,” but a number of modern translations merely transliterate the Hebrew (cf. NEB “Goyim”; NIV, NRSV “Goiim”).
14 tn The Hebrew text has simply “against.” The word “fought” is supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.