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Genesis 10:10

Context
10:10 The primary regions 1  of his kingdom were Babel, 2  Erech, 3  Akkad, 4  and Calneh 5  in the land of Shinar. 6 

Genesis 11:2

Context
11:2 When the people 7  moved eastward, 8  they found a plain in Shinar 9  and settled there.

Genesis 14:1

Context
The Blessing of Victory for God’s People

14:1 At that time 10  Amraphel king of Shinar, 11  Arioch king of Ellasar, Kedorlaomer king of Elam, and Tidal king of nations 12 

1 tn Heb “beginning.” E. A. Speiser, Genesis (AB), 67, suggests “mainstays,” citing Jer 49:35 as another text where the Hebrew noun is so used.

2 tn Or “Babylon.”

3 sn Erech (ancient Uruk, modern Warka), one of the most ancient civilizations, was located southeast of Babylon.

4 sn Akkad, or ancient Agade, was associated with Sargon and located north of Babylon.

5 tn No such place is known in Shinar (i.e., Babylonia). Therefore some have translated the Hebrew term כַלְנֵה (khalneh) as “all of them,” referring to the three previous names (cf. NRSV).

6 sn Shinar is another name for Babylonia.

7 tn Heb “they”; the referent (the people) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

8 tn Or perhaps “from the east” (NRSV) or “in the east.”

9 tn Heb “in the land of Shinar.”

sn Shinar is the region of Babylonia.

10 tn The sentence begins with the temporal indicator וַיְהִי (vayÿhi) followed by “in the days of.”

11 sn Shinar (also in v. 9) is the region of Babylonia.

12 tn Or “king of Goyim.” The Hebrew term גּוֹיִם (goyim) means “nations,” but a number of modern translations merely transliterate the Hebrew (cf. NEB “Goyim”; NIV, NRSV “Goiim”).



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