2 tn Or “Babylon.”
3 sn Erech (ancient Uruk, modern Warka), one of the most ancient civilizations, was located southeast of Babylon.
4 sn Akkad, or ancient Agade, was associated with Sargon and located north of Babylon.
5 tn No such place is known in Shinar (i.e., Babylonia). Therefore some have translated the Hebrew term כַלְנֵה (khalneh) as “all of them,” referring to the three previous names (cf. NRSV).
6 sn Shinar is another name for Babylonia.