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Galatians 5:19-21

Context
5:19 Now the works of the flesh 1  are obvious: 2  sexual immorality, impurity, depravity, 5:20 idolatry, sorcery, 3  hostilities, 4  strife, 5  jealousy, outbursts of anger, selfish rivalries, dissensions, 6  factions, 5:21 envying, 7  murder, 8  drunkenness, carousing, 9  and similar things. I am warning you, as I had warned you before: Those who practice such things will not inherit the kingdom of God!

Galatians 5:24

Context
5:24 Now those who belong to Christ 10  have crucified the flesh 11  with its passions 12  and desires.

1 tn See the note on the word “flesh” in Gal 5:13.

2 tn Or “clear,” “evident.”

3 tn Or “witchcraft.”

4 tn Or “enmities,” “[acts of] hatred.”

5 tn Or “discord” (L&N 39.22).

6 tn Or “discord(s)” (L&N 39.13).

7 tn This term is plural in Greek (as is “murder” and “carousing”), but for clarity these abstract nouns have been translated as singular.

8 tcφόνοι (fonoi, “murders”) is absent in such important mss as Ì46 א B 33 81 323 945 pc sa, while the majority of mss (A C D F G Ψ 0122 0278 1739 1881 Ï lat) have the word. Although the pedigree of the mss which lack the term is of the highest degree, homoioteleuton may well explain the shorter reading. The preceding word has merely one letter difference, making it quite possible to overlook this term (φθόνοι φόνοι, fqonoi fonoi).

9 tn Or “revelings,” “orgies” (L&N 88.287).

10 tc ‡ Some mss (א A B C P Ψ 01221 0278 33 1175 1739 pc co) read “Christ Jesus” here, while many significant ones (Ì46 D F G 0122*,2 latt sy), as well as the Byzantine text, lack “Jesus.” The Byzantine text is especially not prone to omit the name “Jesus”; that it does so here argues for the authenticity of the shorter reading (for similar instances of probably authentic Byzantine shorter readings, see Matt 24:36 and Phil 1:14; cf. also W.-H. J. Wu, “A Systematic Analysis of the Shorter Readings in the Byzantine Text of the Synoptic Gospels” [Ph.D. diss., Dallas Theological Seminary, 2002]). On the strength of the alignment of Ì46 with the Western and Byzantine texttypes, the shorter reading is preferred. NA27 includes the word in brackets, indicating doubts as to its authenticity.

11 tn See the note on the word “flesh” in Gal 5:13.

12 tn The Greek term παθήμασιν (paqhmasin, translated “passions”) refers to strong physical desires, especially of a sexual nature (L&N 25.30).



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