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Galatians 4:3

4:3 So also we, when we were minors, 1  were enslaved under the basic forces 2  of the world.

Galatians 4:9

4:9 But now that you have come to know God (or rather to be known by God), how can you turn back again to the weak and worthless 3  basic forces? 4  Do you want to be enslaved to them all over again? 5 

1 tn See the note on the word “minor” in 4:1.

2 tn Or “basic principles,” “elemental things,” or “elemental spirits.” Some interpreters take this as a reference to supernatural powers who controlled nature and/or human fate.

3 tn Or “useless.” See L&N 65.16.

4 tn See the note on the phrase “basic forces” in 4:3.

5 tn Grk “basic forces, to which you want to be enslaved…” Verse 9 is a single sentence in the Greek text, but has been divided into two in the translation because of the length and complexity of the Greek sentence.

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