28:1 The word of the Lord came to me: 28:2 “Son of man, say to the prince 1 of Tyre, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says:
“‘Your heart is proud 2 and you said, “I am a god; 3
I sit in the seat of gods, in the heart of the seas” –
yet you are a man and not a god,
though you think you are godlike. 4
28:3 Look, you are wiser than Daniel; 5
no secret is hidden from you. 6
28:4 By your wisdom and understanding you have gained wealth for yourself;
you have amassed gold and silver in your treasuries.
28:5 By your great skill 7 in trade you have increased your wealth,
and your heart is proud because of your wealth.
28:6 “‘Therefore this is what the sovereign Lord says:
Because you think you are godlike, 8
28:7 I am about to bring foreigners 9 against you, the most terrifying of nations.
They will draw their swords against the grandeur made by your wisdom, 10
and they will defile your splendor.
28:8 They will bring you down to the pit, and you will die violently 11 in the heart of the seas.
28:9 Will you still say, “I am a god,” before the one who kills you –
though you are a man and not a god –
when you are in the power of those who wound you?
28:10 You will die the death of the uncircumcised 12 by the hand of foreigners;
for I have spoken, declares the sovereign Lord.’”
28:11 The word of the Lord came to me: 28:12 “Son of man, sing 13 a lament for the king of Tyre, and say to him, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says:
“‘You were the sealer 14 of perfection,
full of wisdom, and perfect in beauty.
28:13 You were in Eden, the garden of God. 15
Every precious stone was your covering,
the ruby, topaz, and emerald,
the chrysolite, onyx, and jasper,
the sapphire, turquoise, and beryl; 16
your settings and mounts were made of gold.
On the day you were created they were prepared.
28:14 I placed you there with an anointed 17 guardian 18 cherub; 19
you were on the holy mountain of God;
you walked about amidst fiery stones.
28:15 You were blameless in your behavior 20 from the day you were created,
until sin was discovered in you.
28:16 In the abundance of your trade you were filled with violence, 21 and you sinned;
so I defiled you and banished you 22 from the mountain of God –
the guardian cherub expelled you 23 from the midst of the stones of fire.
28:17 Your heart was proud because of your beauty;
you corrupted your wisdom on account of your splendor.
I threw you down to the ground;
I placed you before kings, that they might see you.
28:18 By the multitude of your iniquities, through the sinfulness of your trade,
you desecrated your sanctuaries.
So I drew fire out from within you;
it consumed you,
and I turned you to ashes on the earth
before the eyes of all who saw you.
28:19 All who know you among the peoples are shocked at you;
you have become terrified and will be no more.’”
28:20 The word of the Lord came to me: 28:21 “Son of man, turn toward 24 Sidon 25 and prophesy against it. 28:22 Say, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says:
“‘Look, I am against you, 26 Sidon,
and I will magnify myself in your midst.
Then they will know that I am the Lord
when I execute judgments on her
and reveal my sovereign power 27 in her.
28:23 I will send a plague into the city 28 and bloodshed into its streets;
the slain will fall within it, by the sword that attacks it 29 from every side.
Then they will know that I am the Lord.
28:24 “‘No longer will Israel suffer from the sharp briers 30 or painful thorns of all who surround and scorn them. 31 Then they will know that I am the sovereign Lord.
28:25 “‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: When I regather the house of Israel from the peoples where they are dispersed, I will reveal my sovereign power 32 over them in the sight of the nations, and they will live in their land that I gave to my servant Jacob. 28:26 They will live securely in it; they will build houses and plant vineyards. They will live securely 33 when I execute my judgments on all those who scorn them and surround them. Then they will know that I am the Lord their God.’”
29:1 In the tenth year, in the tenth month, on the twelfth day of the month, 34 the word of the Lord came to me: 29:2 “Son of man, turn toward 35 Pharaoh king of Egypt, and prophesy against him and against all Egypt. 29:3 Tell them, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says:
“‘Look, I am against 36 you, Pharaoh king of Egypt,
the great monster 37 lying in the midst of its waterways,
who has said, “My Nile is my own, I made it for myself.” 38
29:4 I will put hooks in your jaws
and stick the fish of your waterways to your scales.
I will haul you up from the midst of your waterways,
and all the fish of your waterways will stick to your scales.
29:5 I will leave you in the wilderness,
you and all the fish of your waterways;
you will fall in the open field and will not be gathered up or collected. 39
I have given you as food to the beasts of the earth and the birds of the skies.
29:6 Then all those living in Egypt will know that I am the Lord
because they were a reed staff 40 for the house of Israel;
29:7 when they grasped you with their hand, 41 you broke and tore 42 their shoulders,
and when they leaned on you, you splintered and caused their legs to be unsteady. 43
29:8 “‘Therefore, this is what the sovereign Lord says: Look, I am about to bring a sword against you, and I will kill 44 every person and every animal. 29:9 The land of Egypt will become a desolate ruin. Then they will know that I am the Lord.
Because he said, “The Nile is mine and I made it,” 29:10 I am against 45 you and your waterways. I will turn the land of Egypt into an utter desolate ruin from Migdol 46 to Syene, 47 as far as the border with Ethiopia. 29:11 No human foot will pass through it, and no animal’s foot will pass through it; it will be uninhabited for forty years. 29:12 I will turn the land of Egypt into a desolation in the midst of desolate lands; for forty years her cities will lie desolate in the midst of ruined cities. I will scatter Egypt among the nations and disperse them among foreign countries.
29:13 “‘For this is what the sovereign Lord says: At the end of forty years 48 I will gather Egypt from the peoples where they were scattered. 29:14 I will restore the fortunes of Egypt, and will bring them back 49 to the land of Pathros, to the land of their origin; there they will be an insignificant kingdom. 29:15 It will be the most insignificant of the kingdoms; it will never again exalt itself over the nations. I will make them so small that they will not rule over the nations. 29:16 It will never again be Israel’s source of confidence, but a reminder of how they sinned by turning to Egypt for help. 50 Then they will know that I am the sovereign Lord.’”
29:17 In the twenty-seventh year, in the first month, on the first day of the month, 51 the word of the Lord came to me: 29:18 “Son of man, King Nebuchadrezzar 52 of Babylon made his army labor hard against Tyre. 53 Every head was rubbed bald and every shoulder rubbed bare; yet he and his army received no wages from Tyre for the work he carried out against it. 29:19 Therefore this is what the sovereign Lord says: Look, I am about to give the land of Egypt to King Nebuchadrezzar of Babylon. He will carry off her wealth, capture her loot, and seize her plunder; it will be his army’s wages. 29:20 I have given him the land of Egypt as his compensation for attacking Tyre 54 , because they did it for me, declares the sovereign Lord. 29:21 On that day I will make Israel powerful, 55 and I will give you the right to be heard 56 among them. Then they will know that I am the Lord.”
30:1 The word of the Lord came to me: 30:2 “Son of man, prophesy and say, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says:
“‘Wail, “Alas, the day is here!” 57
30:3 For the day is near,
the day of the Lord is near;
it will be a day of storm clouds, 58
it will be a time of judgment 59 for the nations.
30:4 A sword will come against Egypt
and panic will overtake Ethiopia
when the slain fall in Egypt
and they carry away her wealth
and dismantle her foundations.
30:5 Ethiopia, Put, Lud, all the foreigners, 60 Libya, and the people 61 of the covenant land 62 will die by the sword along with them.
30:6 “‘This is what the Lord says:
Egypt’s supporters will fall;
her confident pride will crumble. 63
From Migdol to Syene 64 they will die by the sword within her,
declares the sovereign Lord.
30:7 They will be desolate among desolate lands,
and their cities will be among ruined cities.
30:8 They will know that I am the Lord
when I ignite a fire in Egypt
and all her allies are defeated. 65
30:9 On that day messengers will go out from me in ships to frighten overly confident Ethiopia; panic will overtake them on the day of Egypt’s doom; 66 for beware – it is coming!
30:10 “‘This is what the sovereign Lord says:
I will put an end to the hordes of Egypt,
by the hand of King Nebuchadrezzar 67 of Babylon.
30:11 He and his people with him,
the most terrifying of the nations, 68
will be brought there to destroy the land.
They will draw their swords against Egypt,
and fill the land with corpses.
30:12 I will dry up the waterways
and hand the land over to 69 evil men.
I will make the land and everything in it desolate by the hand of foreigners.
I, the Lord, have spoken!
30:13 “‘This is what the sovereign Lord says:
I will destroy the idols,
and put an end to the gods of Memphis.
There will no longer be a prince from the land of Egypt;
so I will make the land of Egypt fearful. 70
30:14 I will desolate Pathros,
I will ignite a fire in Zoan,
and I will execute judgments on Thebes.
30:15 I will pour out my anger upon Pelusium, 71
the stronghold of Egypt;
I will cut off 72 the hordes of Thebes.
30:16 I will ignite a fire in Egypt;
Syene 73 will writhe in agony,
Thebes will be broken down,
and Memphis will face enemies every day.
30:17 The young men of On and of Pi-beseth 74 will die by the sword;
and the cities will go 75 into captivity.
30:18 In Tahpanhes the day will be dark 76
when I break the yoke of Egypt there.
Her confident pride will cease within her;
a cloud will cover her, and her daughters will go into captivity.
30:19 I will execute judgments on Egypt.
Then they will know that I am the Lord.’”
30:20 In the eleventh year, in the first month, on the seventh day of the month, 77 the word of the Lord came to me: 30:21 “Son of man, I have broken the arm 78 of Pharaoh king of Egypt. 79 Look, it has not been bandaged for healing or set with a dressing so that it might become strong enough to grasp a sword. 30:22 Therefore this is what the sovereign Lord says: Look, 80 I am against 81 Pharaoh king of Egypt, and I will break his arms, the strong arm and the broken one, and I will make the sword drop from his hand. 30:23 I will scatter the Egyptians among the nations, and disperse them among foreign countries. 30:24 I will strengthen the arms of the king of Babylon, and I will place my sword in his hand, but I will break the arms of Pharaoh, and he will groan like the fatally wounded before the king of Babylon. 82 30:25 I will strengthen the arms of the king of Babylon, but the arms of Pharaoh will fall limp. Then they will know that I am the Lord when I place my sword in the hand of the king of Babylon and he extends it against the land of Egypt. 30:26 I will scatter the Egyptians among the nations and disperse them among foreign countries. Then they will know that I am the Lord.”
1 tn Or “ruler” (NIV, NCV).
2 tn Heb “lifted up.”
sn See Prov 16:5.
3 tn Or “I am divine.”
4 tn Heb “and you made your heart (mind) like the heart (mind) of gods.”
5 sn Or perhaps “Danel” (so TEV), referring to a ruler known from Canaanite legend. See the note on “Daniel” in 14:14. A reference to Danel (preserved in legend at Ugarit, near the northern end of the Phoenician coast) makes more sense here when addressing Tyre than in 14:14.
6 sn The tone here is sarcastic, reflecting the ruler’s view of himself.
7 tn Or “wisdom.”
8 tn Heb “because of your making your heart like the heart of gods.”
9 sn This is probably a reference to the Babylonians.
10 tn Heb “they will draw their swords against the beauty of your wisdom.”
11 tn Heb “you will die the death of the slain.”
12 sn The Phoenicians practiced circumcision, so the language here must be figurative, indicating that they would be treated in a disgraceful manner. Uncircumcised peoples were viewed as inferior, unclean, and perhaps even sub-human. See 31:18 and 32:17-32, as well as the discussion in D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:99.
13 tn Heb “lift up.”
14 tn For a discussion of possible nuances of this phrase, see M. Greenberg, Ezekiel (AB), 2:580-81.
15 sn The imagery of the lament appears to draw upon an extrabiblical Eden tradition about the expulsion of the first man (see v. 14 and the note there) from the garden due to his pride. The biblical Eden tradition speaks of cherubs placed as guardians at the garden entrance following the sin of Adam and Eve (Gen 3:24), but no guardian cherub like the one described in verse 14 is depicted or mentioned in the biblical account. Ezekiel’s imagery also appears to reflect Mesopotamian and Canaanite mythology at certain points. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:119-20.
16 tn The exact identification of each gemstone is uncertain. The list should be compared to that of the priest in Exod 28:17-20, which lists twelve stones in rows of three. The LXX apparently imports the Exod 28 list. See reference to the types of stones in L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:91.
17 tn Or “winged”; see L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:91.
18 tn The meaning of this phrase in Hebrew is uncertain. The word translated here “guards” occurs in Exod 25:20 in reference to the cherubim “covering” the ark.
19 tn Heb “you (were) an anointed cherub that covers and I placed you.” In the Hebrew text the ruler of Tyre is equated with a cherub, and the verb “I placed you” is taken with what follows (“on the holy mountain of God”). However, this reading is problematic. The pronoun “you” at the beginning of verse 14 is feminine singular in the Hebrew text; elsewhere in this passage the ruler of Tyre is addressed with masculine singular forms. It is possible that the pronoun is a rare (see Deut 5:24; Num 11:15) or defectively written (see 1 Sam 24:19; Neh 9:6; Job 1:10; Ps 6:3; Eccl 7:22) masculine form, but it is more likely that the form should be repointed as the preposition “with” (see the LXX). In this case the ruler of Tyre is compared to the first man, not to a cherub. If this emendation is accepted, then the verb “I placed you” belongs with what precedes and concludes the first sentence in the verse. It is noteworthy that the verbs in the second and third lines of the verse also appear at the end of the sentence in the Hebrew text. The presence of a conjunction at the beginning of “I placed you” is problematic for the proposal, but it may reflect a later misunderstanding of the syntax of the verse. For a defense of the proposed emendation, see L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:91.
20 tn Heb “ways.”
21 tn Heb “they filled your midst with violence.”
22 tn Heb “I defiled you.” The presence of the preposition “from” following the verb indicates that a verb of motion is implied as well. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:91.
23 tn Heb “and I expelled you, O guardian cherub.” The Hebrew text takes the verb as first person and understands “guardian cherub” as a vocative, in apposition to the pronominal suffix on the verb. However, if the emendation in verse 14a is accepted (see the note above), then one may follow the LXX here as well and emend the verb to a third person perfect. In this case the subject of the verb is the guardian cherub. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:91.
24 tn Heb “set your face against.”
25 sn Sidon was located 25 miles north of Tyre.
map For location see Map1-A1; JP3-F3; JP4-F3.
26 tn Or “I challenge you.” The phrase “I am against you” may be a formula for challenging someone to combat or a duel. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 1:201-2, and P. Humbert, “Die Herausforderungsformel ‘h!nn#n' ?l?K>,’” ZAW 45 (1933): 101-8.
27 tn Or “reveal my holiness.” God’s “holiness” is fundamentally his transcendence as sovereign ruler of the world. The revelation of his authority and power through judgment is in view in this context.
28 tn Heb “into it”; the referent of the feminine pronoun has been specified in the translation for clarity.
29 tn Heb “by a sword against it.”
30 sn Similar language is used in reference to Israel’s adversaries in Num 33:55; Josh 23:13.
31 tn Heb “and there will not be for the house of Israel a brier that pricks and a thorn that inflicts pain from all the ones who surround them, the ones who scorn them.”
32 tn Or “reveal my holiness.” See verse 22.
33 sn This promise was given in Lev 25:18-19.
34 tn January 7, 587
35 tn Heb “set your face against.”
36 tn Or “I challenge you.” The phrase “I am against you” may be a formula for challenging someone to combat or a duel. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 1:201-2, and P. Humbert, “Die Herausforderungsformel ‘h!nn#n' ?l?K>,’” ZAW 45 (1933): 101-8.
37 tn Heb “jackals,” but many medieval Hebrew
38 sn In Egyptian theology Pharaoh owned and controlled the Nile. See J. D. Currid, Ancient Egypt and the Old Testament, 240-44.
39 tc Some Hebrew
40 sn Compare Isa 36:6.
41 tn The Hebrew consonantal text (Kethib) has “by your hand,” but the marginal reading (Qere) has simply “by the hand.” The LXX reads “with their hand.”
42 tn Or perhaps “dislocated.”
43 tn Heb “you caused to stand for them all their hips.” An emendation which switches two letters but is supported by the LXX yields the reading “you caused all their hips to shake.” See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:103. In 2 Kgs 18:21 and Isa 36:6 trusting in the Pharaoh is compared to leaning on a staff. The oracle may reflect Hophra’s attempt to aid Jerusalem (Jer 37:5-8).
44 tn Heb “I will cut off from you.”
45 tn Or “I challenge you.” The phrase “I am against you” may be a formula for challenging someone to combat or a duel. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 1:201-2, and P. Humbert, “Die Herausforderungsformel ‘h!nn#n' ?l?K>,’” ZAW 45 (1933): 101-8.
46 sn This may refer to a site in the Egyptian Delta which served as a refuge for Jews (Jer 44:1; 46:14).
47 sn Syene is known today as Aswan.
48 sn In Ezek 4:4-8 it was said that the house of Judah would suffer forty years.
49 tc Thus the Masoretic Text. The LXX, Syriac, and Vulgate translate as though the Hebrew read “cause to inhabit.”
50 tn Heb “reminding of iniquity when they turned after them.”
51 sn April 26, 571
52 tn Heb “Nebuchadrezzar” is a variant and more correct spelling of Nebuchadnezzar, as the Babylonian name Nabu-kudurri-usur has an “r” rather than an “n” (so also in v. 19).
53 sn Nebuchadnezzar besieged Tyre from 585 to 571
map For location see Map1-A2; Map2-G2; Map4-A1; JP3-F3; JP4-F3.
54 tn Heb “for which he worked,” referring to the assault on Tyre (v. 18).
55 tn Heb “I will cause a horn to sprout for the house of Israel.” The horn is used as a figure for military power in the OT (Ps 92:10). A similar expression is made about the Davidic dynasty in Ps 132:17.
56 tn Heb “I will grant you an open mouth.”
57 tn Heb “Alas for the day.”
58 tn Heb “a day of clouds.” The expression occurs also in Joel 2:2 and Zeph 1:15; it recalls the appearance of God at Mount Sinai (Exod 19:9, 16, 18).
59 tn Heb “a time.” The words “of judgment” have been added in the translation for clarification (see the following verses).
60 tn The same expression appears in Exod 12:38; Jer 25:20; 50:37; Neh 13:3. It may refer to foreign mercenaries serving in the armies of the nations listed here.
61 tn Heb “sons.”
62 tn The expression “sons of the covenant land” possibly refers to Jews living in Egypt (Jer 44).
63 tn Heb “come down.”
64 sn Syene is known as Aswan today.
65 tn Heb “all who aid her are broken.”
66 tn Heb “in the day of Egypt.” The word “doom” has been added in the translation to clarify the nature of this day.
67 tn Heb “Nebuchadrezzar” is a variant and more correct spelling of Nebuchadnezzar, as the Babylonian name Nabu-kudurri-usur has an “r” rather than an “n.”
68 tn The Babylonians were known for their cruelty (2 Kgs 25:7).
69 tn Heb “and I will sell the land into the hand of.”
70 tn Heb “I will put fear in the land of Egypt.”
71 tn Heb “Sin” (so KJV, NASB), a city commonly identified with Pelusium, a fortress on Egypt’s northeastern frontier.
72 tn Or “kill.”
73 tc The LXX reads “Syene,” which is Aswan in the south. The MT reads Sin, which has already been mentioned in v. 15.
74 sn On and Pi-beseth are generally identified with the Egyptian cities of Heliopolis and Bubastis.
75 tn Heb “they will go.” The pronoun and verb are feminine plural, indicating that the cities just mentioned are the antecedent of the pronoun and the subject of the verb. The translation makes this clear by stating the subject as “the cities.”
76 sn In Zeph 1:15 darkness is associated with the day of the
77 tn April 29, 587
78 sn The expression “breaking the arm” indicates the removal of power (Ps 10:15; 37:17; Job 38:15; Jer 48:25).
79 sn This may refer to the event recorded in Jer 37:5.
80 tn The word h!nn@h indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.
81 tn Or “I challenge you.” The phrase “I am against you” may be a formula for challenging someone to combat or a duel. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 1:201-2, and P. Humbert, “Die Herausforderungsformel ‘h!nn#n' ?l?K>,’” ZAW 45 (1933): 101-8.
82 tn Heb “him”; the referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.