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  Discovery Box

Ezekiel 37:1--48:35

Context
The Valley of Dry Bones

37:1 The hand 1  of the Lord was on me, and he brought me out by the Spirit of the Lord and placed 2  me in the midst of the valley, and it was full of bones. 37:2 He made me walk all around among them. 3  I realized 4  there were a great many bones in the valley and they were very dry. 37:3 He said to me, “Son of man, can these bones live?” I said to him, “Sovereign Lord, you know.” 37:4 Then he said to me, “Prophesy over these bones, and tell them: ‘Dry bones, hear the word of the Lord. 37:5 This is what the sovereign Lord says to these bones: Look, I am about to infuse breath 5  into you and you will live. 37:6 I will put tendons 6  on you and muscles over you and will cover you with skin; I will put breath 7  in you and you will live. Then you will know that I am the Lord.’”

37:7 So I prophesied as I was commanded. There was a sound when I prophesied – I heard 8  a rattling, and the bones came together, bone to bone. 37:8 As I watched, I saw 9  tendons on them, then muscles appeared, 10  and skin covered over them from above, but there was no breath 11  in them.

37:9 He said to me, “Prophesy to the breath, 12  – prophesy, son of man – and say to the breath: ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Come from the four winds, O breath, and breathe on these corpses so that they may live.’” 37:10 So I prophesied as I was commanded, and the breath came into them; they lived and stood on their feet, an extremely great army.

37:11 Then he said to me, “Son of man, these bones are all the house of Israel. Look, they are saying, ‘Our bones are dry, our hope has perished; we are cut off.’ 37:12 Therefore prophesy, and tell them, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Look, I am about to open your graves and will raise you from your graves, my people. I will bring you to the land of Israel. 37:13 Then you will know that I am the Lord, when I open your graves and raise you from your graves, my people. 37:14 I will place my breath 13  in you and you will live; I will give you rest in your own land. Then you will know that I am the Lord – I have spoken and I will act, declares the Lord.’”

37:15 The word of the Lord came to me: 37:16 “As for you, son of man, take one branch, and write on it, ‘For Judah, and for the Israelites associated with him.’ Then take another branch and write on it, ‘For Joseph, the branch of Ephraim and all the house of Israel associated with him.’ 37:17 Join 14  them as one stick; 15  they will be as one in your hand. 37:18 When your people 16  say to you, ‘Will you not tell us what these things mean?’ 37:19 tell them, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Look, I am about to take the branch of Joseph which is in the hand of Ephraim and the tribes of Israel associated with him, and I will place them on the stick of Judah, 17  and make them into one stick – they will be one in my hand.’ 18  37:20 The sticks you write on will be in your hand in front of them. 37:21 Then tell them, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Look, I am about to take the Israelites from among the nations where they have gone. I will gather them from round about and bring them to their land. 37:22 I will make them one nation in the land, on the mountains of Israel, and one king will rule over them all. They will never again be two nations and never again be divided into two kingdoms. 19  37:23 They will not defile themselves with their idols, their detestable things, and all their rebellious deeds. I will save them from all their unfaithfulness 20  by which they sinned. I will purify them; they will become my people and I will become their God.

37:24 “‘My servant David will be king over them; there will be one shepherd for all of them. They will follow 21  my regulations and carefully observe my statutes. 22  37:25 They will live in the land I gave to my servant Jacob, in which your fathers lived; they will live in it – they and their children and their grandchildren forever. David my servant will be prince over them forever. 37:26 I will make a covenant of peace with them; it will be a perpetual covenant with them. 23  I will establish them, 24  increase their numbers, and place my sanctuary among them forever. 37:27 My dwelling place will be with them; I will be their God, and they will be my people. 37:28 Then, when my sanctuary is among them forever, the nations will know that I, the Lord, sanctify Israel.’” 25 

A Prophecy Against Gog

38:1 The word of the Lord came to me: 38:2 “Son of man, turn toward 26  Gog, 27  of the land of Magog, 28  the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal. 29  Prophesy against him 38:3 and say: ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Look, 30  I am against you, Gog, chief prince of Meshech and Tubal. 38:4 I will turn you around, put hooks into your jaws, and bring you out with all your army, horses and horsemen, all of them fully armed, a great company with shields of different types, 31  all of them armed with swords. 38:5 Persia, 32  Ethiopia, and Put 33  are with them, all of them with shields and helmets. 38:6 They are joined by 34  Gomer with all its troops, and by Beth Togarmah from the remote parts of the north with all its troops – many peoples are with you. 35 

38:7 “‘Be ready and stay ready, you and all your companies assembled around you, and be a guard for them. 36  38:8 After many days you will be summoned; in the latter years you will come to a land restored from the ravages of war, 37  with many peoples gathered on the mountains of Israel that had long been in ruins. Its people 38  were brought out from the peoples, and all of them will be living securely. 38:9 You will advance; 39  you will come like a storm. You will be like a cloud covering the earth, you, all your troops, and the many other peoples with you.

38:10 “‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: On that day thoughts will come into your mind, 40  and you will devise an evil plan. 38:11 You will say, “I will invade 41  a land of unwalled towns; I will advance against 42  those living quietly in security – all of them living without walls and barred gates – 38:12 to loot and plunder, to attack 43  the inhabited ruins and the people gathered from the nations, who are acquiring cattle and goods, who live at the center 44  of the earth.” 38:13 Sheba and Dedan and the traders of Tarshish with all its young warriors 45  will say to you, “Have you come to loot? Have you assembled your armies to plunder, to carry away silver and gold, to take away cattle and goods, to haul away a great amount of spoils?”’

38:14 “Therefore, prophesy, son of man, and say to Gog: ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: On that day when my people Israel are living securely, you will take notice 46  38:15 and come from your place, from the remote parts of the north, you and many peoples with you, all of them riding on horses, a great company and a vast army. 38:16 You will advance 47  against my people Israel like a cloud covering the earth. In the latter days I will bring you against my land so that the nations may acknowledge me, when before their eyes I magnify myself 48  through you, O Gog.

38:17 “‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Are you the one of whom I spoke in former days by my servants 49  the prophets of Israel, who prophesied in those days 50  that I would bring you against them? 38:18 On that day, when Gog invades 51  the land of Israel, declares the sovereign Lord, my rage will mount up in my anger. 38:19 In my zeal, in the fire of my fury, 52  I declare that on that day there will be a great earthquake 53  in the land of Israel. 38:20 The fish of the sea, the birds of the sky, the wild beasts, all the things that creep on the ground, and all people who live on the face of the earth will shake 54  at my presence. The mountains will topple, the cliffs 55  will fall, and every wall will fall to the ground. 38:21 I will call for a sword to attack 56  Gog 57  on all my mountains, declares the sovereign Lord; every man’s sword will be against his brother. 38:22 I will judge him with plague and bloodshed. I will rain down on him, his troops and the many peoples who are with him a torrential downpour, hailstones, fire, and brimstone. 38:23 I will exalt and magnify myself; I will reveal myself before many nations. Then they will know that I am the Lord.’

39:1 “As for you, son of man, prophesy against Gog, and say: ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Look, I am against you, O Gog, chief prince of Meshech and Tubal! 39:2 I will turn you around and drag you along; 58  I will lead you up from the remotest parts of the north and bring you against the mountains of Israel. 39:3 I will knock your bow out of your left hand and make your arrows fall from your right hand. 39:4 You will fall dead on the mountains of Israel, you and all your troops and the people who are with you. I give you as food to every kind of bird and every wild beast. 39:5 You will fall dead in the open field; for I have spoken, declares the sovereign Lord. 39:6 I will send fire on Magog and those who live securely in the coastlands; then they will know that I am the Lord.

39:7 “‘I will make my holy name known in the midst of my people Israel; I will not let my holy name be profaned anymore. Then the nations will know that I am the Lord, the Holy One of Israel. 59  39:8 Realize that it is coming and it will be done, declares the sovereign Lord. It is the day I have spoken about.

39:9 “‘Then those who live in the cities of Israel will go out and use the weapons for kindling 60  – the shields, 61  bows and arrows, war clubs and spears – they will burn them for seven years. 39:10 They will not need to take 62  wood from the field or cut down trees from the forests, because they will make fires with the weapons. They will take the loot from those who looted them and seize the plunder of those who plundered them, 63  declares the sovereign Lord.

39:11 “‘On that day I will assign Gog a grave in Israel. It will be the valley of those who travel east of the sea; it will block the way of the travelers. There they will bury Gog and all his horde; they will call it the valley of Hamon-Gog. 64  39:12 For seven months Israel 65  will bury them, in order to cleanse the land. 39:13 All the people of the land will bury them, and it will be a memorial 66  for them on the day I magnify myself, declares the sovereign Lord. 39:14 They will designate men to scout continually 67  through the land, burying those who remain on the surface of the ground, 68  in order to cleanse it. They will search for seven full months. 39:15 When the scouts survey 69  the land and see a human bone, they will place a sign by it, until those assigned to burial duty have buried it 70  in the valley of Hamon-Gog. 39:16 (A city by the name of Hamonah 71  will also be there.) They will cleanse the land.’

39:17 “As for you, son of man, this is what the sovereign Lord says: Tell every kind of bird and every wild beast: ‘Assemble and come! Gather from all around to my slaughter 72  which I am going to make for you, a great slaughter on the mountains of Israel! You will eat flesh and drink blood. 39:18 You will eat the flesh of warriors 73  and drink the blood of the princes of the earth – the rams, lambs, goats, and bulls, all of them fattened animals of Bashan. 39:19 You will eat fat until you are full, and drink blood until you are drunk, 74  at my slaughter 75  which I have made for you. 39:20 You will fill up at my table with horses and charioteers, 76  with warriors and all the soldiers,’ declares the sovereign Lord.

39:21 “I will display my majesty 77  among the nations. All the nations will witness the judgment I have executed, and the power I have exhibited 78  among them. 39:22 Then the house of Israel will know that I am the Lord their God, from that day forward. 39:23 The nations will know that the house of Israel went into exile due to their iniquity, 79  for they were unfaithful to me. So I hid my face from them and handed them over to their enemies; all of them died by the sword. 39:24 According to their uncleanness and rebellion I have dealt with them, and I hid my face from them.

39:25 “Therefore this is what the sovereign Lord says: Now I will restore 80  the fortunes of Jacob, and I will have mercy on the entire house of Israel. I will be zealous for my holy name. 39:26 They will bear their shame for all their unfaithful acts against me, when they live securely on their land with no one to make them afraid. 39:27 When I have brought them back from the peoples and gathered them from the countries of their enemies, I will magnify myself among them in the sight of many nations. 39:28 Then they will know that I am the Lord their God, because I sent them into exile among the nations, and then gathered them into their own land. I will not leave any of them in exile 81  any longer. 39:29 I will no longer hide my face from them, when I pour out my Spirit on the house of Israel, 82  declares the sovereign Lord.”

Vision of the New Temple

40:1 In the twenty-fifth year of our exile, at the beginning of the year, on the tenth day of the month, in the fourteenth year after the city 83  was struck down, on this very day, 84  the hand 85  of the Lord was on me, and he brought me there. 86  40:2 By means of divine visions 87  he brought me to the land of Israel and placed me on a very high mountain, 88  and on it was a structure like a city, to the south. 40:3 When he brought me there, I saw 89  a man whose appearance was like bronze, with a linen cord and a measuring stick in his hand. He was standing in the gateway. 40:4 The man said to me, “Son of man, watch closely, listen carefully, and pay attention 90  to everything I show you, for you have been brought here so that I can show it to you. 91  Tell the house of Israel everything you see.”

40:5 I saw 92  a wall all around the outside of the temple. 93  In the man’s hand was a measuring stick 10½ feet 94  long. He measured the thickness of the wall 95  as 10½ feet, 96  and its height as 10½ feet. 40:6 Then he went to the gate facing east. He climbed its steps and measured the threshold of the gate as 10½ feet deep. 97  40:7 The alcoves were 10½ feet long and 10½ feet wide; between the alcoves were 8¾ feet. 98  The threshold of the gate by the porch of the gate facing inward was 10½ feet. 40:8 Then he measured the porch of the gate facing inward as 10½ feet. 40:9 He measured the porch of the gate as 14 feet, 99  and its jambs as 3½ feet; 100  the porch of the gate faced inward. 40:10 There were three alcoves on each side of the east gate; the three had the same measurement, and the jambs on either side had the same measurement. 101  40:11 He measured the width of the entrance of the gateway as 17½ feet, 102  and the length of the gateway as 22¾ feet. 103  40:12 There was a barrier in front of the alcoves, 1¾ feet 104  on either side; the alcoves were 10½ feet 105  on either side. 40:13 He measured the gateway from the roof of one alcove to the roof of the other, a width of 43¾ feet 106  from one entrance to the opposite one. 40:14 He measured 107  the porch 108  at 105 feet 109  high; 110  the gateway went all around to the jamb of the courtyard. 40:15 From the front of the entrance gate to the porch of the inner gate was 87½ feet. 111  40:16 There were closed windows toward the alcoves and toward their jambs within the gate all around, and likewise for the porches. There were windows all around the inside, and on each jamb were decorative palm trees. 112 

40:17 Then he brought me to the outer court. I saw 113  chambers there, and a pavement made for the court all around; thirty chambers faced the pavement. 40:18 The pavement was beside the gates, corresponding to the length of the gates; this was the lower pavement. 40:19 Then he measured the width from before the lower gate to the front of the exterior of the inner court as 175 feet 114  on the east and on the north.

40:20 He measured the length and width of the gate of the outer court which faces north. 40:21 Its alcoves, three on each side, and its jambs and porches had the same measurement as the first gate; 87½ feet 115  long and 43¾ feet 116  wide. 40:22 Its windows, its porches, and its decorative palm trees had the same measurement as the gate which faced east. Seven steps led up to it, and its porch was in front of them. 40:23 Opposite the gate on the north and the east was a gate of the inner court; he measured the distance from gate to gate at 175 feet. 117 

40:24 Then he led me toward the south. I saw 118  a gate on the south. He measured its jambs and its porches; they had the same dimensions as the others. 40:25 There were windows all around it and its porches, like the windows of the others; 119  87½ feet 120  long and 43¾ feet 121  wide. 40:26 There were seven steps going up to it; its porches were in front of them. It had decorative palm trees on its jambs, one on either side. 40:27 The inner court had a gate toward the south; he measured it from gate to gate toward the south as 175 feet. 122 

40:28 Then he brought me to the inner court by the south gate. He measured the south gate; it had the same dimensions as the others. 40:29 Its alcoves, its jambs, and its porches had the same dimensions as the others, and there were windows all around it and its porches; its length was 87½ feet 123  and its width 43¾ feet. 124  40:30 There were porches all around, 43¾ feet 125  long and 8¾ feet 126  wide. 40:31 Its porches faced the outer court, and decorative palm trees were on its jambs, and its stairway had eight steps.

40:32 Then he brought me to the inner court on the east side. He measured the gate; it had the same dimensions as the others. 40:33 Its alcoves, its jambs, and its porches had the same dimensions as the others, and there were windows all around it and its porches; its length was 87½ feet 127  and its width 43¾ feet. 128  40:34 Its porches faced the outer court, it had decorative palm trees on its jambs, and its stairway had eight steps.

40:35 Then he brought me to the north gate, and he measured it; it had the same dimensions as the others – 40:36 its alcoves, its jambs, and its porches. It had windows all around it; its length was 87½ feet 129  and its width 43¾ feet. 130  40:37 Its jambs 131  faced the outer court, and it had decorative palm trees on its jambs, on either side, and its stairway had eight steps.

40:38 There was a chamber with its door by the porch of the gate; 132  there they washed the burnt offering. 40:39 In the porch of the gate were two tables on either side on which to slaughter the burnt offering, the sin offering, and the guilt offering. 40:40 On the outside of the porch as one goes up at the entrance of the north gate were two tables, and on the other side of the porch of the gate were two tables. 40:41 Four tables were on each side of the gate, eight tables on which the sacrifices were to be slaughtered. 40:42 The four tables for the burnt offering were of carved stone, 32 inches 133  long, 32 inches 134  wide, and 21 inches 135  high. They would put the instruments which they used to slaughter the burnt offering and the sacrifice on them. 40:43 There were hooks 136  three inches 137  long, fastened in the house all around, and on the tables was the flesh of the offering.

40:44 On the outside of the inner gate were chambers for the singers of the inner court, one 138  at the side of the north gate facing south, and the other at the side of the south 139  gate facing north. 40:45 He said to me, “This chamber which faces south is for the priests who keep charge of the temple, 140  40:46 and the chamber which faces north is for the priests who keep charge of the altar. These are the descendants of Zadok, from the descendants of Levi, who may approach the Lord to minister to him.” 40:47 He measured the court as a square 175 feet long and 175 feet wide; 141  the altar was in front of the temple.

40:48 Then he brought me to the porch of the temple and measured the jambs of the porch as 8¾ feet 142  on either side, and the width of the gate was 24½ feet 143  and the sides 144  were 5¼ feet 145  on each side. 40:49 The length of the porch was 35 feet 146  and the width 19¼ feet; 147  steps 148  led up to it, and there were pillars beside the jambs on either side.

The Inner Temple

41:1 Then he brought me to the outer sanctuary, and measured the jambs; the jambs were 10½ feet 149  wide on each side. 41:2 The width of the entrance was 17½ feet, 150  and the sides 151  of the entrance were 8¾ feet 152  on each side. He measured the length of the outer sanctuary as 70 feet, 153  and its width as 35 feet. 154 

41:3 Then he went into the inner sanctuary and measured the jambs of the entrance as 3½ feet, 155  the entrance as 10½ feet, 156  and the width of the entrance as 12¼ feet 157  41:4 Then he measured its length as 35 feet, 158  and its width as 35 feet, 159  before the outer sanctuary. He said to me, “This is the most holy place.”

41:5 Then he measured the wall of the temple 160  as 10½ feet, 161  and the width of the side chambers as 7 feet, 162  all around the temple. 41:6 The side chambers were in three stories, one above the other, thirty in each story. There were offsets in the wall all around to serve as supports for the side chambers, so that the supports were not in the wall of the temple. 41:7 The side chambers surrounding the temple were wider at each successive story; 163  for the structure 164  surrounding the temple went up story by story all around the temple. For this reason the width of the temple increased as it went up, and one went up from the lowest story to the highest by the way of the middle story.

41:8 I saw that the temple had a raised platform all around; the foundations of the side chambers were a full measuring stick 165  of 10½ feet 166  high. 41:9 The width of the outer wall of the side chambers was 8¾ feet, 167  and the open area between the side chambers of the temple 41:10 and the chambers of the court was 35 feet 168  in width all around the temple on every side. 41:11 There were entrances from the side chambers toward the open area, one entrance toward the north, and another entrance toward the south; the width of the open area was 8¾ feet 169  all around.

41:12 The building that was facing the temple courtyard at the west side was 122½ feet 170  wide; the wall of the building was 8¾ feet 171  all around, and its length 157½ feet. 172 

41:13 Then he measured the temple as 175 feet 173  long, the courtyard of the temple and the building and its walls as 175 feet 174  long, 41:14 and also the width of the front of the temple and the courtyard on the east as 175 feet. 175 

41:15 Then he measured the length of the building facing the courtyard at the rear of the temple, with its galleries on either side as 175 feet. 176 

The interior of the outer sanctuary and the porch of the court, 177  41:16 as well as the thresholds, narrow windows and galleries all around on three sides facing the threshold were paneled with wood all around, from the ground up to the windows (now the windows were covered), 41:17 to the space above the entrance, to the inner room, and on the outside, and on all the walls in the inner room and outside, by measurement. 178  41:18 It was made with cherubim and decorative palm trees, with a palm tree between each cherub. Each cherub had two faces: 41:19 a human face toward the palm tree on one side and a lion’s face toward the palm tree on the other side. They were carved on the whole temple all around; 41:20 from the ground to the area above the entrance, cherubim and decorative palm trees were carved on the wall of the outer sanctuary. 41:21 The doorposts of the outer sanctuary were square. In front of the sanctuary one doorpost looked just like the other. 41:22 The altar was of wood, 5¼ feet 179  high, with its length 3½ feet; 180  its corners, its length, 181  and its walls were of wood. He said to me, “This is the table that is before the Lord.” 41:23 The outer sanctuary and the inner sanctuary each had a double door. 41:24 Each of the doors had two leaves, two swinging 182  leaves; two leaves for one door and two leaves for the other. 41:25 On the doors of the outer sanctuary were carved cherubim and palm trees, like those carved on the walls, and there was a canopy 183  of wood on the front of the outside porch. 41:26 There were narrow windows and decorative palm trees on either side of the side walls of the porch; this is what the side chambers of the temple and the canopies were like.

Chambers for the Temple

42:1 Then he led me out to the outer court, toward the north, and brought me to the chamber which was opposite the courtyard and opposite the building on the north. 42:2 Its length was 175 feet 184  on the north side, 185  and its width 87½ feet. 186  42:3 Opposite the 35 feet 187  that belonged to the inner court, and opposite the pavement which belonged to the outer court, gallery faced gallery in the three stories. 42:4 In front of the chambers was a walkway on the inner side, 17½ feet 188  wide at a distance of 1¾ feet, 189  and their entrances were on the north. 42:5 Now the upper chambers were narrower, because the galleries took more space from them than from the lower and middle chambers of the building. 42:6 For they were in three stories and had no pillars like the pillars of the courts; therefore the upper chambers 190  were set back from the ground more than the lower and upper ones. 42:7 As for the outer wall by the side of the chambers, toward the outer court facing the chambers, it was 87½ feet 191  long. 42:8 For the chambers on the outer court were 87½ feet 192  long, while those facing the temple were 175 feet 193  long. 42:9 Below these chambers was a passage on the east side as one enters from the outer court.

42:10 At the beginning 194  of the wall of the court toward the south, 195  facing the courtyard and the building, were chambers 42:11 with a passage in front of them. They looked like the chambers on the north. Of the same length and width, and all their exits according to their arrangements and entrances 42:12 were the chambers 196  which were toward the south. There was an opening at the head of the passage, the passage in front of the corresponding wall toward the east when one enters.

42:13 Then he said to me, “The north chambers and the south chambers which face the courtyard are holy chambers where the priests 197  who approach the Lord will eat the most holy offerings. There they will place the most holy offerings – the grain offering, the sin offering, and the guilt offering, because the place is holy. 42:14 When the priests enter, then they will not go out from the sanctuary to the outer court without taking off their garments in which they minister, for these are holy; they will put on other garments, then they will go near the places where the people are.”

42:15 Now when he had finished measuring the interior of the temple, he led me out by the gate which faces east and measured all around. 42:16 He measured the east side with the measuring stick 198  as 875 feet 199  by the measuring stick. 42:17 He measured the north side as 875 feet by the measuring stick. 42:18 He measured the south side as 875 feet by the measuring stick. 42:19 He turned to the west side and measured 875 feet by the measuring stick. 42:20 He measured it on all four sides. It had a wall around it, 875 feet long and 875 feet wide, to separate the holy and common places.

The Glory Returns to the Temple

43:1 Then he brought me to the gate that faced toward the east. 43:2 I saw 200  the glory of the God of Israel 201  coming from the east; 202  the sound was like that of rushing water; 203  and the earth radiated 204  his glory. 43:3 It was like the vision I saw when he 205  came to destroy the city, and the vision I saw by the Kebar River. I threw myself face down. 43:4 The glory of the Lord came into the temple by way of the gate that faces east. 43:5 Then a wind 206  lifted me up and brought me to the inner court; I watched 207  the glory of the Lord filling the temple. 208 

43:6 I heard someone speaking to me from the temple, while the man was standing beside me. 43:7 He said to me: “Son of man, this is the place of my throne 209  and the place for the soles of my feet, 210  where I will live among the people of Israel forever. The house of Israel will no longer profane my holy name, neither they nor their kings, by their spiritual prostitution or by the pillars of their kings set up when they die. 211  43:8 When they placed their threshold by my threshold and their doorpost by my doorpost, with only the wall between me and them, they profaned my holy name by the abominable deeds they committed. So I consumed them in my anger. 43:9 Now they must put away their spiritual prostitution and the pillars of their kings far from me, and then I will live among them forever.

43:10 “As for you, son of man, describe the temple to the house of Israel, so that they will be ashamed of their sins and measure the pattern. 43:11 When they are ashamed of all that they have done, make known to them the design of the temple, its pattern, its exits and entrances, and its whole design – all its statutes, its entire design, and all its laws; write it all down in their sight, so that they may observe its entire design and all its statutes and do them.

43:12 “This is the law of the temple: The entire area on top of the mountain all around will be most holy. Indeed, this is the law of the temple.

The Altar

43:13 “And these are the measurements of the altar: 212  Its base 213  is 1¾ feet 214  high, 215  and 1¾ feet 216  wide, and its border nine inches 217  on its edge. This is to be the height 218  of the altar. 43:14 From the base of the ground to the lower edge is 3½ feet, 219  and the width 1¾ feet; 220  and from the smaller ledge to the larger edge, 7 feet, 221  and the width 1¾ feet; 43:15 and the altar hearth, 7 feet, and from the altar hearth four horns projecting upward. 43:16 Now the altar hearth 222  is a perfect square, 21 feet 223  long and 21 feet wide. 43:17 The ledge is 24½ feet 224  long and 24½ feet wide on four sides; the border around it is 10½ inches, 225  and its surrounding base 1¾ feet. 226  Its steps face east.”

43:18 Then he said to me: “Son of man, this is what the sovereign Lord says: These are the statutes of the altar: On the day it is built to offer up burnt offerings on it and to sprinkle blood on it, 227  43:19 you will give a young bull for a sin offering to the Levitical priests who are descended from Zadok, who approach me to minister to me, declares the sovereign Lord. 43:20 You will take some of its blood, and place it on the four horns of the altar, on the four corners of the ledge, and on the border all around; you will cleanse it and make atonement for it. 228  43:21 You will also take the bull for the sin offering, and it will be burned in the appointed place in the temple, outside the sanctuary.

43:22 “On the second day, you will offer a male goat without blemish for a sin offering. They will purify the altar just as they purified it with the bull. 43:23 When you have finished purifying it, you will offer an unblemished young bull and an unblemished ram from the flock. 43:24 You will present them before the Lord, and the priests will scatter salt on them 229  and offer them up as a burnt offering to the Lord.

43:25 “For seven days you will provide every day a goat for a sin offering; a young bull and a ram from the flock, both without blemish, will be provided. 43:26 For seven days they will make atonement for the altar and cleanse it, so they will consecrate it. 230  43:27 When the prescribed period is over, 231  on the eighth day and thereafter the priests will offer up on the altar your burnt offerings and your peace offerings; 232  I will accept you, declares the sovereign Lord.”

The Closed Gate

44:1 Then he brought me back by way of the outer gate of the sanctuary which faces east, but it was shut. 44:2 The Lord said to me: “This gate will be shut; it will not be opened, and no one will enter by it. For the Lord, the God of Israel, has entered by it; therefore it will remain shut. 44:3 Only the prince may sit in it to eat a sacrificial meal 233  before the Lord; he will enter by way of the porch of the gate and will go out by the same way.”

44:4 Then he brought me by way of the north gate to the front of the temple. As I watched, I noticed 234  the glory of the Lord filling the Lord’s temple, and I threw myself face down. 44:5 The Lord said to me: “Son of man, pay attention, 235  watch closely and listen carefully to 236  everything I tell you concerning all the statutes of the Lord’s house and all its laws. Pay attention to the entrances 237  to the temple with all the exits of the sanctuary. 44:6 Say to the rebellious, 238  to the house of Israel, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Enough of all your abominable practices, O house of Israel! 44:7 When you bring foreigners, those uncircumcised in heart and in flesh, into my sanctuary, you desecrate 239  it – even my house – when you offer my food, the fat and the blood. You 240  have broken my covenant by all your abominable practices. 44:8 You have not kept charge of my holy things, but you have assigned foreigners 241  to keep charge of my sanctuary for you. 44:9 This is what the sovereign Lord says: No foreigner, who is uncircumcised in heart and flesh among all the foreigners who are among the people of Israel, will enter into my sanctuary. 242 

44:10 “‘But the Levites who went far from me, straying off from me after their idols when Israel went astray, will be responsible for 243  their sin. 44:11 Yet they will be ministers in my sanctuary, having oversight at the gates of the temple, and serving the temple. They will slaughter the burnt offerings and the sacrifices for the people, and they will stand before them to minister to them. 44:12 Because they used to minister to them before their idols, and became a sinful obstacle 244  to the house of Israel, consequently I have made a vow 245  concerning them, declares the sovereign Lord, that they will be responsible 246  for their sin. 44:13 They will not come near me to serve me as priest, nor will they come near any of my holy things, the things which are most sacred. They will bear the shame of the abominable deeds they have committed. 44:14 Yet I will appoint them to keep charge of the temple, all of its service and all that will be done in it.

The Levitical Priests

44:15 “‘But the Levitical priests, the descendants of Zadok 247  who kept the charge of my sanctuary when the people of Israel went astray from me, will approach me to minister to me; they will stand before me to offer me the fat and the blood, declares the sovereign Lord. 44:16 They will enter my sanctuary, and approach my table to minister to me; they will keep my charge.

44:17 “‘When they enter the gates of the inner court, they must wear linen garments; they must not have any wool on them when they minister in the inner gates of the court and in the temple. 44:18 Linen turbans will be on their heads and linen undergarments will be around their waists; they must not bind themselves with anything that causes sweat. 44:19 When they go out to the outer court to the people, they must remove the garments they were ministering in, and place them in the holy chambers; they must put on other garments so that they will not transmit holiness to the people with their garments. 248 

44:20 “‘They must not shave their heads 249  nor let their hair grow long; 250  they must only trim their heads. 44:21 No priest may drink wine when he enters the inner court. 44:22 They must not marry a widow or a divorcee, but they may marry a virgin from the house of Israel 251  or a widow who is a priest’s widow. 44:23 Moreover, they will teach my people the difference between the holy and the common, and show them how to distinguish between the ceremonially unclean and the clean. 252 

44:24 “‘In a controversy they will act as judges; 253  they will judge according to my ordinances. They will keep my laws and my statutes regarding all my appointed festivals and will observe 254  my Sabbaths.

44:25 “‘They must not come near a dead person or they will be defiled; 255  however, for father, mother, son, daughter, brother or sister, they may defile themselves. 44:26 After a priest 256  has become ceremonially clean, they 257  must count off a period of seven days for him. 44:27 On the day he enters the sanctuary, into the inner court to serve in the sanctuary, he must offer his sin offering, declares the sovereign Lord.

44:28 “‘This will be their inheritance: I am their inheritance, and you must give them no property in Israel; I am their property. 258  44:29 They may eat the grain offering, the sin offering, and the guilt offering, and every devoted thing in Israel will be theirs. 44:30 The first of all the first fruits and all contributions of any kind 259  will be for the priests; you will also give to the priest the first portion of your dough, so that a blessing may rest on your house. 44:31 The priests will not eat any bird or animal that has died a natural death or was torn to pieces by a wild animal. 260 

The Lord’s Portion of the Land

45:1 “‘When you allot the land as an inheritance, you will offer an allotment 261  to the Lord, a holy portion from the land; the length will be eight and a quarter miles 262  and the width three and one-third miles. 263  This entire area will be holy. 264  45:2 Of this area a square 875 feet 265  by 875 feet will be designated for the sanctuary, with 87½ feet 266  set aside for its open space round about. 45:3 From this measured area you will measure a length of eight and a quarter miles 267  and a width of three and one-third miles; 268  in it will be the sanctuary, the most holy place. 45:4 It will be a holy portion of the land; it will be for the priests, the ministers of the sanctuary who approach the Lord to minister to him. It will be a place for their houses and a holy place for the sanctuary. 269  45:5 An area eight and a quarter miles 270  in length and three and one-third miles 271  in width will be for the Levites, who minister at the temple, as the place for the cities 272  in which they will live.

45:6 “‘Alongside the portion set apart as the holy allotment, you will allot for the city an area one and two-thirds miles 273  wide and eight and a quarter miles 274  long; it will be for the whole house of Israel.

45:7 “‘For the prince there will be land on both sides of the holy allotment and the allotted city, alongside the holy allotment and the allotted city, on the west side and on the east side; it will be comparable in length to one of the portions, from the west border to the east border 45:8 of the land. This will be his property in Israel. My princes will no longer oppress my people, but the land will be allotted to the house of Israel according to their tribes.

45:9 “‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Enough, you princes of Israel! Put away violence and destruction, and do what is just and right. Put an end to your evictions of my people, 275  declares the sovereign Lord. 45:10 You must use just balances, 276  a just dry measure (an ephah), 277  and a just liquid measure (a bath). 278  45:11 The dry and liquid measures will be the same, the bath will contain a tenth of a homer, 279  and the ephah a tenth of a homer; the homer will be the standard measure. 45:12 The shekel will be twenty gerahs. Sixty shekels 280  will be a mina for you.

45:13 “‘This is the offering you must offer: a sixth of an ephah from a homer of wheat; a sixth of an ephah from a homer of barley, 45:14 and as the prescribed portion of olive oil, one tenth of a bath from each kor (which is ten baths or a homer, for ten baths make a homer); 45:15 and one sheep from each flock of two hundred, from the watered places of Israel, for a grain offering, burnt offering, and peace offering, to make atonement for them, declares the sovereign Lord. 45:16 All the people of the land will contribute 281  to this offering for the prince of Israel. 45:17 It will be the duty of the prince to provide the burnt offerings, the grain offering, and the drink offering at festivals, on the new moons and Sabbaths, at all the appointed feasts of the house of Israel; he will provide the sin offering, the grain offering, the burnt offering, and the peace offerings to make atonement for the house of Israel.

45:18 “‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: In the first month, on the first day of the month, you must take an unblemished young bull and purify the sanctuary. 45:19 The priest will take some of the blood of the sin offering and place it on the doorpost of the temple, on the four corners of the ledge of the altar, and on the doorpost of the gate of the inner court. 45:20 This is what you must do on the seventh day of the month for anyone who sins inadvertently or through ignorance; so you will make atonement for the temple.

45:21 “‘In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the month, you will celebrate the Passover, and for seven days bread made without yeast will be eaten. 45:22 On that day the prince will provide for himself and for all the people of the land a bull for a sin offering. 45:23 And during the seven days of the feast he will provide as a burnt offering to the Lord seven bulls and seven rams, all without blemish, on each of the seven days, and a male goat daily for a sin offering. 45:24 He will provide as a grain offering an ephah for each bull, an ephah for each ram, and a gallon 282  of olive oil for each ephah of grain. 283  45:25 In the seventh month, on the fifteenth day of the month, at the feast, 284  he will make the same provisions for the sin offering, burnt offering, and grain offering, and for the olive oil, for the seven days.

The Prince’s Offerings

46:1 “‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: The gate of the inner court that faces east 285  will be closed six working days, but on the Sabbath day it will be opened and on the day of the new moon it will be opened. 46:2 The prince will enter by way of the porch of the gate from the outside, and will stand by the doorpost of the gate. The priests will provide his burnt offering and his peace offerings, and he will bow down at the threshold of the gate and then go out. But the gate will not be closed until evening. 46:3 The people of the land will bow down at the entrance of that gate before the Lord on the Sabbaths and on the new moons. 46:4 The burnt offering which the prince will offer to the Lord on the Sabbath day will be six unblemished lambs and one unblemished ram. 46:5 The grain offering will be an ephah with the ram, and the grain offering with the lambs will be as much as he is able to give, 286  and a gallon 287  of olive oil with an ephah. 46:6 On the day of the new moon he will offer 288  an unblemished young bull, and six lambs and a ram, all without blemish. 46:7 He will provide a grain offering: an ephah with the bull and an ephah with the ram, and with the lambs as much as he wishes, 289  and a gallon 290  of olive oil with each ephah of grain. 291  46:8 When the prince enters, he will come by way of the porch of the gate and will go out the same way.

46:9 “‘When the people of the land come before the Lord at the appointed feasts, whoever enters by way of the north gate to worship will go out by way of the south gate; whoever enters by way of the south gate will go out by way of the north gate. No one will return by way of the gate they entered but will go out straight ahead. 46:10 When they come in, the prince will come in with them, and when they go out, he will go out.

46:11 “‘At the festivals and at the appointed feasts the grain offering will be an ephah with the bull and an ephah with the ram, and with the lambs as much as one is able, 292  and a gallon 293  of olive oil with each ephah of grain. 294  46:12 When the prince provides a freewill offering, a burnt offering, or peace offerings as a voluntary offering to the Lord, the gate facing east will be opened for him, and he will provide his burnt offering and his peace offerings just as he did on the Sabbath. Then he will go out, and the gate will be closed after he goes out. 295 

46:13 “‘You 296  will provide a lamb a year old without blemish for a burnt offering daily to the Lord; morning by morning he will provide it. 46:14 And you 297  will provide a grain offering with it morning by morning, a sixth of an ephah, and a third of a gallon 298  of olive oil to moisten the choice flour, as a grain offering to the Lord; this is a perpetual statute. 46:15 Thus they will provide the lamb, the grain offering, and the olive oil morning by morning, as a perpetual burnt offering.

46:16 “‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: If the prince should give a gift to one of his sons as 299  his inheritance, it will belong to his sons, it is their property by inheritance. 46:17 But if he gives a gift from his inheritance to one of his servants, it will be his until the year of liberty; 300  then it will revert to the prince. His inheritance will only remain with his sons. 46:18 The prince will not take away any of the people’s inheritance by oppressively removing them from their property. He will give his sons an inheritance from his own possessions so that my people will not be scattered, each from his own property.’”

46:19 Then he brought me through the entrance, which was at the side of the gate, into the holy chambers for the priests which faced north. There I saw 301  a place at the extreme western end. 46:20 He said to me, “This is the place where the priests will boil the guilt offering and the sin offering, and where they will bake the grain offering, so that they do not bring them out to the outer court to transmit holiness to the people.”

46:21 Then he brought me out to the outer court and led me past the four corners of the court, and I noticed 302  that in every corner of the court there was a court. 46:22 In the four corners of the court were small 303  courts, 70 feet 304  in length and 52½ feet 305  in width; the four were all the same size. 46:23 There was a row of masonry around each of the four courts, and places for boiling offerings were made under the rows all around. 46:24 Then he said to me, “These are the houses for boiling, where the ministers of the temple boil the sacrifices of the people.”

Water from the Temple

47:1 Then he brought me back to the entrance of the temple. I noticed 306  that water was flowing from under the threshold of the temple toward the east (for the temple faced east). The water was flowing down from under the right side of the temple, from south of the altar. 47:2 He led me out by way of the north gate and brought me around the outside of the outer gate that faces toward the east; I noticed 307  that the water was trickling out from the south side.

47:3 When the man went out toward the east with a measuring line in his hand, he measured 1,750 feet, 308  and then he led me through water, which was ankle deep. 47:4 Again he measured 1,750 feet and led me through the water, which was now knee deep. Once more he measured 1,750 feet and led me through the water, which was waist deep. 47:5 Again he measured 1,750 feet and it was a river I could not cross, for the water had risen; it was deep enough to swim in, a river that could not be crossed. 47:6 He said to me, “Son of man, have you seen this?”

Then he led me back to the bank of the river. 47:7 When I had returned, I noticed 309  a vast number of trees on the banks of the river, on both sides. 47:8 He said to me, “These waters go out toward the eastern region and flow down into the Arabah; when they enter the Dead Sea, 310  where the sea is stagnant, 311  the waters become fresh. 312  47:9 Every living creature which swarms where the river 313  flows will live; there will be many fish, for these waters flow there. It will become fresh 314  and everything will live where the river flows. 47:10 Fishermen will stand beside it; from Engedi to En-eglaim they will spread nets. They will catch many kinds of fish, like the fish of the Great Sea. 315  47:11 But its swamps and its marshes will not become fresh; they will remain salty. 47:12 On both sides of the river’s banks, every kind of tree will grow for food. Their leaves will not wither nor will their fruit fail, but they will bear fruit every month, because their water source flows from the sanctuary. Their fruit will be for food and their leaves for healing.” 316 

Boundaries for the Land

47:13 This is what the sovereign Lord says: “Here 317  are the borders 318  you will observe as you allot the land to the twelve tribes of Israel. (Joseph will have two portions.) 319  47:14 You must divide it equally just as I vowed to give it to your forefathers; 320  this land will be assigned as your inheritance. 321 

47:15 “This will be the border of the land: 322  On the north side, from the Great Sea by way of Hethlon to the entrance of Zedad; 47:16 Hamath, Berothah, Sibraim, which is between the border of Damascus and the border of Hamath, as far as Hazer-hattikon, which is on the border of Hauran. 47:17 The border will run from the sea to Hazar-enan, at the border of Damascus, and on the north is the border of Hamath. This is the north side. 47:18 On the east side, between Hauran and Damascus, and between Gilead and the land of Israel, will be the Jordan. You will measure from the border to the eastern sea. This is the east side. 47:19 On the south side it will run from Tamar to the waters of Meribath Kadesh, the river, 323  to the Great Sea. This is the south side. 47:20 On the west side the Great Sea will be the boundary to a point opposite Lebo-hamath. This is the west side.

47:21 “This is how you will divide this land for yourselves among the tribes of Israel. 47:22 You must allot it as an inheritance among yourselves and for the foreigners who reside among you, who have fathered sons among you. You must treat them as native-born among the people of Israel; they will be allotted an inheritance with you among the tribes of Israel. 324  47:23 In whatever tribe the foreigner resides, there you will give him his inheritance,” declares the sovereign Lord.

The Tribal Portions

48:1 “These are the names of the tribes: From the northern end beside the road of Hethlon to Lebo-hamath, as far as Hazar-enan (which is on the border of Damascus, toward the north beside Hamath), extending from the east side to the west, Dan will have one portion. 48:2 Next to the border of Dan, from the east side to the west, Asher 325  will have one portion. 48:3 Next to the border of Asher from the east side to the west, Naphtali will have one portion. 48:4 Next to the border of Naphtali from the east side to the west, Manasseh will have one portion. 48:5 Next to the border of Manasseh from the east side to the west, Ephraim will have one portion. 48:6 Next to the border of Ephraim from the east side to the west, Reuben will have one portion. 48:7 Next to the border of Reuben from the east side to the west, Judah 326  will have one portion.

48:8 “Next to the border of Judah from the east side to the west will be the allotment you must set apart. It is to be eight and a quarter miles 327  wide, and the same length as one of the tribal portions, from the east side to the west; the sanctuary will be in the middle of it. 48:9 The allotment you set apart to the Lord will be eight and a quarter miles 328  in length and three and one-third miles 329  in width. 48:10 These will be the allotments for the holy portion: for the priests, toward the north eight and a quarter miles 330  in length, toward the west three and one-third miles 331  in width, toward the east three and one-third miles 332  in width, and toward the south eight and a quarter miles 333  in length; the sanctuary of the Lord will be in the middle. 48:11 This will be for the priests who are set apart from the descendants of Zadok who kept my charge and did not go astray when the people of Israel strayed off, like the Levites did. 334  48:12 It will be their portion from the allotment of the land, a most holy place, next to the border of the Levites.

48:13 “Alongside the border of the priests, the Levites will have an allotment eight and a quarter miles 335  in length and three and one-third miles 336  in width. The whole length will be eight and a quarter miles 337  and the width three and one-third miles. 338  48:14 They must not sell or exchange any of it; they must not transfer this choice portion of land, for it is set apart 339  to the Lord.

48:15 “The remainder, one and two-thirds miles 340  in width and eight and a quarter miles 341  in length, will be for common use by the city, for houses and for open space. The city will be in the middle of it; 48:16 these will be its measurements: The north side will be one and one-half miles, 342  the south side one and one-half miles, the east side one and one-half miles, and the west side one and one-half miles. 48:17 The city will have open spaces: On the north there will be 437½ feet, 343  on the south 437½ feet, on the east 437½ feet, and on the west 437½ feet. 48:18 The remainder of the length alongside the holy allotment will be three and one-third miles 344  to the east and three and one-third miles toward the west, and it will be beside the holy allotment. Its produce will be for food for the workers of the city. 48:19 The workers of the city from all the tribes of Israel will cultivate it. 48:20 The whole allotment will be eight and a quarter miles 345  square, you must set apart the holy allotment with the possession of the city.

48:21 “The rest, on both sides of the holy allotment and the property of the city, will belong to the prince. Extending from the eight and a quarter miles 346  of the holy allotment to the east border, and westward from the eight and a quarter miles 347  to the west border, alongside the portions, it will belong to the prince. The holy allotment and the sanctuary of the temple will be in the middle of it. 48:22 The property of the Levites and of the city will be in the middle of that which belongs to the prince. The portion between the border of Judah and the border of Benjamin will be for the prince.

48:23 “As for the rest of the tribes: From the east side to the west side, Benjamin will have one portion. 48:24 Next to the border of Benjamin, from the east side to the west side, Simeon will have one portion. 48:25 Next to the border of Simeon, from the east side to the west side, Issachar will have one portion. 48:26 Next to the border of Issachar, from the east side to the west side, Zebulun will have one portion. 48:27 Next to the border of Zebulun, from the east side to the west side, Gad will have one portion. 48:28 Next to the border of Gad, at the south side, the border will run from Tamar to the waters of Meribath Kadesh, to the Stream of Egypt 348  and on to the Great Sea. 48:29 This is the land which you will allot to the tribes of Israel, and these are their portions, declares the sovereign Lord.

48:30 “These are the exits of the city: On the north side, one and one-half miles 349  by measure, 48:31 the gates of the city 350  will be named for the tribes of Israel; there will be three gates to the north: one gate for Reuben, one gate for Judah, and one gate for Levi. 48:32 On the east side, one and one-half miles in length, there will be three gates: one gate for Joseph, one gate for Benjamin, and one gate for Dan. 48:33 On the south side, one and one-half miles by measure, there will be three gates: one gate for Simeon, one gate for Issachar, and one gate for Zebulun. 48:34 On the west side, one and one-half miles in length, there will be three gates: one gate for Gad, one gate for Asher, and one gate for Naphtali. 48:35 The circumference of the city will be six miles. 351  The name of the city from that day forward will be: ‘The Lord Is There.’” 352 

1 tn Or “power.”

sn Hand in the OT can refer metaphorically to power, authority, or influence. In Ezekiel God’s hand being on the prophet is regularly associated with communication or a vision from God (3:14, 22; 8:1; 37:1; 40:1).

2 tn Heb “caused me to rest.”

3 tn Heb “and he made me pass over them, around, around.”

4 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and is here translated as “I realized” because it results from Ezekiel’s recognition of the situation around him. In Hebrew, the exclamation is repeated in the following sentence.

5 tn Heb “I am about to bring a spirit.”

6 tn The exact physiological meaning of the term is uncertain. In addition to v. 8, the term occurs only in Gen 32:33; Job 10:11; 40:17; and Jer 48:4.

7 tn Or “a spirit.”

8 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.

9 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.

10 tn Heb “came up.”

11 tn Or “spirit.”

12 tn Or “spirit,” and several times in this verse.

13 tn Or “spirit.” This is likely an allusion to Gen 2 and God’s breath which creates life.

14 tn Heb “bring near.”

15 tn Heb “one to one for you for one stick.”

16 tn Heb “the sons of your people.”

17 tn Heb “I will place them on it, that is, on the stick of Judah.”

18 sn The reunification of Israel and Judah is envisioned as well in Ezek 33:23, 29; Jer 3:18; 23:5-6; Hos 1:11; Amos 9:11.

19 sn Jeremiah also attested to the reuniting of the northern and southern kingdoms (Jer 3:12, 14; 31:2-6).

20 tc Heb “their dwellings.” The text as it stands does not make sense. Based on the LXX, a slight emendation of two vowels, including a mater, yields the reading “from their turning,” a reference here to their turning from God and deviating from his commandments. See BDB 1000 s.v. מְשׁוּבָה, and D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:407.

21 tn Heb “walk [in].”

22 tn Heb “and my statutes they will guard and they will do them.”

23 sn See Isa 24:5; 55:3; 61:8; Jer 32:40; 50:5; Ezek 16:60, for other references to perpetual covenants.

24 tn Heb “give them.”

25 sn The sanctuary of Israel becomes the main focus of Ezek 40-48.

26 tn Heb “set your face against.”

27 sn This may refer to a Lydian king in western Asia Minor in the seventh century b.c. Apart from Ezek 38-39, the only other biblical reference to this king/nation is in Rev 20:8. For a study of the names appearing in this verse, see E. Yamauchi, Foes From the Northern Frontier, 19-27.

28 sn One of the sons of Japheth according to Gen 10:2; 1 Chr 1:5.

29 tn Heb “the prince, the chief of Meshech and Tubal.” Some translate “the prince of Rosh, Meshech and Tubal,” but it is more likely that the Hebrew noun in question is a common noun in apposition to “prince,” rather than a proper name. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:434-35. As Block demonstrates, attempts by some popular writers to identify these proper names with later geographical sites in Russia are anachronistic. See as well E. Yamauchi, Foes From the Northern Frontier, 19-27.

sn Meshech and Tubal were two nations in Cappadocia of Asia Minor. They were also sons of Japheth (Gen 10:2; 1 Chr 1:5).

30 tn Or “I challenge you.” The phrase “I am against you” may be a formula for challenging someone to combat or a duel. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 1:201-2, and P. Humbert, “Die Herausforderungsformel ‘h!nn#n' ?l?K>,’” ZAW 45 (1933): 101-8.

31 sn The Hebrew text mentions two different types of shields here.

32 tn D. I. Block prefers to see the Hebrew word as referring here to a western ally of Egypt or as an alternative spelling for Pathros, that is, Upper Egypt. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:439-40.

33 sn That is, Lydia.

34 tn The words “they are joined by” are added in the translation for purposes of English style.

35 sn The seven-nation coalition represents the north (Meshech, Tubal, Gomer, Beth-Togarmah), the south/west (Ethiopia, Put) and the east (Persia). The use of the sevenfold list suggests completeness. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:441.

36 tn The second person singular verbal and pronominal forms in the Hebrew text indicate that Gog is addressed here.

37 tn Heb “from the sword.”

38 tn Heb “it.”

39 tn Heb “go up.”

40 tn Heb “words will go up upon your heart.”

41 tn Heb “go up against.”

42 tn Heb “come (to).”

43 tn Heb “to turn your hand against.”

44 tn The Hebrew term occurs elsewhere only in Judg 9:37. Perhaps it means “high point, top.”

45 tn Heb “young lions.”

46 tn The Hebrew text is framed as a rhetorical question: “will you not take notice?”

47 tn Heb “come up.”

48 tn Or “reveal my holiness.”

49 tn Heb “by the hand of my servants.”

50 tn The Hebrew text adds “years” here, but this is probably a scribal gloss on the preceding phrase. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:201.

51 tn Heb “goes up against.”

52 sn The phrase “in the fire of my fury” occurs in Ezek 21:31; 22:21, 31.

53 tn Or “shaking.”

54 tn Or “tremble.”

55 tn The term occurs only here and in Song of Songs 2:14.

56 tn Heb “against.”

57 tn Heb “him”; the referent (Gog, cf. v. 18) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

58 tn The Hebrew root occurs only here in the OT. An apparent cognate in the Ethiopic language means “walk along.” For a discussion of the research on this verb, see D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:460.

59 sn The basic sense of the word “holy” is “set apart from that which is commonplace, special, unique.” The Lord’s holiness is first and foremost his transcendent sovereignty as the ruler of the world. He is “set apart” from the world over which he rules. At the same time his holiness encompasses his moral authority, which derives from his royal position. As king he has the right to dictate to his subjects how they are to live; indeed his very own character sets the standard for proper behavior. This expression is a common title for the Lord in the book of Isaiah.

60 tn Heb “burn and kindle the weapons.”

61 tn Two different types of shields are specified in the Hebrew text.

62 tn Heb “they will not carry.”

63 tn Heb “loot their looters and plunder their plunderers.”

64 tn The name means “horde of Gog.”

65 tn Heb “the house of Israel.”

66 tn Heb “name.”

67 tn Heb “men of perpetuity.”

68 tn Heb “and bury the travelers and those who remain on the surface of the ground.” The reference to “travelers” seems odd and is omitted in the LXX. It is probably an accidental duplication (see v. 11).

69 tn Heb “as the scouts scout.”

70 tn That is, the aforementioned bone.

71 tn This name appears to be a feminine form of the word “horde,” used in the name Hamon-Gog.

72 tn Or “sacrifice” (so also in the rest of this verse).

73 sn See Rev 19:17-18.

74 sn Eating the fat and drinking blood were God’s exclusive rights in Israelite sacrifices (Lev 3:17).

75 tn Or “sacrifice” (so also in the rest of this verse).

76 tn Heb “chariots.”

77 tn Or “my glory.”

78 tn Heb “my hand which I have placed.”

79 tn Or “in their punishment.” The phrase “in/for [a person’s] iniquity/punishment” occurs fourteen times in Ezekiel: here; 3:18, 19; 4:17; 7:13, 16; 18: 17, 18, 19, 20; 24:23; 33:6, 8, 9. The Hebrew word for “iniquity” may also mean the “punishment” for iniquity or “guilt” of iniquity.

80 tn Heb “cause to return.”

81 tn Heb “there,” referring to the foreign nations to which they were exiled. The translation makes the referent clear.

82 sn See Ezek 11:19; 37:14.

83 sn That is, Jerusalem.

84 tn April 19, 573 b.c.

85 tn Or “power.”

sn Hand in the OT can refer metaphorically to power, authority, or influence. In Ezekiel God’s hand being on the prophet is regularly associated with communication or a vision from God (3:14, 22; 8:1; 37:1; 40:1).

86 sn That is, to the land of Israel (see v. 2).

87 tn The expression introduces the three major visions of Ezekiel (1:1; 8:3; 40:2).

88 tn The reference to a very high mountain is harmonious with Isa 2:2.

89 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.

90 tn Heb “look with your eyes, hear with your ears, and set your mind on.”

91 tn Heb “in order to show (it) to you.”

92 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.

93 tn Heb “house.”

94 tn Heb “a measuring stick of six cubits, [each] a cubit and a handbreadth.” The measuring units here and in the remainder of this section are the Hebrew “long” cubit, consisting of a cubit (about 18 inches or 45 cm) and a handbreadth (about 3 inches or 7.5 cm), for a total of 21 inches (52.5 cm). Therefore the measuring stick in the man’s hand was 10.5 feet (3.15 meters) long. Because modern readers are not familiar with the cubit as a unit of measurement, and due to the additional complication of the “long” cubit as opposed to the regular cubit, all measurements have been converted to American standard feet and inches, with the Hebrew measurements and the metric equivalents given in the notes.

95 tn Heb “building.”

96 tn Heb “one rod [or “reed”]” (also a second time in this verse, twice in v. 6, three times in v. 7, and once in v. 8).

97 tn The Hebrew text adds “the one threshold 10½ feet deep.” This is probably an accidental duplication of what precedes. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:517.

98 tn Heb “five cubits” (i.e., 2.625 meters) according to the “long” cubit. See the note on the first occurrence of the phrase “10½ feet” in v. 5.

99 tn Heb “eight cubits” (i.e., 4.2 meters).

100 tn Heb “two cubits” (i.e., 1.05 meters).

101 sn The three alcoves are parallel to the city gates found at Megiddo, Hazor, and Gezer.

102 tn Heb “ten cubits” (i.e., 5.25 meters).

103 tn Heb “thirteen cubits” (i.e., 6.825 meters).

104 tn Heb “one cubit” (i.e., 52.5 cm).

105 tn Heb “six cubits” (i.e., 3.15 meters).

106 tn Heb “twenty-five cubits” (i.e., 13.125 meters).

107 tn Heb “made.”

108 tc The MT reads “jambs” which does not make sense in context. Supposing a confusion of yod for vav, the text may be emended to read “porch.” See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:518.

109 tn Heb “sixty cubits” (i.e., 31.5 meters).

110 tn The word “high” is not in the Hebrew text but is supplied for sense.

111 tn Heb “fifty cubits” (i.e., 26.25 meters).

112 sn Decorative palm trees were also a part of Solomon’s temple (1 Kgs 6:29, 32, 35).

113 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.

114 tn Heb “one hundred cubits” (i.e., 52.5 meters).

115 tn Heb “fifty cubits” (i.e., 26.25 meters).

116 tn Heb “twenty-five cubits” (i.e., 13.125 meters).

117 tn Heb “one hundred cubits” (i.e., 52.5 meters).

118 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.

119 tn Heb “as these windows.”

120 tn Heb “fifty cubits” (i.e., 26.25 meters).

121 tn Heb “twenty-five cubits” (i.e., 13.125 meters).

122 tn Heb “one hundred cubits” (i.e., 52.5 meters).

123 tn Heb “fifty cubits” (i.e., 26.25 meters).

124 tn Heb “twenty-five cubits” (i.e., 13.125 meters).

125 tn Heb “twenty-five cubits” (i.e., 13.125 meters).

126 tn Heb “five cubits” (i.e., 2.625 meters).

127 tn Heb “fifty cubits” (i.e., 26.25 meters).

128 tn Heb “twenty-five cubits” (i.e., 13.125 meters).

129 tn Heb “fifty cubits” (i.e., 26.25 meters).

130 tn Heb “twenty-five cubits” (i.e., 13.125 meters).

131 tc The LXX reads “porches.”

132 tc The MT reads “jambs of the gates” which does not make sense in a context discussing one chamber. The emendation to “porch” is similar to v. 14. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:530.

133 tn Heb “one and a half cubits” (i.e., 78.75 cm).

134 tn Heb “one and a half cubits” (i.e., 78.75 cm).

135 tn Heb “one cubit” (i.e., 52.5 cm).

136 tc This reading is supported by the Aramaic Targum. The LXX, Vulgate, and Syriac read “shelves” or some type of projection.

137 tn Heb “one handbreadth” (7.5 cm).

138 tn “One” is not in the Hebrew text but is supplied for clarity in the translation.

139 tc This reading is supported by the LXX; the MT reads “east.”

140 tn Heb “the house.”

141 tn Heb “one hundred cubits long and one hundred cubits wide, a square” (i.e., 52.5 meters by 52.5 meters).

142 tn Heb “five cubits” (i.e., 2.625 meters).

143 tn The LXX reads “fourteen cubits” (i.e., 7.35 meters). See following note.

144 tc The translation follows the LXX. The MT reads “the width of the gate was three cubits,” the omission due to haplography.

tn Or “sidewalls.”

145 tn Heb “three cubits” (i.e., 1.575 meters).

146 tn Heb “twenty cubits” (i.e., 10.5 meters).

147 tn Heb “eleven cubits” (i.e., 5.775 meters).

148 tc The LXX reads “ten steps.”

149 tn Heb “six cubits” (i.e., 3.15 meters).

150 tn Heb “ten cubits” (i.e., 5.25 meters).

151 tc The translation follows the LXX. The MT reads “the width of the gate was three cubits,” the omission due to haplography.

tn Or “sidewalls.”

152 tn Heb “five cubits” (i.e., 2.625 meters).

153 tn Heb “forty cubits” (i.e., 21 meters).

154 tn Heb “twenty cubits” (i.e., 10.5 meters).

155 tn Heb “two cubits” (i.e., 1.05 meters).

156 tn Heb “six cubits” (i.e., 3.15 meters).

157 tn Heb “seven cubits” (i.e., 3.675 meters).

158 tn Heb “twenty cubits” (i.e., 10.5 meters).

159 tn Heb “twenty cubits” (i.e., 10.5 meters).

160 tn Heb “house” throughout Ezek 41.

161 tn Heb “six cubits” (i.e., 3.15 meters).

162 tn Heb “four cubits” (2.1 meters).

163 tc The Hebrew is difficult here. The Targum envisions a winding ramp or set of stairs, which entails reading the first word as a noun rather than a verb and reading the second word also not as a verb, supposing that an initial mem has been read as vav and nun. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:549.

164 tn The Hebrew term occurs only here in the OT.

165 tn Heb “reed.”

166 tn Heb “six cubits” (i.e., 3.15 meters).

167 tn Heb “five cubits” (i.e., 2.625 meters).

168 tn Heb “twenty cubits” (i.e., 10.5 meters).

169 tn Heb “five cubits” (i.e., 2.625 meters).

170 tn Heb “seventy cubits” (36.75 meters).

171 tn Heb “five cubits” (i.e., 2.625 meters).

172 tn Heb “ninety cubits” (i.e., 47.25 meters).

173 tn Heb “one hundred cubits” (i.e., 52.5 meters).

174 tn Heb “one hundred cubits” (i.e., 52.5 meters).

175 tn Heb “one hundred cubits” (i.e., 52.5 meters).

176 tn Heb “one hundred cubits” (i.e., 52.5 meters).

177 tc Some Hebrew mss read “and its outer court.”

178 tc The LXX does not have the word “by measurements.” The word may be a technical term referring to carpentry technique, the exact meaning of which is unclear.

179 tn Heb “three cubits” (i.e., 1.575 meters).

180 tn Heb “two cubits” (i.e., 1.05 meters).

181 tc So the Masoretic text. The LXX reads “base.”

182 tn Heb “turning” leaves.

183 tn Or “railings.” See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:218.

184 tn Heb “one hundred cubits” (i.e., 52.5 meters).

185 tn Heb “the door of the north.”

186 tn Heb “fifty cubits” (i.e., 26.25 meters).

187 tn Heb “twenty cubits” (i.e., 10.5 meters).

188 tn Heb “ten cubits” (i.e., 5.25 meters).

189 tc Heb “one cubit” (i.e., 52.5 cm). The LXX and the Syriac read “one hundred cubits” (= 175 feet).

190 tn The phrase “upper chambers” is not in the Hebrew text but is supplied from the context.

191 tn Heb “fifty cubits” (i.e., 26.25 meters).

192 tn Heb “fifty cubits” (i.e., 26.25 meters).

193 tn Heb “one hundred cubits” (i.e., 52.5 meters).

194 tc The reading is supported by the LXX.

195 tc This reading is supported by the LXX; the MT reads “east.”

196 tc The MT apparently evidences dittography, repeating most of the last word of the previous verse: “and like the openings of.”

197 sn The priests are from the Zadokite family (Ezek 40:6; 44:15).

198 tn Heb “reed” (also in the following verses).

199 tn Heb “five hundred cubits” (i.e., 262.5 meters).

200 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.

201 sn This same title appears in 8:4; 9:3; 10:19; and 11:22.

202 sn Earlier Ezekiel had observed God leaving the temple to the east (11:23).

203 sn See Ezek 1:24; Rev 1:15; 14:2; 19:6.

204 tn Heb “shone from.”

205 tc Heb “I.” The reading is due to the confusion of yod (י, indicating a first person pronoun) and vav (ו, indicating a third person pronoun). A few medieval Hebrew mss, Theodotion’s Greek version, and the Latin Vulgate support a third person pronoun here.

206 tn See note on “wind” in 2:2.

207 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.

208 sn In 1 Kgs 8:10-11 we find a similar event with regard to Solomon’s temple. See also Exod 40:34-35. and Isa 6:4.

209 sn God’s throne is mentioned in Isa 6:1; Jer 3:17.

210 sn See 1 Chr 28:2; Ps 99:5; 132:7; Isa 60:13; Lam 2:1.

211 tn Heb “by their corpses in their death.” But the term normally translated “corpses” is better understood here as a reference to funeral pillars or funerary offerings. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:583-85, and L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:257.

212 tn Heb “the measurements of the altar by cubits, the cubit being a cubit and a handbreadth.” The measuring units here and in the remainder of this section are the Hebrew “long” cubit, consisting of a cubit (about 18 inches or 45 cm) and a handbreadth (about 3 inches or 7.5 cm), for a total of 21 inches (52.5 cm). Because modern readers are not familiar with the cubit as a unit of measurement, and due to the additional complication of the “long” cubit as opposed to the regular cubit, all measurements have been converted to American standard feet and inches, with the Hebrew measurements and the metric equivalents given in the notes. On the altar see Ezek 40:47.

213 tn The Hebrew term normally means “bosom.” Here it refers to a hollow in the ground.

214 tn Heb “one cubit” (i.e., 52.5 cm).

215 tn The word “high” is not in the Hebrew text but is supplied in the translation for clarity.

216 tn Heb “one cubit” (i.e., 52.5 cm).

217 tn Heb “one span.” A span was three handbreadths, or about nine inches (i.e., 22.5 cm).

218 tc Heb “bulge, protuberance, mound.” The translation follows the LXX.

219 tn Heb “two cubits” (i.e., 1.05 meters).

220 tn Heb “one cubit” (i.e., 52.5 cm; the phrase occurs again later in this verse).

221 tn Heb “four cubits” (i.e., 2.1 meters; the phrase also occurs in the next verse).

222 tn The precise Hebrew word used here to refer to an “altar hearth” occurs only here in the OT.

223 tn Heb “twelve cubits” (i.e., 6.3 meters; the phrase occurs twice in this verse).

224 tn Heb “fourteen”; the word “cubits” is not in the Hebrew text but is understood from the context; the phrase occurs again later in this verse. Fourteen cubits is about 7.35 meters.

225 tn Heb “half a cubit” (i.e., 26.25 cm).

226 tn Heb “one cubit” (i.e., 52.5 cm).

227 sn For the “sprinkling of blood,” see Lev 1:5, 11; 8:19; 9:12.

228 sn Note the similar language in Lev 16:18.

229 sn It is likely that salt was used with sacrificial meals (Num 18:19; 2 Chr 13:5).

230 tn Heb “fill its hands.”

231 tn Heb “and they will complete the days.”

232 sn The people also could partake of the food of the peace offering (Lev 3).

233 tn Heb “to eat bread.”

234 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.

235 tn Heb “set your heart” (so also in the latter part of the verse).

236 tn Heb “Set your mind, look with your eyes, and with your ears hear.”

237 tc The Syriac, Vulgate, and Targum read the plural. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:618.

238 tc The LXX reads “house of rebellion.”

239 tn Heb “to desecrate.”

240 tc The Greek, Syriac, and Latin versions read “you.” The Masoretic text reads “they.”

241 tc Instead of an energic nun (ן), the text may have read a third masculine plural suffix ם (mem), “them,” which was confused with ן (nun) in the old script. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:621.

tn This word is not in the Hebrew text but is supplied from the context.

242 sn Tobiah, an Ammonite (Neh 13:8), was dismissed from the temple.

243 tn Heb “will bear.”

244 tn Heb “a stumbling block of iniquity.” This is a unique phrase of the prophet Ezekiel (cf. also Ezek 7:19; 14:3, 4, 7; 18:30).

245 tn Heb “I lifted up my hand.”

246 tn Heb “will bear.”

247 sn Zadok was a descendant of Aaron through Eleazar (1 Chr 6:50-53), who served as a priest during David’s reign (2 Sam 8:17).

248 sn For a similar concept of the transmitting of holiness, see Exod 19:12-14; Lev 10:1-2; 2 Sam 6:7. Similar laws concerning the priest are found in Lev 10 and 21.

249 sn The shaving of the head was associated with mourning (Ezek 7:18).

250 sn Letting the hair grow was associated with the taking of a vow (Num 6:5; Acts 21:23-26).

251 tn Heb “from the offspring of the house of Israel.”

252 sn This task was a fundamental role of the priest (Lev 10:10).

253 sn For a historical illustration of the priest carrying out this function, see 2 Chr 19:9-11.

254 tn Heb “sanctify, set apart.”

255 sn This law was part of the legal code for priests (Lev 21:1-3).

256 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the priest) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

257 tc One medieval Hebrew ms, the LXX, and the Syriac along with Lev 15:13, 28 read the verb as singular.

258 sn See Num 18:20; Deut 10:9; 18:2; Josh 13:33; 18:7.

259 tn Heb has in addition “from your contributions,” a repetition unnecessary in English.

260 tn The words “by a wild animal” are not in the Hebrew text, but have been supplied in the translation as a clarification of the circumstances.

sn For this law, see Lev 7:24; 17:15.

261 tn Heb “a contribution.”

262 tn Heb “twenty-five thousand cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers). The measuring units here are the Hebrew “long” cubit, consisting of a cubit (about 18 inches or 45 cm) and a handbreadth (about 3 inches or 7.5 cm), for a total of 21 inches (52.5 cm). Because modern readers are not familiar with the cubit as a unit of measurement, and due to the additional complication of the “long” cubit as opposed to the regular cubit, all measurements have been converted to American standard miles (one mile = 5,280 feet), with the Hebrew measurements and the metric equivalents given in the notes.

263 tc The LXX reads “twenty thousand cubits.”

tn Heb “ten thousand cubits” (i.e., 5.25 kilometers).

264 tn Heb “holy it is in all its territory round about.”

265 tn Heb “five hundred cubits” (i.e., 262.5 meters); the phrase occurs twice in this verse.

266 tn Heb “fifty cubits” (i.e., 26.25 meters).

267 tn Heb “twenty-five thousand cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).

268 tn Heb “ten thousand cubits” (i.e., 5.25 kilometers).

269 tc The LXX apparently understood “open land” instead of “sanctuary.”

270 tn Heb “twenty-five thousand cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).

271 tn Heb “ten thousand cubits” (i.e., 5.25 kilometers).

272 tc The translation follows the LXX here. The MT reads “twenty.” See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:246.

273 tn Heb “five thousand cubits” (i.e., 2.625 kilometers).

274 tn Heb “twenty-five thousand cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).

275 sn Evictions of the less fortunate by the powerful are described in 1 Kgs 21:1-16; Jer 22:1-5, 13-17; Ezek 22:25.

276 sn Previous legislation regarding this practice may be found in Lev 19:35-36; Deut 25:13-16; Mic 6:10-12.

277 tn Heb “ephah,” which was 1/2 bushel.

278 tn Heb “bath,” a liquid measure, was 5 1/2 gallons.

279 sn The homer was about 5 bushels as a dry measure and 55 gallons as a liquid measure.

280 tn Heb “twenty shekels, twenty-five shekels, fifteen shekels.”

281 tn Heb “will be.”

282 tn Heb “a hin of oil.” A hin was about 1/16 of a bath. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:266, and O. R. Sellers, “Weights,” IDB 4:835 g.

283 tn Heb “ephah.” The words “of grain” are supplied in the translation as a clarification.

284 sn That is, the Feast of Temporary Shelters, traditionally known as the Feast of Tabernacles (Exod 23:16; 34:22; Deut 16:16).

285 sn The east gate of the outer court was permanently closed (Ezek 44:2).

286 tn Or “as much as he wishes.” Heb “a gift of his hand.”

287 tn Heb “a hin of oil.” A hin was about 1/16 of a bath. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:266, and O. R. Sellers, “Weights,” IDB 4:835 g.

288 tn The phrase “he will offer” is not in the Hebrew text but is warranted from the context.

289 tn Heb “with the lambs as his hand can reach.”

290 tn Heb “a hin of oil.” A hin was about 1/16 of a bath. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:266, and O. R. Sellers, “Weights,” IDB 4:835 g.

291 tn Heb “ephah.” The words “of grain” are supplied in the translation as a clarification.

292 tn Or “as much as he wishes.” Heb “a gift of his hand.”

293 tn Heb “a hin of oil.” A hin was about 1/16 of a bath. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:266, and O. R. Sellers, “Weights,” IDB 4:835 g.

294 tn Heb “ephah.” The words “of grain” are supplied in the translation as a clarification.

295 tn Heb “he shall shut the gate after he goes out.”

296 tc A few Hebrew mss, the LXX, and the Vulgate read the verb as third person singular (referring to the prince), both here and later in the verse.

297 tc Two medieval Hebrew mss, the LXX, the Syriac, and the Vulgate read the verb as third person singular.

298 tn Heb “a hin of oil.” A hin was about 1/16 of a bath. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:266, and O. R. Sellers, “Weights,” IDB 4:835 g.

299 tn The Hebrew text has no preposition; the LXX reads “from” (see v. 17).

300 sn That is, the year of Jubilee (Lev 25:8-15).

301 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.

302 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.

303 tc The meaning of the Hebrew term is unclear. The LXX and Syriac render “small.”

304 tn Heb “forty cubits” (i.e., 21 meters).

305 tn Heb “thirty cubits” (i.e., 15.75 meters).

306 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.

307 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.

308 tn Heb “one thousand cubits” (i.e., 525 meters); this phrase occurs three times in the next two verses.

309 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.

310 tn Heb “the sea,” referring to the Dead Sea. This has been specified in the translation for clarity.

311 tn Heb “to the sea, those which are brought out.” The reading makes no sense. The text is best emended to read “filthy” (i.e., stagnant). See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:273.

312 tn Heb “the waters become healed.”

313 tn Heb “two rivers,” perhaps under the influence of Zech 14:8. The translation follows the LXX and other ancient versions in reading the singular, which is demanded by the context (see vv. 5-7, 9b, 12).

314 tn Heb “will be healed.”

315 sn The Great Sea refers to the Mediterranean Sea (also in vv. 15, 19, 20).

316 sn See Rev 22:1-2.

317 tc This translation follows the reading זֶה (zeh) instead of גֵּה (geh), a nonexistent word, as supported by the LXX.

318 tn Or “territory”; see D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:715.

319 tc The grammar is awkward, though the presence of these words is supported by the versions. L. C. Allen (Ezekiel [WBC], 2:274) suggests that it is an explanatory gloss.

sn One portion for Ephraim, the other for Manasseh (Gen 48:17-20).

320 sn Gen 15:9-21.

321 tn Heb “will fall to you as an inheritance.”

322 sn The measurements resemble those in Num 34:1-2.

323 tn Or “valley.” The syntax is difficult. Some translate “to the river,” others “from the river”; in either case the preposition is supplied for the sake of English.

324 sn A similar attitude toward non-Israelites is found in Isa 56:3-8.

325 sn The tribes descended from Jacob’s maidservants are placed farthest from the sanctuary. See Gen 30.

326 sn The tribe from which the Davidic prince would come is given the most prestigious allotment (see Gen 49:8-12).

327 tn Heb “twenty-five thousand cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).

328 tn Heb “twenty-five thousand cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).

329 tn Heb “ten thousand cubits” (i.e., 5.25 kilometers).

330 tn Heb “twenty-five thousand cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).

331 tn Heb “ten thousand cubits” (i.e., 5.25 kilometers).

332 tn Heb “ten thousand cubits” (i.e., 5.25 kilometers).

333 tn Heb “twenty-five thousand cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).

334 tn Heb “strayed off.”

335 tn Heb “twenty-five thousand cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).

336 tn Heb “ten thousand cubits” (i.e., 5.25 kilometers).

337 tn Heb “twenty-five thousand cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).

338 tn Heb “ten thousand cubits” (i.e., 5.25 kilometers).

339 tn Or “holy.”

340 tn Heb “five thousand cubits” (i.e., 2.625 kilometers).

341 tn Heb “twenty-five thousand cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).

342 tn Heb “four thousand five hundred cubits” (i.e., 2.36 kilometers); the phrase occurs three more times in this verse.

343 tn Heb “two hundred fifty cubits” (i.e., 131.25 meters); the phrase occurs three more times in this verse.

344 tn Heb “ten thousand cubits” (i.e., 5.25 kilometers); the phrase occurs again later in this verse.

345 tn Heb “twenty-five thousand cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).

346 tn Heb “twenty-five thousand cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).

347 tn Heb “twenty-five thousand cubits” (i.e., 13.125 kilometers).

348 tn Traditionally “the Brook of Egypt,” although a number of recent translations have “the Wadi of Egypt” (cf. NAB, NIV, NRSV). The word “Egypt” is not in the Hebrew text, but is implied.

349 tn Heb “four thousand five hundred cubits” (i.e., 2.36 kilometers); the phrase occurs again in vv. 32-34.

350 sn See Rev 21:12-14.

351 tn Heb “eighteen thousand cubits” (i.e., 9.45 kilometers).

352 sn See Rev 21:12-21.



TIP #08: Use the Strong Number links to learn about the original Hebrew and Greek text. [ALL]
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