36:1 “As for you, son of man, prophesy to the mountains of Israel, and say: ‘O mountains of Israel, hear the word of the Lord! 36:2 This is what the sovereign Lord says: The enemy has spoken against you, saying “Aha!” and, “The ancient heights 1 have become our property!”’ 36:3 So prophesy and say: ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Surely because they have made you desolate and crushed you from all directions, so that you have become the property of the rest of the nations, and have become the subject of gossip 2 and slander among the people, 36:4 therefore, O mountains of Israel, hear the word of the sovereign Lord: This is what the sovereign Lord says to the mountains and hills, the ravines and valleys, and to the desolate ruins and the abandoned cities that have become prey and an object of derision to the rest of the nations round about – 36:5 therefore this is what the sovereign Lord says: Surely I have spoken in the fire of my zeal against the rest of the nations, and against all Edom, who with great joy and utter contempt have made my land their property and prey, because of its pasture.’
36:6 “Therefore prophesy concerning the land of Israel, and say to the mountains and hills, the ravines and valleys, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Look, I have spoken in my zeal and in my anger, because you have endured the insults of the nations. 36:7 So this is what the sovereign Lord says: I vow 3 that the nations around you will endure insults as well.
36:8 “‘But you, mountains of Israel, will grow your branches, and bear your fruit for my people Israel; for they will arrive soon. 4 36:9 For indeed, I am on your side; 5 I will turn to you, and you will be plowed and planted. 36:10 I will multiply your people 6 – the whole house of Israel, all of it. The cities will be populated and the ruins rebuilt. 36:11 I will increase the number of people and animals on you; they will increase and be fruitful. 7 I will cause you to be inhabited as in ancient times, and will do more good for you than at the beginning of your history. 8 Then you will know that I am the Lord. 36:12 I will lead people, my people Israel, across you; they will possess you and you will become their inheritance. No longer will you bereave them of their children.
36:13 “‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Because they are saying to you, “You are a devourer of men, and bereave your nation of children,” 36:14 therefore you will no longer devour people and no longer bereave your nation of children, declares the sovereign Lord. 36:15 I will no longer subject you to 9 the nations’ insults; no longer will you bear the shame of the peoples, and no longer will you bereave 10 your nation, declares the sovereign Lord.’”
36:16 The word of the Lord came to me: 36:17 “Son of man, when the house of Israel was living on their own land, they defiled it by their behavior 11 and their deeds. In my sight their behavior was like the uncleanness of a woman having her monthly period. 36:18 So I poured my anger on them 12 because of the blood they shed on the land and because of the idols with which they defiled it. 13 36:19 I scattered them among the nations; they were dispersed throughout foreign countries. In accordance with their behavior and their deeds I judged them. 36:20 But when they arrived in the nations where they went, they profaned my holy name. It was said of them, ‘These are the people of the Lord, yet they have departed from his land.’ 36:21 I was concerned for my holy reputation 14 which the house of Israel profaned among the nations where they went.
36:22 “Therefore say to the house of Israel, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: It is not for your sake that I am about to act, O house of Israel, but for the sake of my holy reputation 15 which you profaned among the nations where you went. 36:23 I will magnify 16 my great name that has been profaned among the nations, that you have profaned among them. The nations will know that I am the Lord, declares the sovereign Lord, when I magnify myself among you in their sight.
36:24 “‘I will take you from the nations and gather you from all the countries; then I will bring you to your land. 36:25 I will sprinkle you with pure water 17 and you will be clean from all your impurities. I will purify you from all your idols. 36:26 I will give you a new heart, and I will put a new spirit within you. I will remove the heart of stone 18 from your body and give you a heart of flesh. 19 36:27 I will put my Spirit within you; 20 I will take the initiative and you will obey my statutes 21 and carefully observe my regulations. 22 36:28 Then you will live in the land I gave to your fathers; you will be my people, and I will be your God. 23 36:29 I will save you from all your uncleanness. I will call for the grain and multiply it; I will not bring a famine on you. 36:30 I will multiply the fruit of the trees and the produce of the fields, so that you will never again suffer the disgrace of famine among the nations. 36:31 Then you will remember your evil behavior 24 and your deeds which were not good; you will loathe yourselves on account of your sins and your abominable deeds. 36:32 Understand that 25 it is not for your sake I am about to act, declares the sovereign Lord. Be ashamed and embarrassed by your behavior, O house of Israel.
36:33 “‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: In the day I cleanse you from all your sins, I will populate the cities and the ruins will be rebuilt. 36:34 The desolate land will be plowed, instead of being desolate in the sight of everyone who passes by. 36:35 They will say, “This desolate land has become like the garden of Eden; the ruined, desolate, and destroyed cities are now fortified and inhabited.” 36:36 Then the nations which remain around you will know that I, the Lord, have rebuilt the ruins and replanted what was desolate. I, the Lord, have spoken – and I will do it!’
36:37 “This is what the sovereign Lord says: I will allow the house of Israel to ask me to do this for them: 26 I will multiply their people like sheep. 27 36:38 Like the sheep for offerings, like the sheep of Jerusalem 28 during her appointed feasts, so will the ruined cities be filled with flocks of people. Then they will know that I am the Lord.”
37:1 The hand 29 of the Lord was on me, and he brought me out by the Spirit of the Lord and placed 30 me in the midst of the valley, and it was full of bones. 37:2 He made me walk all around among them. 31 I realized 32 there were a great many bones in the valley and they were very dry. 37:3 He said to me, “Son of man, can these bones live?” I said to him, “Sovereign Lord, you know.” 37:4 Then he said to me, “Prophesy over these bones, and tell them: ‘Dry bones, hear the word of the Lord. 37:5 This is what the sovereign Lord says to these bones: Look, I am about to infuse breath 33 into you and you will live. 37:6 I will put tendons 34 on you and muscles over you and will cover you with skin; I will put breath 35 in you and you will live. Then you will know that I am the Lord.’”
37:7 So I prophesied as I was commanded. There was a sound when I prophesied – I heard 36 a rattling, and the bones came together, bone to bone. 37:8 As I watched, I saw 37 tendons on them, then muscles appeared, 38 and skin covered over them from above, but there was no breath 39 in them.
37:9 He said to me, “Prophesy to the breath, 40 – prophesy, son of man – and say to the breath: ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Come from the four winds, O breath, and breathe on these corpses so that they may live.’” 37:10 So I prophesied as I was commanded, and the breath came into them; they lived and stood on their feet, an extremely great army.
37:11 Then he said to me, “Son of man, these bones are all the house of Israel. Look, they are saying, ‘Our bones are dry, our hope has perished; we are cut off.’ 37:12 Therefore prophesy, and tell them, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Look, I am about to open your graves and will raise you from your graves, my people. I will bring you to the land of Israel. 37:13 Then you will know that I am the Lord, when I open your graves and raise you from your graves, my people. 37:14 I will place my breath 41 in you and you will live; I will give you rest in your own land. Then you will know that I am the Lord – I have spoken and I will act, declares the Lord.’”
37:15 The word of the Lord came to me: 37:16 “As for you, son of man, take one branch, and write on it, ‘For Judah, and for the Israelites associated with him.’ Then take another branch and write on it, ‘For Joseph, the branch of Ephraim and all the house of Israel associated with him.’ 37:17 Join 42 them as one stick; 43 they will be as one in your hand. 37:18 When your people 44 say to you, ‘Will you not tell us what these things mean?’ 37:19 tell them, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Look, I am about to take the branch of Joseph which is in the hand of Ephraim and the tribes of Israel associated with him, and I will place them on the stick of Judah, 45 and make them into one stick – they will be one in my hand.’ 46 37:20 The sticks you write on will be in your hand in front of them. 37:21 Then tell them, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Look, I am about to take the Israelites from among the nations where they have gone. I will gather them from round about and bring them to their land. 37:22 I will make them one nation in the land, on the mountains of Israel, and one king will rule over them all. They will never again be two nations and never again be divided into two kingdoms. 47 37:23 They will not defile themselves with their idols, their detestable things, and all their rebellious deeds. I will save them from all their unfaithfulness 48 by which they sinned. I will purify them; they will become my people and I will become their God.
37:24 “‘My servant David will be king over them; there will be one shepherd for all of them. They will follow 49 my regulations and carefully observe my statutes. 50 37:25 They will live in the land I gave to my servant Jacob, in which your fathers lived; they will live in it – they and their children and their grandchildren forever. David my servant will be prince over them forever. 37:26 I will make a covenant of peace with them; it will be a perpetual covenant with them. 51 I will establish them, 52 increase their numbers, and place my sanctuary among them forever. 37:27 My dwelling place will be with them; I will be their God, and they will be my people. 37:28 Then, when my sanctuary is among them forever, the nations will know that I, the Lord, sanctify Israel.’” 53
38:1 The word of the Lord came to me: 38:2 “Son of man, turn toward 54 Gog, 55 of the land of Magog, 56 the chief prince of Meshech and Tubal. 57 Prophesy against him 38:3 and say: ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Look, 58 I am against you, Gog, chief prince of Meshech and Tubal. 38:4 I will turn you around, put hooks into your jaws, and bring you out with all your army, horses and horsemen, all of them fully armed, a great company with shields of different types, 59 all of them armed with swords. 38:5 Persia, 60 Ethiopia, and Put 61 are with them, all of them with shields and helmets. 38:6 They are joined by 62 Gomer with all its troops, and by Beth Togarmah from the remote parts of the north with all its troops – many peoples are with you. 63
38:7 “‘Be ready and stay ready, you and all your companies assembled around you, and be a guard for them. 64 38:8 After many days you will be summoned; in the latter years you will come to a land restored from the ravages of war, 65 with many peoples gathered on the mountains of Israel that had long been in ruins. Its people 66 were brought out from the peoples, and all of them will be living securely. 38:9 You will advance; 67 you will come like a storm. You will be like a cloud covering the earth, you, all your troops, and the many other peoples with you.
38:10 “‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: On that day thoughts will come into your mind, 68 and you will devise an evil plan. 38:11 You will say, “I will invade 69 a land of unwalled towns; I will advance against 70 those living quietly in security – all of them living without walls and barred gates – 38:12 to loot and plunder, to attack 71 the inhabited ruins and the people gathered from the nations, who are acquiring cattle and goods, who live at the center 72 of the earth.” 38:13 Sheba and Dedan and the traders of Tarshish with all its young warriors 73 will say to you, “Have you come to loot? Have you assembled your armies to plunder, to carry away silver and gold, to take away cattle and goods, to haul away a great amount of spoils?”’
38:14 “Therefore, prophesy, son of man, and say to Gog: ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: On that day when my people Israel are living securely, you will take notice 74 38:15 and come from your place, from the remote parts of the north, you and many peoples with you, all of them riding on horses, a great company and a vast army. 38:16 You will advance 75 against my people Israel like a cloud covering the earth. In the latter days I will bring you against my land so that the nations may acknowledge me, when before their eyes I magnify myself 76 through you, O Gog.
38:17 “‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Are you the one of whom I spoke in former days by my servants 77 the prophets of Israel, who prophesied in those days 78 that I would bring you against them? 38:18 On that day, when Gog invades 79 the land of Israel, declares the sovereign Lord, my rage will mount up in my anger. 38:19 In my zeal, in the fire of my fury, 80 I declare that on that day there will be a great earthquake 81 in the land of Israel. 38:20 The fish of the sea, the birds of the sky, the wild beasts, all the things that creep on the ground, and all people who live on the face of the earth will shake 82 at my presence. The mountains will topple, the cliffs 83 will fall, and every wall will fall to the ground. 38:21 I will call for a sword to attack 84 Gog 85 on all my mountains, declares the sovereign Lord; every man’s sword will be against his brother. 38:22 I will judge him with plague and bloodshed. I will rain down on him, his troops and the many peoples who are with him a torrential downpour, hailstones, fire, and brimstone. 38:23 I will exalt and magnify myself; I will reveal myself before many nations. Then they will know that I am the Lord.’
39:1 “As for you, son of man, prophesy against Gog, and say: ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says: Look, I am against you, O Gog, chief prince of Meshech and Tubal! 39:2 I will turn you around and drag you along; 86 I will lead you up from the remotest parts of the north and bring you against the mountains of Israel. 39:3 I will knock your bow out of your left hand and make your arrows fall from your right hand. 39:4 You will fall dead on the mountains of Israel, you and all your troops and the people who are with you. I give you as food to every kind of bird and every wild beast. 39:5 You will fall dead in the open field; for I have spoken, declares the sovereign Lord. 39:6 I will send fire on Magog and those who live securely in the coastlands; then they will know that I am the Lord.
39:7 “‘I will make my holy name known in the midst of my people Israel; I will not let my holy name be profaned anymore. Then the nations will know that I am the Lord, the Holy One of Israel. 87 39:8 Realize that it is coming and it will be done, declares the sovereign Lord. It is the day I have spoken about.
39:9 “‘Then those who live in the cities of Israel will go out and use the weapons for kindling 88 – the shields, 89 bows and arrows, war clubs and spears – they will burn them for seven years. 39:10 They will not need to take 90 wood from the field or cut down trees from the forests, because they will make fires with the weapons. They will take the loot from those who looted them and seize the plunder of those who plundered them, 91 declares the sovereign Lord.
39:11 “‘On that day I will assign Gog a grave in Israel. It will be the valley of those who travel east of the sea; it will block the way of the travelers. There they will bury Gog and all his horde; they will call it the valley of Hamon-Gog. 92 39:12 For seven months Israel 93 will bury them, in order to cleanse the land. 39:13 All the people of the land will bury them, and it will be a memorial 94 for them on the day I magnify myself, declares the sovereign Lord. 39:14 They will designate men to scout continually 95 through the land, burying those who remain on the surface of the ground, 96 in order to cleanse it. They will search for seven full months. 39:15 When the scouts survey 97 the land and see a human bone, they will place a sign by it, until those assigned to burial duty have buried it 98 in the valley of Hamon-Gog. 39:16 (A city by the name of Hamonah 99 will also be there.) They will cleanse the land.’
39:17 “As for you, son of man, this is what the sovereign Lord says: Tell every kind of bird and every wild beast: ‘Assemble and come! Gather from all around to my slaughter 100 which I am going to make for you, a great slaughter on the mountains of Israel! You will eat flesh and drink blood. 39:18 You will eat the flesh of warriors 101 and drink the blood of the princes of the earth – the rams, lambs, goats, and bulls, all of them fattened animals of Bashan. 39:19 You will eat fat until you are full, and drink blood until you are drunk, 102 at my slaughter 103 which I have made for you. 39:20 You will fill up at my table with horses and charioteers, 104 with warriors and all the soldiers,’ declares the sovereign Lord.
39:21 “I will display my majesty 105 among the nations. All the nations will witness the judgment I have executed, and the power I have exhibited 106 among them. 39:22 Then the house of Israel will know that I am the Lord their God, from that day forward. 39:23 The nations will know that the house of Israel went into exile due to their iniquity, 107 for they were unfaithful to me. So I hid my face from them and handed them over to their enemies; all of them died by the sword. 39:24 According to their uncleanness and rebellion I have dealt with them, and I hid my face from them.
39:25 “Therefore this is what the sovereign Lord says: Now I will restore 108 the fortunes of Jacob, and I will have mercy on the entire house of Israel. I will be zealous for my holy name. 39:26 They will bear their shame for all their unfaithful acts against me, when they live securely on their land with no one to make them afraid. 39:27 When I have brought them back from the peoples and gathered them from the countries of their enemies, I will magnify myself among them in the sight of many nations. 39:28 Then they will know that I am the Lord their God, because I sent them into exile among the nations, and then gathered them into their own land. I will not leave any of them in exile 109 any longer. 39:29 I will no longer hide my face from them, when I pour out my Spirit on the house of Israel, 110 declares the sovereign Lord.”
1 tn Or “high places.”
2 tn Heb “lip of the tongue.”
3 tn Heb “I lifted up my hand.”
4 tn Heb “they draw near to arrive.”
5 tn Heb “I (am) toward you.”
6 tn Heb “I will multiply on you human(s).”
8 tn Heb “your beginning.”
9 tn Heb “cause you to hear.”
10 tc The MT reads תַכְשִׁלִי (takhshiliy), a metathesis for תַשְׁכִלִי (tashkhiliy) from the root שָׁכַל (shakhal) which is used in each of the previous verses.
11 tn Heb “way.”
14 tn Heb “name.”
16 tn Or “sanctify,” Heb “make holy.”
19 sn That is, a heart which symbolizes a will that is responsive and obedient to God.
20 tn Or “in the midst of you.” The word “you” is plural.
21 tn Heb “and I will do that which in my statutes you will walk.” The awkward syntax (verb “to do, act” + accusative sign + relative clause + prepositional phrase + second person verb) is unique, though Eccl 3:14 contains a similar construction. In the last line of that verse we read that “God acts so that (relative pronoun) they fear before him.” However, unlike Ezek 36:27, the statement has no accusative sign before the relative pronoun.
24 tn Heb “ways.”
25 tn Heb “Let it be known.”
26 tn The Niphal verb may have a tolerative function here, “Again (for) this I will allow myself to be sought by the house of Israel to act for them.” Or it may be reflexive: “I will reveal myself to the house of Israel by doing this also.”
27 sn Heb “I will multiply them like sheep, human(s).”
29 tn Or “power.”
sn Hand in the OT can refer metaphorically to power, authority, or influence. In Ezekiel God’s hand being on the prophet is regularly associated with communication or a vision from God (3:14, 22; 8:1; 37:1; 40:1).
30 tn Heb “caused me to rest.”
31 tn Heb “and he made me pass over them, around, around.”
32 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and is here translated as “I realized” because it results from Ezekiel’s recognition of the situation around him. In Hebrew, the exclamation is repeated in the following sentence.
33 tn Heb “I am about to bring a spirit.”
35 tn Or “a spirit.”
36 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.
37 tn The word הִנֵּה (hinneh, traditionally “behold”) indicates becoming aware of something and has been translated here as a verb.
38 tn Heb “came up.”
39 tn Or “spirit.”
40 tn Or “spirit,” and several times in this verse.
42 tn Heb “bring near.”
43 tn Heb “one to one for you for one stick.”
44 tn Heb “the sons of your people.”
45 tn Heb “I will place them on it, that is, on the stick of Judah.”
48 tc Heb “their dwellings.” The text as it stands does not make sense. Based on the LXX, a slight emendation of two vowels, including a mater, yields the reading “from their turning,” a reference here to their turning from God and deviating from his commandments. See BDB 1000 s.v. מְשׁוּבָה, and D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:407.
49 tn Heb “walk [in].”
50 tn Heb “and my statutes they will guard and they will do them.”
52 tn Heb “give them.”
54 tn Heb “set your face against.”
55 sn This may refer to a Lydian king in western Asia Minor in the seventh century
57 tn Heb “the prince, the chief of Meshech and Tubal.” Some translate “the prince of Rosh, Meshech and Tubal,” but it is more likely that the Hebrew noun in question is a common noun in apposition to “prince,” rather than a proper name. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:434-35. As Block demonstrates, attempts by some popular writers to identify these proper names with later geographical sites in Russia are anachronistic. See as well E. Yamauchi, Foes From the Northern Frontier, 19-27.
58 tn Or “I challenge you.” The phrase “I am against you” may be a formula for challenging someone to combat or a duel. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 1:201-2, and P. Humbert, “Die Herausforderungsformel ‘h!nn#n' ?l?K>,’” ZAW 45 (1933): 101-8.
59 sn The Hebrew text mentions two different types of shields here.
60 tn D. I. Block prefers to see the Hebrew word as referring here to a western ally of Egypt or as an alternative spelling for Pathros, that is, Upper Egypt. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:439-40.
61 sn That is, Lydia.
62 tn The words “they are joined by” are added in the translation for purposes of English style.
63 sn The seven-nation coalition represents the north (Meshech, Tubal, Gomer, Beth-Togarmah), the south/west (Ethiopia, Put) and the east (Persia). The use of the sevenfold list suggests completeness. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:441.
64 tn The second person singular verbal and pronominal forms in the Hebrew text indicate that Gog is addressed here.
65 tn Heb “from the sword.”
66 tn Heb “it.”
67 tn Heb “go up.”
68 tn Heb “words will go up upon your heart.”
69 tn Heb “go up against.”
70 tn Heb “come (to).”
71 tn Heb “to turn your hand against.”
73 tn Heb “young lions.”
74 tn The Hebrew text is framed as a rhetorical question: “will you not take notice?”
75 tn Heb “come up.”
76 tn Or “reveal my holiness.”
77 tn Heb “by the hand of my servants.”
78 tn The Hebrew text adds “years” here, but this is probably a scribal gloss on the preceding phrase. See L. C. Allen, Ezekiel (WBC), 2:201.
79 tn Heb “goes up against.”
81 tn Or “shaking.”
82 tn Or “tremble.”
84 tn Heb “against.”
86 tn The Hebrew root occurs only here in the OT. An apparent cognate in the Ethiopic language means “walk along.” For a discussion of the research on this verb, see D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 2:460.
87 sn The basic sense of the word “holy” is “set apart from that which is commonplace, special, unique.” The
88 tn Heb “burn and kindle the weapons.”
89 tn Two different types of shields are specified in the Hebrew text.
90 tn Heb “they will not carry.”
91 tn Heb “loot their looters and plunder their plunderers.”
92 tn The name means “horde of Gog.”
93 tn Heb “the house of Israel.”
94 tn Heb “name.”
95 tn Heb “men of perpetuity.”
96 tn Heb “and bury the travelers and those who remain on the surface of the ground.” The reference to “travelers” seems odd and is omitted in the LXX. It is probably an accidental duplication (see v. 11).
97 tn Heb “as the scouts scout.”
98 tn That is, the aforementioned bone.
99 tn This name appears to be a feminine form of the word “horde,” used in the name Hamon-Gog.
100 tn Or “sacrifice” (so also in the rest of this verse).
103 tn Or “sacrifice” (so also in the rest of this verse).
104 tn Heb “chariots.”
105 tn Or “my glory.”
106 tn Heb “my hand which I have placed.”
107 tn Or “in their punishment.” The phrase “in/for [a person’s] iniquity/punishment” occurs fourteen times in Ezekiel: here; 3:18, 19; 4:17; 7:13, 16; 18: 17, 18, 19, 20; 24:23; 33:6, 8, 9. The Hebrew word for “iniquity” may also mean the “punishment” for iniquity or “guilt” of iniquity.
108 tn Heb “cause to return.”
109 tn Heb “there,” referring to the foreign nations to which they were exiled. The translation makes the referent clear.