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Ezekiel 29:3

Context
29:3 Tell them, ‘This is what the sovereign Lord says:

“‘Look, I am against 1  you, Pharaoh king of Egypt,

the great monster 2  lying in the midst of its waterways,

who has said, “My Nile is my own, I made it for myself.” 3 

Ezekiel 32:2

Context
32:2 “Son of man, sing a lament for Pharaoh king of Egypt, and say to him:

“‘You were like a lion 4  among the nations,

but you are a monster in the seas;

you thrash about in your streams,

stir up the water with your feet,

and muddy your 5  streams.

1 tn Or “I challenge you.” The phrase “I am against you” may be a formula for challenging someone to combat or a duel. See D. I. Block, Ezekiel (NICOT), 1:201-2, and P. Humbert, “Die Herausforderungsformel ‘h!nn#n' ?l?K>,’” ZAW 45 (1933): 101-8.

2 tn Heb “jackals,” but many medieval Hebrew mss read correctly “the serpent.” The Hebrew term appears to refer to a serpent in Exod 7:9-10, 12; Deut 32:33; and Ps 91:13. It also refers to large creatures that inhabit the sea (Gen 1:21; Ps 148:7). In several passages it is associated with the sea or with the multiheaded sea monster Leviathan (Job 7:12; Ps 74:13; Isa 27:1; 51:9). Because of the Egyptian setting of this prophecy and the reference to the creature’s scales (v. 4), many understand a crocodile to be the referent here (e.g., NCV “a great crocodile”; TEV “you monster crocodile”; CEV “a giant crocodile”).

3 sn In Egyptian theology Pharaoh owned and controlled the Nile. See J. D. Currid, Ancient Egypt and the Old Testament, 240-44.

4 tn The lion was a figure of royalty (Ezek 19:1-9).

5 tc The Hebrew reads “their streams”; the LXX reads “your streams.”



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