25:12 “This is what the sovereign Lord says: ‘Edom 1 has taken vengeance against the house of Judah; they have made themselves fully culpable 2 by taking vengeance 3 on them. 4
1 sn Edom was located south of Moab.
2 tn Heb “and they have become guilty, becoming guilty.” The infinitive absolute following the finite verb makes the statement emphatic and draws attention to the degree of guilt incurred by Edom due to its actions.
3 tn Heb “and they have taken vengeance.”
4 sn Edom apparently in some way assisted in the destruction of Jerusalem in 587/6