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  Discovery Box

Exodus 36:1--40:38

Context
36:1 So Bezalel and Oholiab and every skilled person 1  in whom the Lord has put skill 2  and ability 3  to know how 4  to do all the work for the service 5  of the sanctuary are to do the work 6  according to all that the Lord has commanded.”

36:2 Moses summoned 7  Bezalel and Oholiab and every skilled person in whom 8  the Lord had put skill – everyone whose heart stirred him 9  to volunteer 10  to do the work, 36:3 and they received from Moses all the offerings the Israelites had brought to do 11  the work for the service of the sanctuary, and they still continued to bring him a freewill offering each morning. 12  36:4 So all the skilled people who were doing all the work on the sanctuary came from the work 13  they were doing 36:5 and told Moses, “The people are bringing much more than 14  is needed for the completion 15  of the work which the Lord commanded us to do!” 16 

36:6 Moses instructed them to take 17  his message 18  throughout the camp, saying, “Let no man or woman do any more work for the offering for the sanctuary.” So the people were restrained from bringing any more. 19  36:7 Now the materials were more than enough 20  for them to do all the work. 21 

The Building of the Tabernacle

36:8 All the skilled among those who were doing the work made the tabernacle with ten curtains of fine twisted linen and blue and purple and scarlet; they were made with cherubim that were the work of an artistic designer. 36:9 The length of one curtain was forty-two feet, and the width of one curtain was six feet – the same size for each of the curtains. 36:10 He joined 22  five of the curtains to one another, and the other 23  five curtains he joined to one another. 36:11 He made loops of blue material along the edge of the end curtain in the first set; he did the same along the edge of the end curtain in the second set. 36:12 He made fifty loops on the first curtain, and he made fifty loops on the end curtain that was in the second set, with the loops opposite one another. 36:13 He made fifty gold clasps and joined the curtains together to one another with the clasps, so that the tabernacle was a unit. 24 

36:14 He made curtains of goats’ hair for a tent over the tabernacle; he made eleven curtains. 25  36:15 The length of one curtain was forty-five feet, and the width of one curtain was six feet – one size for all eleven curtains. 36:16 He joined five curtains by themselves and six curtains by themselves. 36:17 He made fifty loops along the edge of the end curtain in the first set and fifty loops along the edge of the curtain that joined the second set. 36:18 He made fifty bronze clasps to join the tent together so that it might be a unit. 26  36:19 He made a covering for the tent out of ram skins dyed red and over that a covering of fine leather. 27 

36:20 He made the frames 28  for the tabernacle of acacia wood 29  as uprights. 30  36:21 The length of each 31  frame was fifteen feet, the width of each 32  frame was two and a quarter feet, 36:22 with 33  two projections per frame parallel one to another. 34  He made all the frames of the tabernacle in this way. 36:23 So he made frames for the tabernacle: twenty frames for the south side. 36:24 He made forty silver bases under the twenty frames – two bases under the first frame for its two projections, and likewise 35  two bases under the next frame for its two projections, 36:25 and for the second side of the tabernacle, the north side, he made twenty frames 36:26 and their forty silver bases, two bases under the first frame and two bases under the next 36  frame. 36:27 And for the back of the tabernacle on the west he made six frames. 36:28 He made two frames for the corners of the tabernacle on the back. 36:29 At the two corners 37  they were doubled at the lower end and 38  finished together at the top in one ring. So he did for both. 36:30 So there were eight frames and their silver bases, sixteen bases, two bases under each frame.

36:31 He made bars of acacia wood, five for the frames on one side of the tabernacle 36:32 and five bars for the frames on the second side of the tabernacle, and five bars for the frames of the tabernacle for the back side on the west. 36:33 He made the middle bar to reach from end to end in the center of the frames. 36:34 He overlaid the frames with gold and made their rings of gold to provide places 39  for the bars, and he overlaid the bars with gold.

36:35 He made the special curtain of blue, purple, and scarlet yarn and fine twisted linen; he made 40  it with cherubim, the work of an artistic designer. 36:36 He made for it four posts of acacia wood and overlaid them with gold, with gold hooks, 41  and he cast for them four silver bases.

36:37 He made a hanging for the entrance of the tent of blue, purple, and scarlet yarn and fine twisted linen, the work of an embroiderer, 36:38 and its five posts and their hooks. He overlaid their tops 42  and their bands with gold, but their five bases were bronze. 43 

The Making of the Ark

37:1 Bezalel made the ark of acacia wood; its length was three feet nine inches, its width two feet three inches, and its height two feet three inches. 37:2 He overlaid it with pure gold, inside and out, and he made a surrounding border 44  of gold for it. 37:3 He cast four gold rings for it that he put 45  on its four feet, with 46  two rings on one side and two rings on the other side. 37:4 He made poles of acacia wood, overlaid them with gold, 37:5 and put the poles into the rings on the sides of the ark in order to carry the ark.

37:6 He made 47  an atonement lid of pure gold; its length was three feet nine inches, and its width was two feet three inches. 37:7 He made two cherubim of gold; he made them of hammered metal on the two ends of the atonement lid, 37:8 one cherub on one end 48  and one cherub on the other end. 49  He made the cherubim from the atonement lid on its two ends. 37:9 The cherubim were spreading their wings 50  upward, overshadowing the atonement lid with their wings. The cherubim 51  faced each other, 52  looking toward the atonement lid. 53 

The Making of the Table

37:10 He made the table of acacia wood; its length was three feet, its width one foot six inches, and its height two feet three inches. 37:11 He overlaid it with pure gold, and he made a surrounding border of gold for it. 37:12 He made a surrounding frame for it about three inches wide, and he made a surrounding border of gold for its frame. 37:13 He cast four gold rings for it and attached the rings at the four corners where its four legs were. 37:14 The rings were close to the frame to provide places for the poles to carry the table. 37:15 He made the poles of acacia wood and overlaid them with gold, to carry the table. 37:16 He made the vessels which were on the table out of pure gold, its 54  plates, its ladles, its pitchers, and its bowls, to be used in pouring out offerings.

The Making of the Lampstand

37:17 He made the lampstand of pure gold. He made the lampstand of hammered metal; its base and its shaft, its cups, its buds, and its blossoms were from the same piece. 55  37:18 Six branches were extending from its sides, three branches of the lampstand from one side of it, and three branches of the lampstand from the other side of it. 37:19 Three cups shaped like almond flowers with buds and blossoms were on the first branch, and three cups shaped like almond flowers with buds and blossoms were on the next 56  branch, and the same 57  for the six branches that were extending from the lampstand. 37:20 On the lampstand there were four cups shaped like almond flowers with buds and blossoms, 37:21 with a bud under the first two branches from it, and a bud under the next two branches from it, and a bud under the third two branches from it; according to the six branches that extended from it. 58  37:22 Their buds and their branches were of one piece; 59  all of it was one hammered piece of pure gold. 37:23 He made its seven lamps, its trimmers, and its trays of pure gold. 37:24 He made the lampstand 60  and all its accessories with seventy-five pounds of pure gold.

The Making of the Altar of Incense

37:25 He made the incense altar of acacia wood. Its length was a foot and a half and its width a foot and a half – a square – and its height was three feet. Its horns were of one piece with it. 61  37:26 He overlaid it with pure gold – its top, 62  its four walls, 63  and its horns – and he made a surrounding border of gold for it. 64  37:27 He also made 65  two gold rings for it under its border, on its two sides, on opposite sides, 66  as places 67  for poles to carry it with. 37:28 He made the poles of acacia wood and overlaid them with gold.

37:29 He made the sacred anointing oil and the pure fragrant incense, the work of a perfumer.

The Making of the Altar for the Burnt Offering

38:1 He made the altar for the burnt offering of acacia wood seven feet six inches long and seven feet six inches wide – it was square – and its height was four feet six inches. 38:2 He made its horns on its four corners; its horns were part of it, 68  and he overlaid it with bronze. 38:3 He made all the utensils of the altar – the pots, the shovels, the tossing bowls, the meat hooks, and the fire pans – he made all its utensils of bronze. 38:4 He made a grating for the altar, a network of bronze under its ledge, halfway up from the bottom. 38:5 He cast four rings for the four corners of the bronze grating, to provide places for the poles. 38:6 He made the poles of acacia wood and overlaid them with bronze. 38:7 He put the poles into the rings on the sides of the altar, with which to carry it. He made the altar 69  hollow, out of boards.

38:8 He made the large basin of bronze and its pedestal of bronze from the mirrors of the women who served 70  at the entrance of the tent of meeting.

The Construction of the Courtyard

38:9 He made the courtyard. For the south side 71  the hangings of the courtyard were of fine twisted linen, one hundred fifty feet long, 38:10 with 72  their twenty posts and their twenty bronze bases, with the hooks of the posts and their bands of silver. 38:11 For the north side the hangings were 73  one hundred fifty feet, with their twenty posts and their twenty bronze bases, with the hooks of the posts and their bands of silver. 38:12 For the west side there were 74  hangings seventy-five feet long, with 75  their ten posts and their ten bases, with the hooks of the posts and their bands of silver. 38:13 For the east side, toward the sunrise, it was seventy-five feet wide, 76  38:14 with hangings on one side 77  of the gate that were twenty-two and a half feet long, with their three posts and their three bases, 38:15 and for the second side of the gate of the courtyard, just like the other, 78  the hangings were twenty-two and a half feet long, with their three posts and their three bases. 38:16 All the hangings around the courtyard were of fine twisted linen. 38:17 The bases for the posts were bronze. The hooks of the posts and their bands were silver, their tops were overlaid with silver, and all the posts of the courtyard had silver bands. 79  38:18 The curtain 80  for the gate of the courtyard was of blue, purple, and scarlet yarn and fine twisted linen, the work of an embroiderer. It was thirty feet long, and like the hangings in the courtyard, it was seven and a half feet high, 38:19 with four posts and their four bronze bases. Their hooks and their bands were silver, and their tops were overlaid with silver. 38:20 All the tent pegs of the tabernacle and of the courtyard all around were bronze.

The Materials of the Construction

38:21 This is the inventory 81  of the tabernacle, the tabernacle of the testimony, which was counted 82  by the order 83  of Moses, being the work 84  of the Levites under the direction 85  of Ithamar, son of Aaron the priest. 38:22 Now Bezalel son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah, made everything that the Lord had commanded Moses; 38:23 and with him was Oholiab son of Ahisamach, of the tribe of Dan, an artisan, a designer, and an embroiderer in blue, purple, and scarlet yarn and fine linen.

38:24 All the gold that was used for the work, in all the work of the sanctuary 86  (namely, 87  the gold of the wave offering) was twenty-nine talents and 730 shekels, 88  according to the sanctuary shekel.

38:25 The silver of those who were numbered of the community was one hundred talents and 1,775 shekels, 89  according to the sanctuary shekel, 38:26 one beka per person, that is, a half shekel, 90  according to the sanctuary shekel, for everyone who crossed over to those numbered, from twenty years old or older, 91  603,550 in all. 92  38:27 The one hundred talents of silver were used for casting the bases of the sanctuary and the bases of the special curtain – one hundred bases for one hundred talents, one talent per base. 38:28 From the remaining 1,775 shekels 93  he made hooks for the posts, overlaid their tops, and made bands for them.

38:29 The bronze of the wave offering was seventy talents and 2,400 shekels. 94  38:30 With it he made the bases for the door of the tent of meeting, the bronze altar, the bronze grating for it, and all the utensils of the altar, 38:31 the bases for the courtyard all around, the bases for the gate of the courtyard, all the tent pegs of the tabernacle, and all the tent pegs of the courtyard all around. 95 

The Making of the Priestly Garments

39:1 From the blue, purple, and scarlet yarn they made woven garments for serving in the sanctuary; they made holy garments that were for Aaron, just as the Lord had commanded Moses. 96 

The Ephod

39:2 He made the ephod of gold, blue, purple, scarlet, and fine twisted linen. 39:3 They hammered the gold into thin sheets and cut it into narrow strips to weave 97  them into the blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, and into the fine linen, the work of an artistic designer. 39:4 They made shoulder pieces for it, attached to two of its corners, so it could be joined together. 39:5 The artistically woven waistband of the ephod that was on it was like it, of one piece with it, 98  of gold, blue, purple, and scarlet yarn and fine twisted linen, just as the Lord had commanded Moses.

39:6 They set the onyx stones in gold filigree settings, engraved as with the engravings of a seal 99  with the names of the sons of Israel. 100  39:7 He put 101  them on the shoulder pieces of the ephod as stones of memorial for the Israelites, just as the Lord had commanded Moses.

The Breastpiece of Decision

39:8 He made the breastpiece, the work of an artistic designer, in the same fashion as the ephod, of gold, blue, purple, and scarlet, and fine twisted linen. 39:9 It was square – they made the breastpiece doubled, nine inches long and nine inches wide when doubled. 39:10 They set on it 102  four rows of stones: a row with a ruby, a topaz, and a beryl – the first row; 39:11 and the second row, a turquoise, a sapphire, and an emerald; 39:12 and the third row, a jacinth, an agate, and an amethyst; 39:13 and the fourth row, a chrysolite, an onyx, and a jasper. They were enclosed in gold filigree settings. 39:14 The stones were for the names of the sons of Israel, twelve, corresponding to the number of 103  their names. Each name corresponding to one of the twelve tribes was like the engravings of a seal.

39:15 They made for the breastpiece braided chains like cords of pure gold, 39:16 and they made two gold filigree settings and two gold rings, and they attached the two rings to the upper 104  two ends of the breastpiece. 39:17 They attached the two gold chains to the two rings at the ends of the breastpiece; 39:18 the other 105  two ends of the two chains they attached to the two settings, and they attached them to the shoulder pieces of the ephod at the front of it. 39:19 They made two rings of gold and put them on the other 106  two ends of the breastpiece on its edge, which is on the inner side of the ephod. 107  39:20 They made two more 108  gold rings and attached them to the bottom of the two shoulder pieces on the front of the ephod, close to the juncture above the waistband of the ephod. 39:21 They tied the breastpiece by its rings to the rings of the ephod by blue cord, so that it was above the waistband of the ephod, so that the breastpiece would not be loose from the ephod, just as the Lord had commanded Moses.

The Other Garments

39:22 He made the robe of the ephod completely blue, the work of a weaver. 39:23 There was an opening in the center of the robe, like the opening of a collar, with an edge all around the opening so that it could not be torn. 39:24 They made pomegranates of blue, purple, and scarlet yarn and twisted linen 109  around the hem of the robe. 39:25 They made bells of pure gold and attached the bells between the pomegranates around the hem of the robe between the pomegranates. 39:26 There was 110  a bell and a pomegranate, a bell and a pomegranate, all around the hem of the robe, to be used in ministering, 111  just as the Lord had commanded Moses.

39:27 They made tunics of fine linen – the work of a weaver, for Aaron and for his sons – 39:28 and the turban of fine linen, the headbands of fine linen, and the undergarments of fine twisted linen. 39:29 The sash was of fine twisted linen and blue, purple, and scarlet yarn, the work of an embroiderer, just as the Lord had commanded Moses. 39:30 They made a plate, the holy diadem, of pure gold and wrote on it an inscription, as on the engravings of a seal, “Holiness to the Lord.” 39:31 They attached to it a blue cord, to attach it to the turban above, just as the Lord had commanded Moses.

Moses Inspects the Sanctuary

39:32 112 So all the work of the tabernacle, the tent of meeting, was completed, and the Israelites did according to all that the Lord had commanded Moses – they did it exactly so. 39:33 They brought the tabernacle to Moses, the tent and all its furnishings, clasps, frames, bars, posts, and bases; 39:34 and the coverings of ram skins dyed red, the covering of fine leather, 113  and the protecting 114  curtain; 39:35 the ark of the testimony and its poles, and the atonement lid; 39:36 the table, all its utensils, and the Bread of the Presence; 39:37 the pure 115  lampstand, its lamps, with the lamps set in order, and all its accessories, and oil for the light; 39:38 and the gold altar, and the anointing oil, and the fragrant incense; and the curtain for the entrance to the tent; 39:39 the bronze altar and its bronze grating, its poles, and all its utensils; the large basin with its pedestal; 39:40 the hangings of the courtyard, its posts and its bases, and the curtain for the gateway of the courtyard, its ropes and its tent pegs, and all the furnishings 116  for the service of the tabernacle, for the tent of meeting; 39:41 the woven garments for serving 117  in the sanctuary, the holy garments for Aaron the priest, and the garments for his sons to minister as priests.

39:42 The Israelites did all the work according to all that the Lord had commanded Moses. 39:43 Moses inspected 118  all the work – and 119  they had done it just as the Lord had commanded – they had done it exactly – and Moses blessed them. 120 

Setting Up the Sanctuary

40:1 121 Then the Lord spoke to Moses: 122  40:2 “On the first day of the first month you are to set up 123  the tabernacle, the tent of meeting. 40:3 You are to place the ark of the testimony in it and shield the ark with the special curtain. 40:4 You are to bring in the table and set out the things that belong on it; 124  then you are to bring in the lampstand and set up its lamps. 40:5 You are to put 125  the gold altar for incense in front of the ark of the testimony and put the curtain at the entrance to the tabernacle. 40:6 You are to put the altar for the burnt offering in front of the entrance to the tabernacle, the tent of meeting. 40:7 You are to put the large basin between the tent of meeting and the altar and put water in it. 126  40:8 You are to set up the courtyard around it and put the curtain at the gate of the courtyard. 40:9 And take 127  the anointing oil, and anoint 128  the tabernacle and all that is in it, and sanctify 129  it and all its furnishings, and it will be holy. 40:10 Then you are to anoint the altar for the burnt offering with 130  all its utensils; you are to sanctify the altar, and it will be the most holy altar. 40:11 You must also anoint the large basin and its pedestal, and you are to sanctify it. 131 

40:12 “You are to bring 132  Aaron and his sons to the entrance of the tent of meeting and wash them with water. 40:13 Then you are to clothe Aaron with the holy garments and anoint him and sanctify him so that he may minister as my priest. 40:14 You are to bring 133  his sons and clothe them with tunics 40:15 and anoint them just as you anointed their father, so that they may minister as my priests; their anointing will make them a priesthood that will continue throughout their generations.” 40:16 This is what Moses did, according to all the Lord had commanded him – so he did.

40:17 So the tabernacle was set up on the first day of the first month, in the second year. 40:18 When Moses set up the tabernacle and put its bases in place, he set up its frames, attached its bars, and set up its posts. 40:19 Then he spread the tent over the tabernacle and put the covering of the tent over it, as the Lord had commanded Moses. 40:20 He took the testimony and put it in the ark, attached the poles to the ark, and then put the atonement lid on the ark. 40:21 And he brought the ark into the tabernacle, hung 134  the protecting curtain, 135  and shielded the ark of the testimony from view, just as the Lord had commanded Moses.

40:22 And he put the table in the tent of meeting, on the north side of the tabernacle, outside the curtain. 40:23 And he set the bread in order on it 136  before the Lord, just as the Lord had commanded Moses.

40:24 And he put the lampstand in the tent of meeting opposite the table, on the south side of the tabernacle. 40:25 Then he set up the lamps before the Lord, just as the Lord had commanded Moses.

40:26 And he put the gold altar in the tent of meeting in front of the curtain, 40:27 and he burned fragrant incense on it, just as the Lord had commanded Moses.

40:28 Then he put the curtain at the entrance to the tabernacle. 40:29 He also put the altar for the burnt offering by the entrance to the tabernacle, the tent of meeting, and offered on it the burnt offering and the meal offering, just as the Lord had commanded Moses.

40:30 Then he put the large basin between the tent of meeting and the altar and put water in it 137  for washing. 40:31 Moses and Aaron and his sons would wash their hands and their feet from it. 40:32 Whenever they entered 138  the tent of meeting, and whenever they approached 139  the altar, they would wash, 140  just as the Lord had commanded Moses.

40:33 And he set up the courtyard around the tabernacle and the altar, and put the curtain at the gate of the courtyard. So Moses finished the work.

40:34 Then the cloud covered the tent of meeting, and the glory of the Lord filled the tabernacle. 40:35 Moses was not able to enter the tent of meeting because the cloud settled on it and the glory of the Lord filled the tabernacle. 40:36 But when the cloud was lifted up 141  from the tabernacle, the Israelites would set out 142  on all their journeys; 40:37 but if the cloud was not lifted up, then they would not journey further until the day it was lifted up. 143  40:38 For the cloud of the Lord was on the tabernacle by day, but fire would be 144  on it at night, in plain view 145  of all the house of Israel, throughout all their journeys.

1 tn Heb “wise of [in] heart.”

2 tn Heb “wisdom.”

3 tn Heb “understanding, discernment.”

4 tn The relative clause includes this infinitive clause that expresses either the purpose or the result of God’s giving wisdom and understanding to these folk.

5 tn This noun is usually given an interpretive translation. B. Jacob renders the bound relationship as “the holy task” or “the sacred task” (Exodus, 1019). The NIV makes it “constructing,” so read “the work of constructing the sanctuary.”

6 tn The first word of the verse is a perfect tense with vav (ו) consecutive; it is singular because it agrees with the first of the compound subject. The sentence is a little cumbersome because of the extended relative clause in the middle.

7 tn The verb קָרָא (qara’) plus the preposition “to” – “to call to” someone means “to summon” that person.

8 tn Here there is a slight change: “in whose heart Yahweh had put skill.”

9 tn Or “whose heart was willing.”

10 sn The verb means more than “approach” or “draw near”; קָרַב (qarav) is the word used for drawing near the altar as in bringing an offering. Here they offer themselves, their talents and their time.

11 tn In the Hebrew text the infinitive “to do it” comes after “sanctuary”; it makes a smoother rendering in English to move it forward, rather than reading “brought for the work.”

12 tn Heb “in the morning, in the morning.”

13 tn Heb “a man, a man from his work”; or “each one from his work.”

14 tn The construction uses the verbal hendiadys: מַרְבִּים לְהָבִיא (marbim lÿhavi’) is the Hiphil participle followed (after the subject) by the Hiphil infinitive construct. It would read, “they multiply…to bring,” meaning, “they bring more” than is needed.

15 tn Heb “for the service” (so KJV, ASV).

16 tn The last clause is merely the infinitive with an object – “to do it.” It clearly means the skilled workers are to do it.

17 tn The verse simply reads, “and Moses commanded and they caused [a voice] to cross over in the camp.” The second preterite with the vav may be subordinated to the first clause, giving the intent (purpose or result).

18 tn Heb “voice.”

19 tn The verse ends with the infinitive serving as the object of the preposition: “from bringing.”

20 tn This part of the sentence comes from the final verb, the Hiphil infinitive – leave over, meaning, have more than enough (see BDB 451 s.v. יָתַר).

21 tn Heb “for all the work, to do it.”

sn This lengthy section (35:1-36:7) forms one of the most remarkable sections in the book. Here there is a mixture of God’s preparation of people to do the work and their willingness to give and to serve. It not only provides insight into this renewed community of believers, but it also provides a timeless message for the church. The point is clear enough: In response to God’s commission, and inspired by God’s Spirit, the faithful and willing people rally to support and participate in the Lord’s work.

22 tn The verb is singular since it probably is referring to Bezalel, but since he would not do all the work himself, it may be that the verbs could be given a plural subject: “they joined.”

23 tn The words “the other” have been supplied.

24 tn Heb “one.”

25 tn Heb “eleven curtains he made them.”

26 tn The construction uses the infinitive construct from the verb “to be” to express this purpose clause: “to be one,” or, “so that it might be a unit.”

27 tn See the note on this phrase in Exod 25:5.

28 tn There is debate whether the word הַקְּרָשִׁים (haqqÿrashim) means “boards” or “frames” or “planks” (see Ezek 27:6) or “beams,” given the size of them. The literature on this includes M. Haran, “The Priestly Image of the Tabernacle,” HUCA 36 (1965): 192; B. A. Levine, “The Description of the Tabernacle Texts of the Pentateuch,” JAOS 85 (1965): 307-18; J. Morgenstern, “The Ark, the Ephod, and the Tent,” HUCA 17 (1942/43): 153-265; 18 (1943/44): 1-52.

29 tn “Wood” is an adverbial accusative.

30 tn The plural participle “standing” refers to how these items will be situated; they will be vertical rather than horizontal (U. Cassuto, Exodus, 354).

31 tn Heb “the frame.”

32 tn Heb “the one.”

33 tn Heb “two hands to the one frame.”

34 tn Heb “joined one to one.”

35 tn The clause is repeated to show the distributive sense; it literally says, “and two bases under the one frame for its two projections.”

36 tn Heb “under the one frame” again.

37 tn This is the last phrase of the verse, moved forward for clarity.

38 tn This difficult verse uses the perfect tense at the beginning, and the second clause parallels it with יִהְיוּ (yihyu), which has to be taken here as a preterite without the consecutive vav (ו). The predicate “finished” or “completed” is the word תָּמִּים (tammim); it normally means “complete, sound, whole,” and related words describe the sacrifices as without blemish.

39 tn Literally “houses”; i.e., places to hold the bars.

40 tn The verb is simply “he made” but as in Exod 26:31 it probably means that the cherubim were worked into the curtain with the yarn, and so embroidered on the curtain.

41 tn Heb “and their hooks gold.”

42 tn The word is “their heads”; technically it would be “their capitals” (so ASV, NAB, NRSV). The bands were bands of metal surrounding these capitals just beneath them. These are not mentioned in Exod 26:37, and it sounds like the posts are to be covered with gold. But the gradation of metals is what is intended: the posts at the entrance to the Most Holy Place are all of gold; the posts at the entrance to the tent are overlaid with gold at the top; and the posts at the entrance to the courtyard are overlaid with silver at the top (S. R. Driver, Exodus, 387, citing Dillmann without reference).

43 sn For a good summary of the differences between the instruction section and the completion section, and the reasons for the changes and the omissions, see B. Jacob, Exodus, 1022-23.

44 tn Or “molding.”

45 tn “that he put” has been supplied.

46 tn This is taken as a circumstantial clause; the clause begins with the conjunction vav.

47 tn Heb “and he made.”

48 tn Heb “from/at [the] end, from this.”

49 tn The repetition of the expression indicates it has the distributive sense.

50 tn The construction is a participle in construct followed by the genitive “wings” – “spreaders of wings.”

51 tn “The cherubim” has been placed here instead of in the second clause to produce a smoother translation.

52 tn Heb “and their faces a man to his brother.”

53 tn Heb “to the atonement lid were the faces of the cherubim.”

54 tn The suffixes on these could also indicate the indirect object (see Exod 25:29).

55 tn Heb “from it”; the referent (“the same piece” of wrought metal) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

56 tn Heb “the one branch.” But the repetition of “one…one” means here one after another, or the “first” and then the “next.”

57 tn Heb “thus for six branches….”

58 tn As in Exod 26:35, the translation of “first” and “next” and “third” is interpretive, because the text simply says “under two branches” in each of three places.

59 tn Heb “were from it.”

60 tn Heb “it”; the referent (the lampstand) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

61 tn Heb “from it were its horns,” meaning that they were made from the same piece.

62 tn Heb “roof.”

63 tn Heb “its walls around.”

64 tn Heb “and he made for it border gold around.”

65 tn Heb “and he made.”

66 sn Since it was a small altar, it needed only two rings, one on either side, in order to be carried. The second mention of their location clarifies that they should be on the sides, the right and the left, as one approached the altar.

67 tn Heb “for houses.”

68 tn Heb “its horns were from it,” meaning from the same piece.

69 tn Heb “it”; the referent (the altar) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

70 sn The word for “serve” is not the ordinary one. It means “to serve in a host,” especially in a war. It appears that women were organized into bands and served at the tent of meeting. S. R. Driver thinks that this meant “no doubt” washing, cleaning, or repairing (Exodus, 391). But there is no hint of that (see 1 Sam 2:22; and see Ps 68:11 [12 Hebrew text]). They seem to have had more to do than what Driver said.

71 tn Heb “south side southward.”

72 tn While this verse could be translated as an independent sentence, it is probably to be subordinated as a circumstantial clause in line with Exod 27:10-12, as well as v. 12 of this passage.

73 tn Here the phrase “the hangings were” has been supplied.

74 tn The phrase “there were” has been supplied.

75 tn The text simply has “their posts ten and their bases ten”; this may be added here as a circumstantial clause with the main sentence in order to make sense out of the construction.

76 tn The text simply says “seventy-five feet.”

77 tn The word literally means “shoulder.” The next words, “of the gate,” have been supplied here. The east end contained the courtyard’s entry with a wall of curtains on each side of the entry (see v. 15).

78 tn Heb “from this and from this” (cf, 17:12; 25:19; 26:13; 32:15; Josh 8:22, 33; 1 Kgs 10:19-20; Ezek 45:7).

79 tn Heb “they were banded with silver.”

80 tn This word is different from the word for hangings; it has more of the idea of a screen, shielding or securing the area.

81 tn The Hebrew word is פְּקוּדֵי (pÿqude), which in a slavishly literal way would be “visitations of” the tabernacle. But the word often has the idea of “numbering” or “appointing” as well. Here it is an accounting or enumeration of the materials that people brought, so the contemporary term “inventory” is a close approximation. By using this Hebrew word there is also the indication that whatever was given, i.e., appointed for the tabernacle, was changed forever in its use. This is consistent with this Hebrew root, which does have a sense of changing the destiny of someone (“God will surely visit you”). The list in this section will also be tied to the numbering of the people.

82 tn The same verb is used here, but now in the Pual perfect tense, third masculine singular. A translation “was numbered” or “was counted” works. The verb is singular because it refers to the tabernacle as a unit. This section will list what made up the tabernacle.

83 tn Heb “at/by the mouth of.”

84 tn The noun is “work” or “service.” S. R. Driver explains that the reckonings were not made for the Levites, but that they were the work of the Levites, done by them under the direction of Ithamar (Exodus, 393).

85 tn Heb “by the hand of.”

86 tn These words form the casus pendens, or independent nominative absolute, followed by the apodosis beginning with the vav (ו; see U. Cassuto, Exodus, 469).

87 tn Heb “and it was.”

88 sn There were 3000 shekels in a talent, and so the total weight here in shekels would be 87,730 shekels of gold. If the sanctuary shekel was 224 grs., then this was about 40,940 oz. troy. This is estimated to be a little over a ton (cf. NCV “over 2,000 pounds”; TEV “a thousand kilogrammes”; CEV “two thousand two hundred nine pounds”; NLT “about 2,200 pounds”), although other widely diverging estimates are also given.

89 sn This would be a total of 301,775 shekels (about 140,828 oz), being a half shekel exacted per person from 605,550 male Israelites 20 years old or more (Num 1:46). The amount is estimated to be around 3.75 tons.

90 sn The weight would be about half an ounce.

91 tn Heb “upward.”

92 tn The phrase “in all” has been supplied.

93 tn Here the word “shekels” is understood; about 45 pounds.

94 sn The total shekels would have been 212,400 shekels, which would be about 108,749 oz. This would make about 2.5 to 3 tons.

95 sn The bronze altar is the altar for the burnt offering; the large bronze basin is not included here in the list.

96 sn This chapter also will be almost identical to the instructions given earlier, with a few changes along the way.

97 tn The verb is the infinitive that means “to do, to work.” It could be given a literal rendering: “to work [them into] the blue….” Weaving or embroidering is probably what is intended.

98 tn Heb “from it” or the same.

99 tn Or “as seals are engraved.”

100 sn The twelve names were those of Israel’s sons. The idea was not the remembrance of the twelve sons as such, but the twelve tribes that bore their names.

101 tn Or “attached.”

102 tn That is, they set in mountings.

103 tn The phrase “the number of” has been supplied.

104 tn Here “upper” has been supplied.

105 tn Here “other” has been supplied.

106 tn Here “other” has been supplied.

107 tn Heb “homeward side.”

108 tn Here “more” has been supplied.

109 tn The word is simply “twined” or “twisted.” It may refer to the twisted linen that so frequently is found in these lists; or, it may refer to the yarn twisted. The LXX reads “fine twined linen.” This is not found in the text of Exod 28:33, except in Smr and LXX.

110 tn The words “there was” are supplied in the translation for stylistic reasons.

111 tn The infinitive “to minister” is present; “to be used” is supplied from the context.

112 sn The last sections of the book bring several themes together to a full conclusion. Not only is it the completion of the tabernacle, it is the fulfillment of God’s plan revealed at the beginning of the book, i.e., to reside with his people.

113 tn See the note on this phrase in Exod 25:5.

114 tn Or “shielding” (NIV); NASB “the screening veil.”

115 tn Possibly meaning “pure gold lampstand.”

116 tn Heb “utensils, vessels.”

117 tn The form is the infinitive construct; it means the clothes to be used “to minister” in the holy place.

118 tn Or “examined” (NASB, TEV); NCV “looked closely at.”

119 tn The deictic particle draws attention to what he saw in such a way as to give the reader Moses’ point of view and a sense of his pleasure: “and behold, they…”

120 sn The situation and wording in Exod 39:43 are reminiscent of Gen 1:28 and 31, with the motifs of blessing people and inspecting what has been made.

121 sn All of Exod 39:32-40:38 could be taken as a unit. The first section (39:32-43) shows that the Israelites had carefully and accurately completed the preparation and brought everything they had made to Moses: The work of the Lord builds on the faithful obedience of the people. In the second section are the instruction and the implementation (40:1-33): The work of the Lord progresses through the unifying of the work. The last part (40:34-38) may take the most attention: When the work was completed, the glory filled the tabernacle: By his glorious presence, the Lord blesses and directs his people in their worship.

122 tn Heb “and Yahweh spoke to Moses, saying.”

123 tn Heb “you will raise,” an imperfect of instruction.

124 tn Heb “and you will set in order its setting” or “arrange its arrangement.” See 25:29-30 for items that belonged on the table.

125 tn Heb “give” (also four additional times in vv. 6-8).

126 tn Heb “there.”

127 tn Heb “you will take” (perfect with vav, ו).

128 tn Heb “and you will anoint” (perfect with vav, ו).

129 tn Heb “and you will sanctify” (perfect with vav, ו).

130 tn Heb “and.”

131 sn U. Cassuto (Exodus, 480) notes that the items inside the tent did not need to be enumerated since they were already holy, but items in the courtyard needed special attention. People needed to know that items outside the tent were just as holy.

132 tn The verb is “bring near,” or “present,” to Yahweh.

133 tn The verb is also “bring near” or “present.”

134 tn Heb “set up,” if it includes more than the curtain.

135 tn Or “shielding” (NIV); Heb “the veil of the covering” (cf. KJV).

136 tn Heb uses a cognate accusative construction, “he arranged the arrangement.”

137 tn Heb “there.”

138 tn The construction is the infinitive construct with the temporal preposition and the suffixed subjective genitive. This temporal clause indicates that the verb in the preceding verse was frequentative.

139 tn This is another infinitive construct in a temporal clause.

140 tn In this explanatory verse the verb is a customary imperfect.

141 tn The construction uses the Niphal infinitive construct to form the temporal clause.

142 tn The imperfect tense in this context describes a customary action.

143 tn The clause uses the Niphal infinitive construct in the temporal clause: “until the day of its being taken up.”

144 tn Here is another imperfect tense of the customary nuance.

145 tn Heb “to the eyes of all”; KJV, ASV, NASB “in the sight of all”; NRSV “before the eyes of all.”



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