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Exodus 30:1-3

Context
The Altar of Incense

30:1 1 “You are to make an altar for burning incense; 2  you are to make it of 3  acacia wood. 4  30:2 Its length is to be a foot and a half 5  and its width a foot and a half; it will be square. Its height is to be three feet, 6  with its horns of one piece with it. 7  30:3 You are to overlay it with pure gold – its top, 8  its four walls, 9  and its horns – and make a surrounding border of gold for it. 10 

1 sn Why this section has been held until now is a mystery. One would have expected to find it with the instructions for the other furnishings. The widespread contemporary view that it was composed later does not answer the question, it merely moves the issue to the work of an editor rather than the author. N. M. Sarna notes concerning the items in chapter 30 that “all the materials for these final items were anticipated in the list of invited donations in 25:3-6” and that they were not needed for installing Aaron and his sons (Exodus [JPSTC], 193). Verses 1-10 can be divided into three sections: the instructions for building the incense altar (1-5), its placement (6), and its proper use (7-10).

2 tn The expression is מִזְבֵּחַ מִקְטַר קְטֹרֶת (mizbeakh miqtar qÿtoret), either “an altar, namely an altar of incense,” or “an altar, [for] burning incense.” The second noun is “altar of incense,” although some suggest it is an active noun meaning “burning.” If the former, then it is in apposition to the word for “altar” (which is not in construct). The last noun is “incense” or “sweet smoke.” It either qualifies the “altar of incense” or serves as the object of the active noun. B. Jacob says that in order to designate that this altar be used only for incense, the Torah prepared the second word for this passage alone. It specifies the kind of altar this is (Exodus, 828).

3 tn This is an adverbial accusative explaining the material used in building the altar.

4 sn See M. Haran, “The Uses of Incense in Ancient Israel Ritual,” VT 10 (1960): 113-15; N. Glueck, “Incense Altars,” Translating and Understanding the Old Testament, 325-29.

5 tn Heb “a cubit.”

6 tn Heb “two cubits.”

7 tn Heb “its horns from it.”

8 tn Heb “roof.”

9 tn Heb “its walls around.”

10 tn Heb “and make for it border gold around.” The verb is a consecutive perfect. See Exod 25:11, where the ark also has such a molding.



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