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Exodus 23:27-28

Context

23:27 “I will send my terror 1  before you, and I will destroy 2  all the people whom you encounter; I will make all your enemies turn their backs 3  to you. 23:28 I will send 4  hornets before you that will drive out the Hivite, the Canaanite, and the Hittite before you.

1 tn The word for “terror” is אֵימָתִי (’emati); the word has the thought of “panic” or “dread.” God would make the nations panic as they heard of the exploits and knew the Israelites were drawing near. U. Cassuto thinks the reference to “hornets” in v. 28 may be a reference to this fear, an unreasoning dread, rather than to another insect invasion (Exodus, 308). Others suggest it is symbolic of an invading army or a country like Egypt or literal insects (see E. Neufeld, “Insects as Warfare Agents in the Ancient Near East,” Or 49 [1980]: 30-57).

2 tn Heb “kill.”

3 tn The text has “and I will give all your enemies to you [as] a back.” The verb of making takes two accusatives, the second being the adverbial accusative of product (see GKC 371-72 §117.ii, n. 1).

4 tn Heb “and I will send.”



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