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Exodus 22:4

Context
22:4 If the stolen item should in fact be found 1  alive in his possession, 2  whether it be an ox or a donkey or a sheep, he must pay back double. 3 

Exodus 22:7

Context

22:7 “If a man gives his neighbor money or articles 4  for safekeeping, 5  and it is stolen from the man’s house, if the thief is caught, 6  he must repay double.

Exodus 22:9

Context
22:9 In all cases of illegal possessions, 7  whether for an ox, a donkey, a sheep, a garment, or any kind of lost item, about which someone says ‘This belongs to me,’ 8  the matter of the two of them will come before the judges, 9  and the one whom 10  the judges declare guilty 11  must repay double to his neighbor.

1 tn The construction uses a Niphal infinitive absolute and a Niphal imperfect: if it should indeed be found. Gesenius says that in such conditional clauses the infinitive absolute has less emphasis, but instead emphasizes the condition on which some consequence depends (see GKC 342-43 §113.o).

2 tn Heb “in his hand.”

3 sn He must pay back one for what he took, and then one for the penalty – his loss as he was inflicting a loss on someone else.

4 tn The word usually means “vessels” but can have the sense of household goods and articles. It could be anything from jewels and ornaments to weapons or pottery.

5 tn Heb “to keep.” Here “safekeeping,” that is, to keep something secure on behalf of a third party, is intended.

6 tn Heb “found.”

7 tn Heb “concerning every kind [thing] of trespass.”

8 tn The text simply has “this is it” (הוּא זֶה, huzeh).

9 tn Again, or “God.”

10 tn This kind of clause Gesenius calls an independent relative clause – it does not depend on a governing substantive but itself expresses a substantival idea (GKC 445-46 §138.e).

11 tn The verb means “to be guilty” in Qal; in Hiphil it would have a declarative sense, because a causative sense would not possibly fit.



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