19:16 On 1 the third day in the morning there was thunder and lightning and a dense 2 cloud on the mountain, and the sound of a very loud 3 horn; 4 all the people who were in the camp trembled. 19:17 Moses brought the people out of the camp to meet God, and they took their place at the foot of the mountain. 19:18 Now Mount Sinai was completely covered with smoke because the Lord had descended on it in fire, and its smoke went up like the smoke of a great furnace, 5 and the whole mountain shook 6 violently.
1 tn Heb “and it was on.”
2 tn Heb “heavy” (כָּבֵד, kaved).
3 tn Literally “strong” (חָזָק, khazaq).
4 tn The word here is שֹׁפָר (shofar), the normal word for “horn.” This word is used especially to announce something important in a public event (see 1 Kgs 1:34; 2 Sam 6:15). The previous word used in the context (v. 16) was יֹבֵל (yovel, “ram’s horn”).
7 tn Heb “answer” as in a court of law.
8 tn The expression עֵד שָׁקֶר (’ed shaqer) means “a lying witness” (B. S. Childs, Exodus [OTL], 388). In this verse the noun is an adverbial accusative, “you will not answer as a lying witness.” The prohibition is against perjury. While the precise reference would be to legal proceedings, the law probably had a broader application to lying about other people in general (see Lev 5:1; Hos 4:2).