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Exodus 14:4

Context
14:4 I will harden 1  Pharaoh’s heart, and he will chase after them. I will gain honor 2  because of Pharaoh and because of all his army, and the Egyptians will know 3  that I am the Lord.” So this is what they did. 4 

Exodus 14:8

Context

14:8 But the Lord hardened the heart of Pharaoh king of Egypt, and he chased after the Israelites. Now the Israelites were going out defiantly. 5 

Exodus 14:17

Context
14:17 And as for me, I am going to harden 6  the hearts of the Egyptians so that 7  they will come after them, that I may be honored 8  because 9  of Pharaoh and his army and his chariots and his horsemen.

1 tn In this place the verb חָזַק (hazaq) is used; it indicates that God would make Pharaoh’s will strong or firm.

2 tn The form is וְאִכָּבְדָה (vÿikkavÿda), the Niphal cohortative; coming after the perfect tenses with vav (ו) consecutives expressing the future, this cohortative indicates the purpose of the hardening and chasing. Yahweh intended to gain glory by this final and great victory over the strength of Pharaoh. There is irony in this expression since a different form of the word was used frequently to describe Pharaoh’s hard heart. So judgment will not only destroy the wicked – it will reveal the glory and majesty of the sovereignty of God.

3 tn This is the perfect tense with the vav (ו) consecutive. But it announces the fulfillment of an long standing purpose – that they might know.

4 tn Heb “and they did so.”

5 tn Heb “with a high hand”; the expression means “defiantly,” “boldly,” or “with confidence.” The phrase is usually used for arrogant sin and pride, the defiant fist, as it were. The image of the high hand can also mean the hand raised to deliver a blow (Job 38:15). So the narrative here builds tension between these two resolute forces.

6 tn הִנְנִי (hinni) before the participle gives it the force of a futur instans participle, meaning “I am about to harden” or “I am going to harden” their heart.

7 tn The form again is the imperfect tense with vav (ו) to express the purpose or the result of the hardening. The repetition of the verb translated “come” is interesting: Moses is to divide the sea in order that the people may cross, but God will harden the Egyptians’ hearts in order that they may follow.

8 tn For the comments on this verb see the discussion in v. 4. God would get glory by defeating Egypt.

9 tn Or “I will get glory over.”



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