12:12 I will pass through 1 the land of Egypt in the same 2 night, and I will attack 3 all the firstborn in the land of Egypt, both of humans and of animals, 4 and on all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgment. 5 I am the Lord.
12:23 For the Lord will pass through to strike Egypt, and when he sees 6 the blood on the top of the doorframe and the two side posts, then the Lord will pass over the door, and he will not permit the destroyer 7 to enter your houses to strike you. 8
1 tn The verb וְעָבַרְתִּי (vÿ’avarti) is a Qal perfect with vav (ו) consecutive, announcing the future action of God in bringing judgment on the land. The word means “pass over, across, through.” This verb provides a contextual motive for the name “Passover.”
2 tn Heb “this night.”
3 tn The verb נָכָה (nakhah) means “to strike, smite, attack”; it does not always mean “to kill,” but that is obviously its outcome in this context. This is also its use in 2:12, describing how Moses killed the Egyptian and buried him in the sand.
4 tn Heb “from man and to beast.”
5 tn The phrase אֶעֱשֶׂה שְׁפָטִים (’e’eseh shÿfatim) is “I will do judgments.” The statement clearly includes what had begun in Exod 6:1. But the statement that God would judge the gods of Egypt is appropriately introduced here (see also Num 33:4) because with the judgment on Pharaoh and the deliverance from bondage, Yahweh would truly show himself to be the one true God. Thus, “I am Yahweh” is fitting here (see B. Jacob, Exodus, 312).
6 tn The first of the two clauses begun with perfects and vav consecutives may be subordinated to form a temporal clause: “and he will see…and he will pass over,” becomes “when he sees…he will pass over.”
7 tn Here the form is the Hiphil participle with the definite article. Gesenius says this is now to be explained as “the destroyer” although some take it to mean “destruction” (GKC 406 §126.m, n. 1).
8 tn “you” has been supplied.