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Deuteronomy 2:16-25

Context
Instructions Concerning Ammon

2:16 So it was that after all the military men had been eliminated from the community, 1  2:17 the Lord said to me, 2:18 “Today you are going to cross the border of Moab, that is, of Ar. 2  2:19 But when you come close to the Ammonites, do not harass or provoke them because I am not giving you any of the Ammonites’ land as your possession; I have already given it to Lot’s descendants 3  as their possession.

2:20 (That also is considered to be a land of the Rephaites. 4  The Rephaites lived there originally; the Ammonites call them Zamzummites. 5  2:21 They are a people as powerful, numerous, and tall as the Anakites. But the Lord destroyed the Rephaites 6  in advance of the Ammonites, 7  so they dispossessed them and settled down in their place. 2:22 This is exactly what he did for the descendants of Esau who lived in Seir when he destroyed the Horites before them so that they could dispossess them and settle in their area to this very day. 2:23 As for the Avvites 8  who lived in settlements as far west as Gaza, Caphtorites 9  who came from Crete 10  destroyed them and settled down in their place.)

2:24 Get up, make your way across Wadi Arnon. Look! I have already delivered over to you Sihon the Amorite, king of Heshbon, 11  and his land. Go ahead! Take it! Engage him in war! 2:25 This very day I will begin to fill all the people of the earth 12  with dread and to terrify them when they hear about you. They will shiver and shake in anticipation of your approach.” 13 

1 tn Heb “and it was when they were eliminated, all the men of war, to die from the midst of the people.”

2 sn Ar. See note on this word in Deut 2:9.

3 sn Lot’s descendants. See note on this phrase in Deut 2:9.

4 sn Rephaites. See note on this word in Deut 2:11.

5 sn Zamzummites. Just as the Moabites called Rephaites by the name Emites, the Ammonites called them Zamzummites (or Zazites; Gen 14:5).

6 tn Heb “them”; the referent (the Rephaites) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

7 tn Heb “them”; the referent (the Ammonites) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

8 sn Avvites. Otherwise unknown, these people were probably also Anakite (or Rephaite) giants who lived in the lower Mediterranean coastal plain until they were expelled by the Caphtorites.

9 sn Caphtorites. These peoples are familiar from both the OT (Gen 10:14; 1 Chr 1:12; Jer 47:4; Amos 9:7) and ancient Near Eastern texts (Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, 2:37-38; ANET 138). They originated in Crete (OT “Caphtor”) and are identified as the ancestors of the Philistines (Gen 10:14; Jer 47:4).

10 tn Heb “Caphtor”; the modern name of the island of Crete is used in the translation for clarity (cf. NCV, TEV, NLT).

11 sn Heshbon is the name of a prominent site (now Tell Hesba„n, about 7.5 mi [12 km] south southwest of Amman, Jordan). Sihon made it his capital after having driven Moab from the area and forced them south to the Arnon (Num 21:26-30). Heshbon is also mentioned in Deut 1:4.

12 tn Heb “under heaven” (so NIV, NRSV).

13 tn Heb “from before you.”



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