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Deuteronomy 22:22-30

Context

22:22 If a man is caught having sexual relations with 1  a married woman 2  both the man who had relations with the woman and the woman herself must die; in this way you will purge 3  evil from Israel.

22:23 If a virgin is engaged to a man and another man meets 4  her in the city and has sexual relations with 5  her, 22:24 you must bring the two of them to the gate of that city and stone them to death, the young woman because she did not cry out though in the city and the man because he violated 6  his neighbor’s fiancĂ©e; 7  in this way you will purge 8  evil from among you. 22:25 But if the man came across 9  the engaged woman in the field and overpowered her and raped 10  her, then only the rapist 11  must die. 22:26 You must not do anything to the young woman – she has done nothing deserving of death. This case is the same as when someone attacks another person 12  and murders him, 22:27 for the man 13  met her in the field and the engaged woman cried out, but there was no one to rescue her.

22:28 Suppose a man comes across a virgin who is not engaged and overpowers and rapes 14  her and they are discovered. 22:29 The man who has raped her must pay her father fifty shekels of silver and she must become his wife because he has violated her; he may never divorce her as long as he lives.

22:30 (23:1) 15  A man may not marry 16  his father’s former 17  wife and in this way dishonor his father. 18 

1 tn Heb “lying with” (so KJV, NASB), a Hebrew idiom for sexual relations.

2 tn Heb “a woman married to a husband.”

3 tn Heb “burn.” See note on the phrase “purge out” in Deut 21:21.

4 tn Heb “finds.”

5 tn Heb “lies with.”

6 tn Heb “humbled.”

7 tn Heb “wife.”

8 tn Heb “burn.” See note on the phrase “purge out” in Deut 21:21.

9 tn Heb “found,” also in vv. 27, 28.

10 tn Heb “lay with” here refers to a forced sexual relationship, as the accompanying verb “seized” (חָזַק, khazaq) makes clear.

11 tn Heb “the man who lay with her, only him.”

12 tn Heb “his neighbor.”

13 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the man who attacked the woman) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

14 tn Heb “lies with.”

15 sn Beginning with 22:30, the verse numbers through 23:25 in the English Bible differ from the verse numbers in the Hebrew text (BHS), with 22:30 ET = 23:1 HT, 23:1 ET = 23:2 HT, 23:2 ET = 23:3 HT, etc., through 23:25 ET = 23:26 HT. With 24:1 the verse numbers in the ET and HT are again the same.

16 tn Heb “take.” In context this refers to marriage, as in the older English expression “take a wife.”

17 sn This presupposes either the death of the father or their divorce since it would be impossible for one to marry his stepmother while his father was still married to her.

18 tn Heb “uncover his father’s skirt” (so ASV, NASB). This appears to be a circumlocution for describing the dishonor that would come to a father by having his own son share his wife’s sexuality (cf. NAB, NIV “dishonor his father’s bed”).



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