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Deuteronomy 18:9-22

Context
Provision for Prophetism

18:9 When you enter the land the Lord your God is giving you, you must not learn the abhorrent practices of those nations. 18:10 There must never be found among you anyone who sacrifices his son or daughter in the fire, 1  anyone who practices divination, 2  an omen reader, 3  a soothsayer, 4  a sorcerer, 5  18:11 one who casts spells, 6  one who conjures up spirits, 7  a practitioner of the occult, 8  or a necromancer. 9  18:12 Whoever does these things is abhorrent to the Lord and because of these detestable things 10  the Lord your God is about to drive them out 11  from before you. 18:13 You must be blameless before the Lord your God. 18:14 Those nations that you are about to dispossess listen to omen readers and diviners, but the Lord your God has not given you permission to do such things.

18:15 The Lord your God will raise up for you a prophet like me from among you – from your fellow Israelites; 12  you must listen to him. 18:16 This accords with what happened at Horeb in the day of the assembly. You asked the Lord your God: “Please do not make us hear the voice of the Lord our 13  God any more or see this great fire any more lest we die.” 18:17 The Lord then said to me, “What they have said is good. 18:18 I will raise up a prophet like you for them from among their fellow Israelites. I will put my words in his mouth and he will speak to them whatever I command. 18:19 I will personally hold responsible 14  anyone who then pays no attention to the words that prophet 15  speaks in my name.

18:20 “But if any prophet presumes to speak anything in my name that I have not authorized 16  him to speak, or speaks in the name of other gods, that prophet must die. 18:21 Now if you say to yourselves, 17  ‘How can we tell that a message is not from the Lord?’ 18 18:22 whenever a prophet speaks in my 19  name and the prediction 20  is not fulfilled, 21  then I have 22  not spoken it; 23  the prophet has presumed to speak it, so you need not fear him.”

1 tn Heb “who passes his son or his daughter through the fire.” The expression “pass…through the fire” is probably a euphemism for human sacrifice (cf. NAB, NIV, TEV, NLT). See also Deut 12:31.

2 tn Heb “a diviner of divination” (קֹסֵם קְסָמִים, qosem qÿsamim). This was a means employed to determine the future or the outcome of events by observation of various omens and signs (cf. Num 22:7; 23:23; Josh 13:22; 1 Sam 6:2; 15:23; 28:8; etc.). See M. Horsnell, NIDOTTE 3:945-51.

3 tn Heb “one who causes to appear” (מְעוֹנֵן, mÿonen). Such a practitioner was thought to be able to conjure up spirits or apparitions (cf. Lev 19:26; Judg 9:37; 2 Kgs 21:6; Isa 2:6; 57:3; Jer 27:9; Mic 5:11).

4 tn Heb “a seeker of omens” (מְנַחֵשׁ, mÿnakhesh). This is a subset of divination, one illustrated by the use of a “divining cup” in the story of Joseph (Gen 44:5).

5 tn Heb “a doer of sorcery” (מְכַשֵּׁף, mikhashef). This has to do with magic or the casting of spells in order to manipulate the gods or the powers of nature (cf. Lev 19:26-31; 2 Kgs 17:15b-17; 21:1-7; Isa 57:3, 5; etc.). See M. Horsnell, NIDOTTE 2:735-38.

6 tn Heb “a binder of binding” (חֹבֵר חָבֶר, khover khaver). The connotation is that of immobilizing (“binding”) someone or something by the use of magical words (cf. Ps 58:6; Isa 47:9, 12).

7 tn Heb “asker of a [dead] spirit” (שֹׁאֵל אוֹב, shoelov). This is a form of necromancy (cf. Lev 19:31; 20:6; 1 Sam 28:8, 9; Isa 8:19; 19:3; 29:4).

8 tn Heb “a knowing [or “familiar”] [spirit]” (יִדְּעֹנִי, yiddÿoniy), i.e., one who is expert in mantic arts (cf. Lev 19:31; 20:6, 27; 1 Sam 28:3, 9; 2 Kgs 21:6; Isa 8:19; 19:3).

9 tn Heb “a seeker of the dead.” This is much the same as “one who conjures up spirits” (cf. 1 Sam 28:6-7).

10 tn Heb “these abhorrent things.” The repetition is emphatic. For stylistic reasons, to avoid redundancy, the same term used earlier in the verse has been translated “detestable” here.

11 tn The translation understands the Hebrew participial form as having an imminent future sense here.

12 tc The MT expands here on the usual formula by adding “from among you” (cf. Deut 17:15; 18:18; Smr; a number of Greek texts). The expansion seems to be for the purpose of emphasis, i.e., the prophet to come must be not just from Israel but an Israelite by blood.

tn “from your brothers,” but not referring to actual siblings. Cf. NAB “from among your own kinsmen”; NASB “from your countrymen”; NRSV “from among your own people.” A similar phrase occurs in v. 17.

13 tn The Hebrew text uses the collective singular in this verse: “my God…lest I die.”

14 tn Heb “will seek from him”; NAB “I myself will make him answer for it”; NRSV “will hold accountable.”

15 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the prophet mentioned in v. 18) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

16 tn Or “commanded” (so KJV, NAB, NIV, NRSV).

17 tn Heb “in your heart.”

18 tn Heb “know the word which the Lord has not spoken.” The issue here is not understanding the meaning of the message, but distinguishing a genuine prophetic word from a false one.

19 tn Heb “the Lord’s.” See note on the word “his” in v. 5.

20 tn Heb “the word,” but a predictive word is in view here. Cf. NAB “his oracle.”

21 tn Heb “does not happen or come to pass.”

22 tn Heb “the Lord has.” See note on the word “his” in v. 5.

23 tn Heb “that is the word which the Lord has not spoken.”



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