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Deuteronomy 10:12-22

Context
An Exhortation to Love Both God and People

10:12 Now, Israel, what does the Lord your God require of you except to revere him, 1  to obey all his commandments, 2  to love him, to serve him 3  with all your mind and being, 4  10:13 and to keep the Lord’s commandments and statutes that I am giving 5  you today for your own good? 10:14 The heavens – indeed the highest heavens – belong to the Lord your God, as does the earth and everything in it. 10:15 However, only to your ancestors did he 6  show his loving favor, 7  and he chose you, their descendants, 8  from all peoples – as is apparent today. 10:16 Therefore, cleanse 9  your heart and stop being so stubborn! 10  10:17 For the Lord your God is God of gods and Lord of lords, the great, mighty, and awesome God who is unbiased and takes no bribe, 10:18 who justly treats 11  the orphan and widow, and who loves resident foreigners, giving them food and clothing. 10:19 So you must love the resident foreigner because you were foreigners in the land of Egypt. 10:20 Revere the Lord your God, serve him, be loyal to him and take oaths only in his name. 10:21 He is the one you should praise; 12  he is your God, the one who has done these great and awesome things for you that you have seen. 10:22 When your ancestors went down to Egypt, they numbered only seventy, but now the Lord your God has made you as numerous as the stars of the sky. 13 

1 tn Heb “the Lord your God.” See note on “he” in 10:4.

2 tn Heb “to walk in all his ways” (so KJV, NIV, NRSV); NAB “follow his ways exactly”; NLT “to live according to his will.”

3 tn Heb “the Lord your God.” See note on “he” in 10:4.

4 tn Heb “heart and soul” or “heart and being”; NCV “with your whole being.” See note on the word “being” in Deut 6:5.

5 tn Heb “commanding” (so NASB, NRSV). For stylistic reasons, to avoid redundancy, “giving” has been used in the translation.

6 tn Heb “the Lord.” See note on “he” in 10:4.

7 tn Heb “take delight to love.” Here again the verb אָהַב (’ahav, “love”), juxtaposed with בָחַר (bakhar, “choose”), is a term in covenant contexts that describes the Lord’s initiative in calling the patriarchal ancestors to be the founders of a people special to him (cf. the note on the word “loved” in Deut 4:37).

8 tn The Hebrew text includes “after them,” but it is redundant in English style and has not been included in the translation.

9 tn Heb “circumcise the foreskin of” (cf. KJV, ASV, NRSV). Reference to the Abrahamic covenant prompts Moses to recall the sign of that covenant, namely, physical circumcision (Gen 17:9-14). Just as that act signified total covenant obedience, so spiritual circumcision (cleansing of the heart) signifies more internally a commitment to be pliable and obedient to the will of God (cf. Deut 30:6; Jer 4:4; 9:26).

10 tn Heb “your neck do not harden again.” See note on the word “stubborn” in Deut 9:6.

11 tn Or “who executes justice for” (so NAB, NRSV); NLT “gives justice to.”

12 tn Heb “your praise.” The pronoun is subjective and the noun “praise” is used here metonymically for the object of their praise (the Lord).

13 tn Or “heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heaven(s)” or “sky” depending on the context.



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