8:9 From one of them came a small horn. 1 But it grew to be very big, toward the south and the east and toward the beautiful land. 2 8:10 It grew so big it reached the army 3 of heaven, and it brought about the fall of some of the army and some of the stars 4 to the ground, where it trampled them. 8:11 It also acted arrogantly against the Prince of the army, 5 from whom 6 the daily sacrifice was removed and whose sanctuary 7 was thrown down.
1 sn This small horn is Antiochus IV Epiphanes, who controlled the Seleucid kingdom from ca. 175-164
3 tn Traditionally, “host.” The term refers to God’s heavenly angelic assembly, which he sometimes leads into battle as an army.
4 sn In prescientific Israelite thinking the stars were associated with the angelic members of God’s heavenly assembly. See Judg 5:20; Job 38:7; Isa 40:26. In west Semitic mythology the stars were members of the high god’s divine assembly (see Isa 14:13).
6 tn Or perhaps “and by him,” referring to Antiochus rather than to God.
7 sn Here the sanctuary is a reference to the temple of God in Jerusalem.