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Daniel 8:4

8:4 I saw that the ram was butting westward, northward, and southward. No animal 1  was able to stand before it, and there was none who could deliver from its power. 2  It did as it pleased and acted arrogantly. 3 

Daniel 8:8

8:8 The male goat acted even more arrogantly. But no sooner had the large horn become strong than it was broken, and there arose four conspicuous horns 4  in its place, 5  extending toward the four winds of the sky. 6 

Daniel 8:11

8:11 It also acted arrogantly against the Prince of the army, 7  from whom 8  the daily sacrifice was removed and whose sanctuary 9  was thrown down.

Daniel 8:25

8:25 By his treachery 10  he will succeed through deceit. 11  He will have an arrogant attitude, 12  and he will destroy many who are unaware of his schemes. 13  He will rise up against the Prince of princes, yet he will be broken apart – but not by human agency. 14 

1 tn Or “beast” (NAB).

2 tn Heb “hand.” So also in v. 7.

3 tn In the Hiphil the Hebrew verb גָּדַל (gadal, “to make great; to magnify”) can have either a positive or a negative sense. For the former, used especially of God, see Ps 126:2, 3; Joel 2:21. In this chapter (8:4, 8, 11, 25) the word has a pejorative sense, describing the self-glorification of this king. The sense seems to be that of vainly assuming one’s own superiority through deliberate hubris.

4 tn The word “horns” is not in the Hebrew text, but is implied.

5 sn The four conspicuous horns refer to Alexander’s successors. After his death, Alexander’s empire was divided up among four of his generals: Cassander, who took Macedonia and Greece; Lysimachus, who took Thrace and parts of Asia Minor; Seleucus, who took Syria and territory to its east; and Ptolemy, who took control of Egypt.

6 tn Or “the heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavens” or “sky” depending on the context.

7 sn The prince of the army may refer to God (cf. “whose sanctuary” later in the verse) or to the angel Michael (cf. 12:1).

8 tn Or perhaps “and by him,” referring to Antiochus rather than to God.

9 sn Here the sanctuary is a reference to the temple of God in Jerusalem.

10 tn The Hebrew term has a primary meaning of “skill, insight,” but here it has the connotation “cunning, treachery.” See BDB 968 s.v. שֵׂכֶל, שֶׂכֶל.

11 tn Heb “he will cause deceit to succeed by his hand.”

12 tn Heb “in his heart he will act arrogantly.”

13 tn Heb “in peace.” The Hebrew word used here is difficult. It may refer to the security felt by those who did not realize the danger of imminent attack, or it may refer to the condition of being unaware of the impending danger. The latter idea is reflected in the present translation. See further, BDB 1017 s.v. שַׁלְוָה.

14 tn Heb “with nothingness of hand.”

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