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Daniel 8:1--12:13

Daniel Has a Vision of a Goat and a Ram

8:1 1 In the third year 2  of King Belshazzar’s reign, a vision appeared to me, Daniel, after the one that had appeared to me previously. 3  8:2 In this 4  vision I saw myself in Susa 5  the citadel, 6  which is located in the province of Elam. In the vision I saw myself at the Ulai Canal. 7  8:3 I looked up 8  and saw 9  a 10  ram with two horns standing at the canal. Its two horns were both long, 11  but one was longer than the other. The longer one was coming up after the shorter one. 8:4 I saw that the ram was butting westward, northward, and southward. No animal 12  was able to stand before it, and there was none who could deliver from its power. 13  It did as it pleased and acted arrogantly. 14 

8:5 While I was contemplating all this, 15  a male goat 16  was coming from the west over the surface of all the land 17  without touching the ground. This goat had a conspicuous horn 18  between its eyes. 8:6 It came to the two-horned ram that I had seen standing beside the canal and rushed against it with raging strength. 19  8:7 I saw it approaching the ram. It went into a fit of rage against the ram 20  and struck it 21  and broke off its two horns. The ram had no ability to resist it. 22  The goat hurled the ram 23  to the ground and trampled it. No one could deliver the ram from its power. 24  8:8 The male goat acted even more arrogantly. But no sooner had the large horn become strong than it was broken, and there arose four conspicuous horns 25  in its place, 26  extending toward the four winds of the sky. 27 

8:9 From one of them came a small horn. 28  But it grew to be very big, toward the south and the east and toward the beautiful land. 29  8:10 It grew so big it reached the army 30  of heaven, and it brought about the fall of some of the army and some of the stars 31  to the ground, where it trampled them. 8:11 It also acted arrogantly against the Prince of the army, 32  from whom 33  the daily sacrifice was removed and whose sanctuary 34  was thrown down. 8:12 The army was given over, 35  along with the daily sacrifice, in the course of his sinful rebellion. 36  It hurled 37  truth 38  to the ground and enjoyed success. 39 

8:13 Then I heard a holy one 40  speaking. Another holy one said to the one who was speaking, “To what period of time does the vision pertain – this vision concerning the daily sacrifice and the destructive act of rebellion and the giving over of both the sanctuary and army to be trampled?” 8:14 He said to me, “To 2,300 evenings and mornings; 41  then the sanctuary will be put right again.” 42 

An Angel Interprets Daniel’s Vision

8:15 While I, Daniel, was watching the vision, I sought to understand it. Now one who appeared to be a man was standing before me. 8:16 Then I heard a human voice coming from between the banks of the Ulai. It called out, “Gabriel, 43  enable this person to understand the vision.” 8:17 So he approached the place where I was standing. As he came, I felt terrified and fell flat on the ground. 44  Then he said to me, “Understand, son of man, 45  that the vision pertains to the time of the end.” 8:18 As he spoke with me, I fell into a trance with my face to the ground. But he touched me and stood me upright. 46 

8:19 Then he said, “I am going to inform you about what will happen in the latter time of wrath, for the vision 47  pertains to the appointed time of the end. 8:20 The ram that you saw with the two horns stands for the kings of Media and Persia. 8:21 The male goat 48  is the king of Greece, 49  and the large horn between its eyes is the first king. 8:22 The horn that was broken 50  and in whose place there arose four others stands for four kingdoms that will arise from his nation, though they will not have his strength. 8:23 Toward the end of their rule, when rebellious acts 51  are complete, a rash 52  and deceitful 53  king will arise. 54  8:24 His power will be great, but it will not be by his strength alone. He will cause terrible destruction. 55  He will be successful in what he undertakes. 56  He will destroy powerful people and the people of the holy ones. 57  8:25 By his treachery 58  he will succeed through deceit. 59  He will have an arrogant attitude, 60  and he will destroy many who are unaware of his schemes. 61  He will rise up against the Prince of princes, yet he will be broken apart – but not by human agency. 62  8:26 The vision of the evenings and mornings that was told to you is correct. 63  But you should seal up the vision, for it refers to a time many days from now.”

8:27 I, Daniel, was exhausted 64  and sick for days. Then I got up and again carried out the king’s business. But I was astonished at the vision, and there was no one to explain it.

Daniel Prays for His People

9:1 In the first year of Darius 65  son of Ahasuerus, 66  who was of Median descent and who had been 67  appointed king over the Babylonian 68  empire – 9:2 in the first year of his reign 69  I, Daniel, came to understand from the sacred books 70  that, according to the word of the LORD 71  disclosed to the prophet Jeremiah, the years for the fulfilling of the desolation of Jerusalem 72  were seventy in number. 9:3 So I turned my attention 73  to the Lord God 74  to implore him by prayer and requests, with fasting, sackcloth, and ashes. 75  9:4 I prayed to the LORD my God, confessing in this way:

“O Lord, 76  great and awesome God who is faithful to his covenant 77  with those who love him and keep his commandments, 9:5 we have sinned! We have done what is wrong and wicked; we have rebelled by turning away from your commandments and standards. 9:6 We have not paid attention to your servants the prophets, who spoke by your authority 78  to our kings, our leaders, and our ancestors, 79  and to all the inhabitants 80  of the land as well.

9:7 “You are righteous, 81  O Lord, but we are humiliated this day 82  – the people 83  of Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem and all Israel, both near and far away in all the countries in which you have scattered them, because they have behaved unfaithfully toward you. 9:8 O LORD, we have been humiliated 84  – our kings, our leaders, and our ancestors – because we have sinned against you. 9:9 Yet the Lord our God is compassionate and forgiving, 85  even though we have rebelled against him. 9:10 We have not obeyed 86  the LORD our God by living according to 87  his laws 88  that he set before us through his servants the prophets.

9:11 “All Israel has broken 89  your law and turned away by not obeying you. 90  Therefore you have poured out on us the judgment solemnly threatened 91  in the law of Moses the servant of God, for we have sinned against you. 92  9:12 He has carried out his threats 93  against us and our rulers 94  who were over 95  us by bringing great calamity on us – what has happened to Jerusalem has never been equaled under all heaven! 9:13 Just as it is written in the law of Moses, so all this calamity has come on us. Still we have not tried to pacify 96  the LORD our God by turning back from our sin and by seeking wisdom 97  from your reliable moral standards. 98  9:14 The LORD was mindful of the calamity, and he brought it on us. For the LORD our God is just 99  in all he has done, 100  and we have not obeyed him. 101 

9:15 “Now, O Lord our God, who brought your people out of the land of Egypt with great power 102  and made a name for yourself that is remembered to this day – we have sinned and behaved wickedly. 9:16 O Lord, according to all your justice, 103  please turn your raging anger 104  away from your city Jerusalem, your holy mountain. For due to our sins and the iniquities of our ancestors, Jerusalem and your people are mocked by all our neighbors.

9:17 “So now, our God, accept 105  the prayer and requests of your servant, and show favor to 106  your devastated sanctuary for your own sake. 107  9:18 Listen attentively, 108  my God, and hear! Open your eyes and look on our desolated ruins 109  and the city called by your name. 110  For it is not because of our own righteous deeds that we are praying to you, 111  but because your compassion is abundant. 9:19 O Lord, hear! O Lord, forgive! O Lord, pay attention, and act! Don’t delay, for your own sake, O my God! For your city and your people are called by your name.” 112 

Gabriel Gives to Daniel a Prophecy of Seventy Weeks

9:20 While I was still speaking and praying, confessing my sin and the sin of my people Israel and presenting my request before the LORD my God concerning his holy mountain 113 9:21 yes, while I was still praying, 114  the man Gabriel, whom I had seen previously 115  in a vision, was approaching me in my state of extreme weariness, 116  around the time of the evening offering. 9:22 He spoke with me, instructing me as follows: 117  “Daniel, I have now come to impart understanding to you. 9:23 At the beginning of your requests a message went out, and I have come to convey it to you, for you are of great value in God’s sight. 118  Therefore consider the message and understand the vision: 119 

9:24 “Seventy weeks 120  have been determined

concerning your people and your holy city

to put an end to 121  rebellion,

to bring sin 122  to completion, 123 

to atone for iniquity,

to bring in perpetual 124  righteousness,

to seal up 125  the prophetic vision, 126 

and to anoint a most holy place. 127 

9:25 So know and understand:

From the issuing of the command 128  to restore and rebuild

Jerusalem 129  until an anointed one, a prince arrives, 130 

there will be a period of seven weeks 131  and sixty-two weeks.

It will again be built, 132  with plaza and moat,

but in distressful times.

9:26 Now after the sixty-two weeks,

an anointed one will be cut off and have nothing. 133 

As for the city and the sanctuary,

the people of the coming prince will destroy 134  them.

But his end will come speedily 135  like a flood. 136 

Until the end of the war that has been decreed

there will be destruction.

9:27 He will confirm a covenant with many for one week. 137 

But in the middle of that week

he will bring sacrifices and offerings to a halt.

On the wing 138  of abominations will come 139  one who destroys,

until the decreed end is poured out on the one who destroys.”

An Angel Appears to Daniel

10:1 140 In the third 141  year of King Cyrus of Persia a message was revealed to Daniel (who was also called Belteshazzar). This message was true and concerned a great war. 142  He understood the message and gained insight by the vision.

10:2 In those days I, Daniel, was mourning for three whole weeks. 143  10:3 I ate no choice food; no meat or wine came to my lips, 144  nor did I anoint myself with oil 145  until the end of those three weeks.

10:4 On the twenty-fourth day of the first month 146  I was beside the great river, the Tigris. 147  10:5 I looked up 148  and saw a 149  man 150  clothed in linen; 151  around his waist was a belt made of gold from Upaz. 152  10:6 His body resembled yellow jasper, 153  and his face had an appearance like lightning. His eyes were like blazing torches; 154  his arms and feet had the gleam of polished bronze. His voice 155  thundered forth like the sound of a large crowd.

10:7 Only I, Daniel, saw the vision; the men who were with me did not see it. 156  On the contrary, they were overcome with fright 157  and ran away to hide. 10:8 I alone was left to see this great vision. My strength drained from 158  me, and my vigor disappeared; 159  I was without energy. 160  10:9 I listened to his voice, 161  and as I did so 162  I fell into a trance-like sleep with my face to the ground. 10:10 Then 163  a hand touched me and set me on my hands and knees. 164  10:11 He said to me, “Daniel, you are of great value. 165  Understand the words that I am about to 166  speak to you. So stand up, 167  for I have now been sent to you.” When he said this 168  to me, I stood up shaking. 10:12 Then he said to me, “Don’t be afraid, Daniel, for from the very first day you applied your mind 169  to understand and to humble yourself before your God, your words were heard. I have come in response to your words. 10:13 However, the prince of the kingdom of Persia was opposing me for twenty-one days. But 170  Michael, one of the leading princes, came to help me, because I was left there 171  with the kings of Persia. 10:14 Now I have come to help you understand what will happen to your people in the latter days, for the vision pertains to future days.”

10:15 While he was saying this to me, 172  I was flat on 173  the ground and unable to speak. 10:16 Then 174  one who appeared to be a human being 175  was touching my lips. I opened my mouth and started to speak, saying to the one who was standing before me, “Sir, 176  due to the vision, anxiety has gripped me and I have no strength. 10:17 How, sir, am I able to speak with you? 177  My strength is gone, 178  and I am breathless.” 10:18 Then the one who appeared to be a human being touched me again 179  and strengthened me. 10:19 He said to me, “Don’t be afraid, you who are valued. 180  Peace be to you! Be strong! Be really strong!” When he spoke to me, I was strengthened. I said, “Sir, you may speak now, 181  for you have given me strength.” 10:20 He said, “Do you know why I have come to you? 182  Now I am about to return to engage in battle with the prince of Persia. When I go, the prince of Greece is coming. 10:21 However, I will first tell you what is written in a dependable book. 183  (There is no one who strengthens me against these princes, 184  except Michael your 185  prince. 11:1 And in the first year of Darius the Mede, I 186  stood to strengthen him and to provide protection for him.) 11:2 Now I will tell you the truth.

The Angel Gives a Message to Daniel

“Three 187  more kings will arise for Persia. Then a fourth 188  king will be unusually rich, 189  more so than all who preceded him. When he has amassed power through his riches, he will stir up everyone against 190  the kingdom of Greece. 11:3 Then a powerful king 191  will arise, exercising great authority and doing as he pleases. 11:4 Shortly after his rise to power, 192  his kingdom will be broken up and distributed toward the four winds of the sky 193  – but not to his posterity or with the authority he exercised, for his kingdom will be uprooted and distributed to others besides these.

11:5 “Then the king of the south 194  and one of his subordinates 195  will grow strong. His subordinate 196  will resist 197  him and will rule a kingdom greater than his. 198  11:6 After some years have passed, they 199  will form an alliance. Then the daughter 200  of the king of the south will come to the king of the north to make an agreement, but she will not retain her power, 201  nor will he continue 202  in his strength. 203  She, together with the one who brought her, her child, 204  and her benefactor will all be delivered over at that time. 205 

11:7 “There will arise in his 206  place one from her family line 207  who will come against their army and will enter the stronghold of the king of the north and will move against them successfully. 208  11:8 He will also take their gods into captivity to Egypt, along with their cast images and prized utensils of silver and gold. Then he will withdraw for some years from 209  the king of the north. 11:9 Then the king of the north 210  will advance against the empire of the king of the south, but will withdraw to his own land. 11:10 His sons 211  will wage war, mustering a large army which will advance like an overflowing river and carrying the battle all the way to the enemy’s 212  fortress. 213 

11:11 “Then the king of the south 214  will be enraged and will march out to fight against the king of the north, who will also muster a large army, but that army will be delivered into his hand. 11:12 When the army is taken away, the king of the south will become arrogant. 215  He will be responsible for the death 216  of thousands and thousands of people, 217  but he will not continue to prevail. 11:13 For the king of the north will again muster an army, one larger than before. At the end of some years he will advance with a huge army and enormous supplies.

11:14 “In those times many will oppose 218  the king of the south. 219  Those who are violent 220  among your own people will rise up in confirmation of 221  the vision, but they will falter. 11:15 Then the king of the north will advance and will build siege mounds and capture a well-fortified city. 222  The forces of the south will not prevail, not even his finest contingents. 223  They will have no strength to prevail. 11:16 The one advancing against him will do as he pleases, and no one will be able to stand before him. He will prevail in the beautiful land, and its annihilation will be within his power. 224  11:17 His intention 225  will be to come with the strength of his entire kingdom, and he will form alliances. 226  He will give the king of the south 227  a daughter 228  in marriage in order to destroy the kingdom, but it will not turn out to his advantage. 11:18 Then he will turn his attention 229  to the coastal regions and will capture many of them. But a commander 230  will bring his shameful conduct to a halt; in addition, 231  he will make him pay for his shameful conduct. 232  11:19 He will then turn his attention to the fortresses of his own land, but he will stumble and fall, not to be found again. 11:20 There will arise after him 233  one 234  who will send out an exactor 235  of tribute to enhance the splendor of the kingdom, but after a few days he will be destroyed, 236  though not in anger or battle.

11:21 “Then there will arise in his place a despicable person 237  to whom the royal honor has not been rightfully conferred. He will come on the scene in a time of prosperity and will seize the kingdom through deceit. 11:22 Armies 238  will be suddenly 239  swept away in defeat 240  before him; both they and a covenant leader 241  will be destroyed. 242  11:23 After 243  entering into an alliance with him, he will behave treacherously; he will ascend to power with only a small force. 244  11:24 In a time of prosperity for the most productive areas of the province he will come and accomplish what neither his fathers nor their fathers accomplished. He will distribute loot, spoils, and property to his followers, and he will devise plans against fortified cities, but not for long. 245  11:25 He will rouse his strength and enthusiasm 246  against the king of the south 247  with a large army. The king of the south will wage war with a large and very powerful army, but he will not be able to prevail because of the plans devised against him. 11:26 Those who share the king’s fine food will attempt to destroy him, and his army will be swept away; 248  many will be killed in battle. 11:27 These two kings, their minds 249  filled with evil intentions, will trade 250  lies with one another at the same table. But it will not succeed, for there is still an end at the appointed time. 11:28 Then the king of the north 251  will return to his own land with much property. His mind will be set against the holy covenant. He will take action, and then return to his own land. 11:29 At an appointed time he will again invade the south, but this latter visit will not turn out the way the former one did. 11:30 The ships of Kittim 252  will come against him, leaving him disheartened. 253  He will turn back and direct his indignation against the holy covenant. He will return and honor 254  those who forsake the holy covenant. 11:31 His forces 255  will rise up and profane the fortified sanctuary, 256  stopping the daily sacrifice. In its place they will set up 257  the abomination that causes desolation. 11:32 Then with smooth words he will defile 258  those who have rejected 259  the covenant. But the people who are loyal to 260  their God will act valiantly. 261  11:33 These who are wise among the people will teach the masses. 262  However, they will fall 263  by the sword and by the flame, 264  and they will be imprisoned and plundered for some time. 265  11:34 When they stumble, they will be granted some help. But many will unite with them deceitfully. 11:35 Even some of the wise will stumble, resulting in their refinement, purification, and cleansing until the time of the end, for it is still for the appointed time.

11:36 “Then the king 266  will do as he pleases. He will exalt and magnify himself above every deity and he will utter presumptuous things against the God of gods. He will succeed until the time of 267  wrath is completed, for what has been decreed must occur. 268  11:37 He will not respect 269  the gods of his fathers – not even the god loved by women. 270  He will not respect any god; he will elevate himself above them all. 11:38 What he will honor is a god of fortresses – a god his fathers did not acknowledge he will honor with gold, silver, valuable stones, and treasured commodities. 11:39 He will attack 271  mighty fortresses, aided by 272  a foreign deity. To those who recognize him he will grant considerable honor. He will place them in authority over many people, and he will parcel out land for a price. 273 

11:40 “At the time of the end the king of the south will attack 274  him. Then the king of the north will storm against him 275  with chariots, horsemen, and a large armada of ships. 276  He 277  will invade lands, passing through them like an overflowing river. 278  11:41 Then he will enter the beautiful land. 279  Many 280  will fall, but these will escape: 281  Edom, Moab, and the Ammonite leadership. 11:42 He will extend his power 282  against other lands; the land of Egypt will not escape. 11:43 He will have control over the hidden stores of gold and silver, as well as all the treasures of Egypt. Libyans and Ethiopians 283  will submit to him. 284  11:44 But reports will trouble him from the east and north, and he will set out in a tremendous rage to destroy and wipe out many. 11:45 He will pitch his royal tents between the seas 285  toward the beautiful holy mountain. But he will come to his end, with no one to help him.

12:1 “At that time Michael,

the great prince who watches over your people, 286 

will arise. 287 

There will be a time of distress

unlike any other from the nation’s beginning 288 

up to that time.

But at that time your own people,

all those whose names are 289  found written in the book,

will escape.

12:2 Many of those who sleep

in the dusty ground will awake –

some to everlasting life,

and others to shame and everlasting abhorrence. 290 

12:3 But the wise will shine

like the brightness of the heavenly expanse.

And those bringing many to righteousness

will be like the stars forever and ever.

12:4 “But you, Daniel, close up these words and seal the book until the time of the end. Many will dash about, 291  and knowledge will increase.”

12:5 I, Daniel, watched as two others stood there, one on each side of the river. 292  12:6 One said to the man clothed in linen who was above the waters of the river, “When will the end of these wondrous events occur?” 12:7 Then I heard the man clothed in linen who was over the waters of the river as he raised both his right and left hands to the sky 293  and made an oath by the one who lives forever: “It is for a time, times, and half a time. Then, when the power of the one who shatters 294  the holy people has been exhausted, all these things will be finished.”

12:8 I heard, but I did not understand. So I said, “Sir, 295  what will happen after these things?” 12:9 He said, “Go, Daniel. For these matters are closed and sealed until the time of the end. 12:10 Many will be purified, made clean, and refined, but the wicked will go on being wicked. None of the wicked will understand, though the wise will understand. 12:11 From the time that the daily sacrifice is removed and the abomination that causes desolation is set in place, 296  there are 1,290 days. 12:12 Blessed is the one who waits and attains to the 1,335 days. 12:13 But you should go your way 297  until the end. 298  You will rest and then at the end of the days you will arise to receive 299  what you have been allotted.” 300 

1 sn Dan 8:1 marks the switch from Aramaic (= 2:4b-7:28) back to Hebrew as the language in which the book is written in its present form. The remainder of the book from this point on (8:1-12:13) is in Hebrew. The bilingual nature of the book has been variously explained, but it most likely has to do with the book’s transmission history.

2 sn The third year of King Belshazzar’s reign would have been ca. 551 B.C. Daniel would have been approximately 69 years old at the time of this vision.

3 tn Heb “in the beginning.” This refers to the vision described in chapter seven.

4 tn Heb “the.”

5 sn Susa (Heb. שׁוּשַׁן, shushan), located some 230 miles (380 km) east of Babylon, was a winter residence for Persian kings during the Achaemenid period. The language of v. 2 seems to suggest that Daniel may not have been physically present at Susa, but only saw himself there in the vision. However, the Hebrew is difficult, and some have concluded that the first four words of v. 2 in the MT are a later addition (cf. Theodotion).

6 tn The Hebrew word בִּירָה (birah, “castle, palace”) usually refers to a fortified structure within a city, but here it is in apposition to the city name Susa and therefore has a broader reference to the entire city (against this view, however, see BDB 108 s.v. 2). Cf. NAB “the fortress of Susa”; TEV “the walled city of Susa.”

7 tn The term אוּבַל (’uval = “stream, river”) is a relatively rare word in biblical Hebrew, found only here and in vv. 3 and 6. The Ulai was apparently a sizable artificial canal in Susa (cf. NASB, NIV, NCV), and not a river in the ordinary sense of that word.

8 tn Heb “lifted my eyes.”

9 tn Heb “and behold.”

10 tn Heb “one.” The Hebrew numerical adjective occasionally functions like an English indefinite article. See GKC 401 §125.b.

11 tn Heb “high” (also “higher” later in this verse).

12 tn Or “beast” (NAB).

13 tn Heb “hand.” So also in v. 7.

14 tn In the Hiphil the Hebrew verb גָּדַל (gadal, “to make great; to magnify”) can have either a positive or a negative sense. For the former, used especially of God, see Ps 126:2, 3; Joel 2:21. In this chapter (8:4, 8, 11, 25) the word has a pejorative sense, describing the self-glorification of this king. The sense seems to be that of vainly assuming one’s own superiority through deliberate hubris.

15 tn The words “all this” are added in the translation for stylistic reasons and for clarification.

16 tn Heb “and behold, a he-goat of the goats.”

17 tn Or “of the whole earth” (NAB, ASV, NASB, NRSV).

18 tn Heb “a horn of vision” [or “conspicuousness”], i.e., “a conspicuous horn,” one easily seen.

19 tn Heb “the wrath of its strength.”

20 tn Heb “him.”

21 tn Heb “the ram.”

22 tn Heb “stand before him.”

23 tn Heb “he hurled him.” The referents of both pronouns (the male goat and the ram) have been specified in the translation for clarity.

24 sn The goat of Daniel’s vision represents Greece; the large horn represents Alexander the Great. The ram stands for Media-Persia. Alexander’s rapid conquest of the Persians involved three battles of major significance which he won against overwhelming odds: Granicus (334 B.C.), Isus (333 B.C.), and Gaugemela (331 B.C.).

25 tn The word “horns” is not in the Hebrew text, but is implied.

26 sn The four conspicuous horns refer to Alexander’s successors. After his death, Alexander’s empire was divided up among four of his generals: Cassander, who took Macedonia and Greece; Lysimachus, who took Thrace and parts of Asia Minor; Seleucus, who took Syria and territory to its east; and Ptolemy, who took control of Egypt.

27 tn Or “the heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavens” or “sky” depending on the context.

28 sn This small horn is Antiochus IV Epiphanes, who controlled the Seleucid kingdom from ca. 175-164 B.C. Antiochus was extremely hostile toward the Jews and persecuted them mercilessly.

29 sn The expression the beautiful land (Heb. הַצֶּבִי [hatsÿvi] = “the beauty”) is a cryptic reference to the land of Israel. Cf. 11:16, 41, where it is preceded by the word אֶרֶץ (’erets, “land”).

30 tn Traditionally, “host.” The term refers to God’s heavenly angelic assembly, which he sometimes leads into battle as an army.

31 sn In prescientific Israelite thinking the stars were associated with the angelic members of God’s heavenly assembly. See Judg 5:20; Job 38:7; Isa 40:26. In west Semitic mythology the stars were members of the high god’s divine assembly (see Isa 14:13).

32 sn The prince of the army may refer to God (cf. “whose sanctuary” later in the verse) or to the angel Michael (cf. 12:1).

33 tn Or perhaps “and by him,” referring to Antiochus rather than to God.

34 sn Here the sanctuary is a reference to the temple of God in Jerusalem.

35 tc The present translation reads וּצְבָאָהּ נִתַּן (utsÿvaah nittan) for the MT וְצָבָא תִּנָּתֵן (vÿtsavatinnaten). The context suggests a perfect rather than an imperfect verb.

36 tn Heb “in (the course of) rebellion.” The meaning of the phrase is difficult to determine. It could mean “due to rebellion,” referring to the failures of the Jews, but this is not likely since it is not a point made elsewhere in the book. The phrase more probably refers to the rebellion against God and the atrocities against the Jews epitomized by Antiochus.

37 tc Two medieval Hebrew MSS and the LXX have a passive verb here: “truth was hurled to the ground” (cf. NIV, NCV, TEV).

38 sn Truth here probably refers to the Torah. According to 1 Macc 1:56, Antiochus initiated destruction of the sacred books of the Jews.

39 tn Heb “it acted and prospered.”

40 sn The holy one referred to here is presumably an angel. Cf. 4:13[10], 23 [20].

41 sn The language of evenings and mornings is reminiscent of the creation account in Genesis 1. Since “evening and morning” is the equivalent of a day, the reference here would be to 2,300 days. However, some interpreters understand the reference to be to the evening sacrifice and the morning sacrifice, in which case the reference would be to only 1,150 days. Either way, the event that marked the commencement of this period is unclear. The event that marked the conclusion of the period is the rededication of the temple in Jerusalem following the atrocious and sacrilegious acts that Antiochus implemented. This took place on December 25, 165 B.C. The Jewish celebration of Hanukkah each year commemorates this victory.

42 tn Heb “will be vindicated” or “will be justified.” This is the only occurrence of this verb in the Niphal in the OT. English versions interpret it as “cleansed” (KJV, ASV), “restored” (NASB, TEV, NLT), or “reconsecrated” (NIV).

43 sn The only angels whose names are given in the OT are Gabriel (Dan 8:16; 9:21; cf. Luke 1:19, 26) and Michael (Dan 10:13, 21; 12:1; cf. Jude 9; Rev 12:7). The name Gabriel means in Hebrew “man of God,” and Michael means “who is like God?”

44 tn Heb “on my face.”

45 tn Or “human one.”

46 tn Heb “on my standing.”

47 tn The Hebrew text does not actually state the referent (the vision Daniel saw in vv. 8-12; cf. also v. 13), which has been specified in the translation for clarity. Some Greek witnesses add “the vision” here.

48 tn Heb “the he-goat, the buck.” The expression is odd, and the second word may be an explanatory gloss.

49 tn Heb “Javan.”

50 tn Heb “the broken one.” The word “horn” has been supplied in the translation to clarify the referent.

51 tc The present translation reads הַפְּשָׁעִים (happÿshaim, “rebellious acts”) for the MT הַפֹּשְׁעִים (happoshÿim, “rebels”). While the MT is understandable (cf. NIV, “when rebels have become completely wicked”), the filling up of transgressions is a familiar OT expression (cf. Gen 15:16) and fits this context well. Cf. the LXX, Theodotion, the Vulgate, and the Syriac.

52 tn Heb “strong of face.”

53 tn Heb “understanding riddles.” Possible meanings include “double-dealing” (BDB 295 s.v. חִידָה; cf. TEV, CEV) and “with a good knowledge of intrigue” (HALOT 309 s.v. חִידָה; cf. NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT).

54 tn Heb “stand” or “stand up.”

55 tn Heb “extraordinarily he will destroy.”

56 tn Heb “he will succeed and act.”

57 tn See the corresponding Aramaic expression in 7:27. If the “holy ones” are angels, then this probably refers to the angels as protectors of God’s people. One could translate, “people belonging to (i.e., protected by) the holy ones.” If the “holy ones” are God’s people, then this is an appositional construction, “the people who are the holy ones.” One could translate simply “holy people.” For examples of a plural appositional genitive after “people,” see 11:15, 32. Because either interpretation is possible, the translation has deliberately preserved the ambiguity of the Hebrew grammar here.

58 tn The Hebrew term has a primary meaning of “skill, insight,” but here it has the connotation “cunning, treachery.” See BDB 968 s.v. שֵׂכֶל, שֶׂכֶל.

59 tn Heb “he will cause deceit to succeed by his hand.”

60 tn Heb “in his heart he will act arrogantly.”

61 tn Heb “in peace.” The Hebrew word used here is difficult. It may refer to the security felt by those who did not realize the danger of imminent attack, or it may refer to the condition of being unaware of the impending danger. The latter idea is reflected in the present translation. See further, BDB 1017 s.v. שַׁלְוָה.

62 tn Heb “with nothingness of hand.”

63 tn Heb “truth.”

64 tn The Hebrew word here is נִהְיֵיתִי (nihyetiy). Its meaning is not entirely clear. Hebrew הָיָה (hayah) normally has meanings such as “to be” or “become.” Here, however, it describes Daniel’s emotional and physical response to the enigmatic vision that he has seen. It is parallel to the following verb, which refers to illness, and seems to refer to a state of utter exhaustion due to the amazing things that Daniel has just seen. The LXX lacks the word. On the meaning of the word see further, BDB 227-28 s.v. הָיָה Niph.2; DCH 2:540 s.v. היה I Ni.3.

65 sn The identity of this Darius is a major problem in correlating the biblical material with the extra-biblical records of this period. Most modern scholars treat the reference as a mistaken allusion to Darius Hystaspes (ca. 522-486 B.C.). Others have maintained instead that this name is a reference to the Persian governor Gubaru. Still others understand the reference to be to the Persian king Cyrus (cf. 6:28, where the vav (ו) may be understood as vav explicativum, meaning “even”). Under either of these latter two interpretations, the first year of Darius would have been ca. 538 B.C. Daniel would have been approximately eighty-two years old at this time.

66 tc The LXX reads “Xerxes.” This is the reading used by some English versions (e.g., NIV, NCV, TEV, CEV). Most other English versions retain the Hebrew name “Ahasuerus.”

67 tc The present translation follows the MT in reading a Hophal (i.e., passive). Theodotion, the Syriac, and the Vulgate all presuppose the Hiphil (i.e., active). Even though this is the only occurrence of the Hophal of this verb in the Bible, there is no need to emend the vocalization to the Hiphil.

68 tn Heb “was made king over the kingdom of the Chaldeans.”

69 tc This phrase, repeated from v. 1, is absent in Theodotion.

70 tn The Hebrew text has “books”; the word “sacred” has been added in the translation to clarify that it is Scriptures that are referred to.

71 sn The tetragrammaton (the four Hebrew letters which constitute the divine Name, YHWH) appears eight times in this chapter, and nowhere else in the book of Daniel.

72 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

73 tn Heb “face.”

74 tn The Hebrew phrase translated “Lord God” here is אֲדֹנָי הָאֱלֹהִים (’adonay haelohim).

75 sn When lamenting, ancient Israelites would fast, wear sackcloth, and put ashes on their heads to show their sorrow and contrition.

76 tn The Hebrew term translated “Lord” here and in vv. 7, 9, 15, 16, and 19 is אֲדֹנָי (’adonay).

77 tn Heb “who keeps the covenant and the loyal love.” The expression is a hendiadys.

78 tn Heb “in your name.” Another option is to translate, “as your representatives.”

79 tn Heb “our fathers” (also in vv. 8, 16). The Hebrew term translated “father” can refer to more distant relationships such as grandfathers or ancestors.

80 tn Heb “people.”

81 tn Heb “to you (belongs) righteousness.”

82 tn Heb “and to us (belongs) shame of face like this day.”

83 tn Heb “men.”

84 tn Heb “to us (belongs) shame of face.”

85 tn Heb “to the Lord our God (belong) compassion and forgiveness.”

86 tn Heb “paid attention to the voice of,” which is an idiomatic expression for obedience (cf. NASB “nor have we obeyed the voice of”).

87 tn Heb “to walk in.”

88 tc The LXX and Vulgate have the singular.

89 tn Or “transgressed.” The Hebrew verb has the primary sense of crossing a boundary, in this case, God’s law.

90 tn Heb “by not paying attention to your voice.”

91 tn Heb “the curse and the oath which is written.” The term “curse” refers here to the judgments threatened in the Mosaic law (see Deut 28) for rebellion. The expression “the curse and the oath” is probably a hendiadys (cf. Num 5:21; Neh 10:29) referring to the fact that the covenant with its threatened judgments was ratified by solemn oath and made legally binding upon the covenant community.

92 tn Heb “him.”

93 tn Heb “he has fulfilled his word(s) which he spoke.”

94 tn Heb “our judges.”

95 tn Heb “who judged.”

96 tn Heb “we have not pacified the face of.”

97 tn Or “by gaining insight.”

98 tn Heb “by your truth.” The Hebrew term does not refer here to abstract truth, however, but to the reliable moral guidance found in the covenant law. See vv 10-11.

99 tn Or “righteous.”

100 tn Heb “in all his deeds which he has done.”

101 tn Heb “we have not listened to his voice.”

102 tn Heb “with a powerful hand.”

103 tn Or “righteousness.”

104 tn Heb “your anger and your rage.” The synonyms are joined here to emphasize the degree of God’s anger. This is best expressed in English by making one of the terms adjectival (cf. NLT “your furious anger”; CEV “terribly angry”).

105 tn Heb “hear.” Here the verb refers to hearing favorably, accepting the prayer and responding positively.

106 tn Heb “let your face shine.” This idiom pictures God smiling in favor. See Pss 31:16; 67:1; 80:3, 7, 19.

107 tn Heb “for the sake of my Lord.” Theodotion has “for your sake.” Cf. v. 19.

108 tn Heb “turn your ear.”

109 tn Heb “desolations.” The term refers here to the ruined condition of Judah’s towns.

110 tn Heb “over which your name is called.” Cf. v. 19. This expression implies that God is the owner of his city, Jerusalem. Note the use of the idiom in 2 Sam 12:28; Isa 4:1; Amos 9:12.

111 tn Heb “praying our supplications before you.”

112 tn Heb “for your name is called over your city and your people.” See the note on this expression in v 18.

113 tn Heb “the holy mountain of my God.”

114 tn Heb “speaking in prayer.”

115 tn Heb “in the beginning.”

116 tn The Hebrew expression בִּיעָף מֻעָף (muaf biaf) is very difficult. The issue is whether the verb derives from עוּף (’uf, “to fly”) or from יָעַף (yaaf, “to be weary”). Many ancient versions and modern commentators take the first of these possibilities and understand the reference to be to the swift flight of the angel Gabriel in his coming to Daniel. The words more likely refer to the extreme weariness, not of the angel, but of Daniel. Cf. 7:28; 8:27; 10:8-9, 16-17; also NASB.

117 tn Heb “he instructed and spoke with me.” The expression is a verbal hendiadys.

118 tn Or “a precious treasure”; KJV “greatly beloved”; NASB, NIV “highly esteemed.”

119 tn This sentence is perhaps a compound hendiadys (“give serious consideration to the revelatory vision”).

120 tn Heb “sevens.” Elsewhere the term is used of a literal week (a period of seven days), cf. Gen 29:27-28; Exod 34:22; Lev 12:5; Num 28:26; Deut 16:9-10; 2 Chr 8:13; Jer 5:24; Dan 10:2-3. Gabriel unfolds the future as if it were a calendar of successive weeks. Most understand the reference here as periods of seventy “sevens” of years, or a total of 490 years.

121 tc Or “to finish.” The present translation reads the Qere (from the root תָּמַם, tamam) with many witnesses. The Kethib has “to seal up” (from the root הָתַם, hatam), a confusion with a reference later in the verse to sealing up the vision.

122 tc The present translation reads the Qere (singular), rather than the Kethib (plural).

123 tn The Hebrew phrase לְכַלֵּא (lÿkhalle’) is apparently an alternative (metaplastic) spelling of the root כָּלָה (kalah, “to complete, finish”), rather than a form of כָּלָא (kala’, “to shut up, restrain”), as has sometimes been supposed.

124 tn Or “everlasting.”

125 sn The act of sealing in the OT is a sign of authentication. Cf. 1 Kgs 21:8; Jer 32:10, 11, 44.

126 tn Heb “vision and prophecy.” The expression is a hendiadys.

127 tn Or “the most holy place” (NASB, NLT); or “a most holy one”; or “the most holy one,” though the expression is used of places or objects elsewhere, not people.

128 tn Or “decree” (NASB, NIV); or “word” (NAB, NRSV).

129 map For location see Map5 B1; Map6 F3; Map7 E2; Map8 F2; Map10 B3; JP1 F4; JP2 F4; JP3 F4; JP4 F4.

130 tn The word “arrives” is added in the translation for clarification.

131 tn Heb “sevens” (also later in this line and in v. 26).

sn The accents in the MT indicate disjunction at this point, which would make it difficult, if not impossible, to identify the “anointed one/prince” of this verse as messianic. The reference in v. 26 to the sixty-two weeks as a unit favors the MT accentuation, not the traditional translation. If one follows the MT accentuation, one may translate “From the going forth of the message to restore and rebuild Jerusalem until an anointed one, a prince arrives, there will be a period of seven weeks. During a period of sixty-two weeks it will again be built, with plaza and moat, but in distressful times.” The present translation follows a traditional reading of the passage that deviates from the MT accentuation.

132 tn Heb “it will return and be built.” The expression is a verbal hendiadys.

133 sn The expression have nothing is difficult. Presumably it refers to an absence of support or assistance for the anointed one at the time of his “cutting off.” The KJV rendering “but not for himself,” apparently suggesting a vicarious death, cannot be defended.

134 tc Some witnesses (e.g., the Syriac) understand a passive verb and the preposition עִם (’im, “with) rather than the noun עַם (’am, “people”), thus reading “the city and the sanctuary will be destroyed with the coming prince.”

135 tn The words “will come speedily” are not in the Hebrew text but have been added in the translation for clarity.

136 sn Flood here is a metaphor for sudden destruction.

137 tn Heb “one seven” (also later in this line).

138 tn The referent of the Hebrew word כְּנַף (kÿnaf, “wing”) is unclear here. The LXX and Theodotion have “the temple.” Some English versions (e.g., NAB, NIV) take this to mean “a wing of the temple,” but this is not clear.

139 tn The Hebrew text does not have this verb, but it has been supplied in the translation for clarity.

140 sn This chapter begins the final unit in the book of Daniel, consisting of chapters 10-12. The traditional chapter divisions to some extent obscure the relationship of these chapters.

141 tc The LXX has “first.”

sn Cyrus’ third year would have been ca. 536 B.C. Daniel would have been approximately eighty-four years old at this time.

142 tn The meaning of the Hebrew word צָבָא (tsava’) is uncertain in this context. The word most often refers to an army or warfare. It may also mean “hard service,” and many commentators take that to be the sense here (i.e., “the service was great”). The present translation assumes the reference to be to the spiritual conflicts described, for example, in 10:1611:1.

143 tn Heb “three weeks of days.” The inclusion of “days” here and in v. 3 is perhaps intended to call attention to the fact that these weeks are very different in nature from those of chap. 9, which are “weeks of years.”

144 tn Heb “mouth.”

145 sn Anointing oneself with oil (usually olive oil) was a common OT practice due to the severity of the Middle Eastern sun (cf. Ps 121:6). It was also associated with rejoicing (e.g., Prov 27:9) and was therefore usually not practiced during a period of mourning.

146 sn The first month would be the month of Nisan, during which Passover was observed.

147 tn The Hebrew text has חִדָּקֶל (hiddaqel). “Tigris” appears here in the LXX, since it is the Greek name for this river. Elsewhere in the OT “the great river” refers to the Euphrates (e.g., Gen 15:18; Josh 1:4), leading some interpreters to think that a mistake is involved in using the expression to refer to the Tigris. But it is doubtful that the expression had such a fixed and limited usage. The Syriac, however, does render the word here by “Euphrates” (Syr. perat) in keeping with biblical usage elsewhere.

148 tn Heb “I lifted up my eyes.”

149 tn Heb “one.” The Hebrew numerical adjective is used here like an English indefinite article.

150 sn The identity of the messenger is not specifically disclosed. Presumably he is an unnamed angel. Some interpreters identify him as Gabriel, but there is no adequate reason for doing so.

151 tn The Hebrew word בַּדִּים (baddim) is a plural of extension. See GKC 396-97 §124.a, b, c and Joüon 2:500 §136.c.

152 tn The location of this place and even the exact form of the Hebrew name אוּפָז (’ufaz) are uncertain. Apparently it was a source for pure gold. (See Jer 10:9.) The Hebrew word פָז (paz, “refined gold” or “pure gold”) is more common in the OT than אוּפָז, and some scholars emend the text of Dan 10:5 to read this word. Cf. also “Ophir” (1 Kgs 9:28; Isa 13:12; Job 22:24; 28:16).

153 tn The Hebrew word translated “yellow jasper” is תַּרשִׁישׁ (tarshish); it appears to be a semiprecious stone, but its exact identity is somewhat uncertain. It may be the yellow jasper, although this is conjectural. Cf. NAB, NIV “chrysolite”; NASB, NRSV “beryl.”

154 tn Heb “torches of fire.”

155 tn Heb “The sound of his words” (cf. v. 9).

156 tn Heb “the vision.”

157 tn Heb “great trembling fell on them.”

158 tn Heb “did not remain in.”

159 tn Heb “was changed upon me for ruin.”

160 tn Heb “strength.”

161 tc Heb “I heard the sound of his words.” These words are absent in the LXX and the Syriac.

162 tn Heb “as I listened to the sound of his words.”

163 tn Heb “Behold.”

164 tc Theodotion lacks “and the palms of my hands.”

tn Heb “on my knees and the palms of my hands.”

165 tn Or “a treasured person”; KJV “a man greatly beloved”; NASB “man of high esteem.”

166 tn The Hebrew participle is often used, as here, to refer to the imminent future.

167 tn Heb “stand upon your standing.”

168 tn Heb “spoke this word.”

169 tn Heb “gave your heart.”

170 tn Heb “and behold.”

171 tc The Greek version of Theodotion reads “I left him [i.e., Michael] there,” and this is followed by a number of English translations (cf. NAB, NRSV, NLT).

172 tn Heb “speaking to me according to these words.”

173 tn Heb “I placed my face toward.”

174 tn Heb “Behold.”

175 tc So most Hebrew MSS; one Hebrew MS along with the Dead Sea Scrolls and LXX read “something that looked like a man’s hand.”

176 tn Heb “my lord,” here a title of polite address. Cf. v. 19.

177 tn Heb “How is the servant of this my lord able to speak with this my lord?”

178 tn Heb “does not stand.”

179 tn Heb “He added and touched me.” The construction is a verbal hendiadys.

180 tn Heb “treasured man.”

181 tn Heb “my lord may speak.”

182 sn The question is rhetorical, intended to encourage reflection on Daniel’s part.

183 tn Heb “a book of truth.” Several English versions treat this as a title of some sort (cf. NIV, NCV, TEV, CEV, NLT), although the NAB’s rendering “the truthful book” regards “truth” as an attributive adjective, as does the present translation.

184 tn The word “princes” is supplied for clarity.

185 tn The pronoun is plural in Hebrew, suggesting that Michael is the angelic prince of Daniel and his people.

186 sn The antecedent of the pronoun “I” is the angel, not Daniel. The traditional chapter division at this point, and the presence of a chronological note in the verse similar to ones used elsewhere in the book to position Daniel’s activities in relation to imperial affairs, sometimes lead to confusion on this matter.

187 sn Perhaps these three more kings are Cambyses (ca. 530-522 B.C.), Pseudo-Smerdis (ca. 522 B.C.), and Darius I Hystaspes (ca. 522-486 B.C.).

188 sn This fourth king is Xerxes I (ca. 486-465 B.C.). The following reference to one of his chiefs apparently has in view Seleucus Nicator.

189 tn Heb “rich with great riches.”

190 tn The text is difficult. The Hebrew has here אֶת (’et), the marker of a definite direct object. As it stands, this would suggest the meaning that “he will arouse everyone, that is, the kingdom of Greece.” The context, however, seems to suggest the idea that this Persian king will arouse in hostility against Greece the constituent elements of his own empire. This requires supplying the word “against,” which is not actually present in the Hebrew text.

191 sn The powerful king mentioned here is Alexander the Great (ca. 336-323 B.C.).

192 tn Heb “and when he stands.”

193 tn Or “the heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavens” or “sky” depending on the context.

194 sn The king of the south is Ptolemy I Soter (ca. 323-285 B.C.). The following reference to one of his subordinates apparently has in view Seleucus I Nicator (ca. 311-280 B.C.). Throughout the remainder of chap. 11 the expressions “king of the south” and “king of the north” repeatedly occur. It is clear, however, that these terms are being used generically to describe the Ptolemaic king (i.e., “of the south”) or the Seleucid king (i.e., “of the north”) who happens to be in power at any particular time. The specific identity of these kings can be established more or less successfully by a comparison of this chapter with the available extra-biblical records that discuss the history of the intertestamental period. In the following notes the generally accepted identifications are briefly mentioned.

195 tn Heb “princes.”

196 tn Heb “and he”; the referent (the subordinate prince mentioned in the previous clause) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

197 tn Heb “be strong against.”

198 tn Heb “greater than his kingdom.”

199 sn Here they refers to Ptolemy II Philadelphus (ca. 285-246 B.C.) and Antiochus II Theos (ca. 262-246 B.C.).

200 sn The daughter refers to Berenice, who was given in marriage to Antiochus II Theos.

201 tn Heb “the strength of the arm.”

202 tn Heb “stand.” So also in vv. 7, 8, 11, 13.

203 tn Heb “and his arm.” Some understand this to refer to the descendants of the king of the north.

204 tc The present translation reads יַלְדָּה (yaldah, “her child”) rather than the MT יֹלְדָהּ (yolÿdah, “the one who begot her”). Cf. Theodotion, the Syriac, and the Vulgate.

205 sn Antiochus II eventually divorced Berenice and remarried his former wife Laodice, who then poisoned her husband, had Berenice put to death, and installed her own son, Seleucus II Callinicus (ca. 246-227 B.C.), as the Seleucid king.

206 sn The reference is to the king of Egypt.

207 tn Heb “the stock of her roots.”

sn The reference to one from her family line is probably to Berenice’s brother, Ptolemy III Euergetes (ca. 246-221 B.C.).

208 tn Heb “will deal with them and prevail.”

209 tn The Hebrew preposition מִן (min) is used here with the verb עָמַד (’amad, “to stand”). It probably has a sense of separation (“stand away from”), although it may also be understood in an adversative sense (“stand against”).

210 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the king of the north) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

211 sn The sons of Seleucus II Callinicus were Seleucus III Ceraunus (ca. 227-223 B.C.) and Antiochus III the Great (ca. 223-187 B.C.).

212 tn Heb “his”; the referent (the enemy of the king of the north) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

213 tn Heb “and he will certainly come and overflow and cross over and return and be aroused unto a fortress.” The translation has attempted to simplify the syntax of this difficult sequence.

214 sn This king of the south refers to Ptolemy IV Philopator (ca. 221-204 B.C.).

215 tn Heb “his heart will be lifted up.” The referent (the king of the south) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

216 tn Heb “cause to fall.”

217 tn Heb “of myriads.”

218 tn Heb “stand against.”

219 sn This was Ptolemy V Epiphanes (ca. 203-181 B.C.).

220 tn Heb “sons of violence.” “Son(s) is sometimes used idiomatically in Hebrew to indicate that someone is characterized by a certain quality. So the expression “sons of violence” means that these individuals will be characterized by violent deeds.

221 tn Heb “to cause to stand.”

222 sn This well-fortified city is apparently Sidon. Its capture from the Ptolemies by Antiochus the Great was a strategic victory for the Seleucid kingdom.

223 tn Or “choice troops” (BDB 104 s.v. מִבְחָר), or “elite troops” (HALOT 542 s.v. מִבְחָר).

224 tn Heb “hand.”

225 tn Heb “and he will set his face.” Cf. vv. 18, 19.

226 tc The present translation reads מֵישָׁרִים (mesharim, “alliances”) for the MT וִישָׁרִים (viysharim, “uprightness”).

227 tn Heb “him”; the referent (the king of the south) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

228 tn Heb “the daughter of the women.”

sn The daughter refers to Cleopatra, the daughter of Antiochus, who was given in marriage to Ptolemy V.

229 tn Heb “his face.” See v. 19 as well.

230 sn The commander is probably the Roman commander, Lucius Cornelius Scipio.

231 tn The Hebrew here is difficult in that the negative בִּלְתִּי (biltiy, “not”) is used in an unusual way. The sense is not entirely clear.

232 tn Heb “his shameful conduct he will return to him.”

233 tn Heb “on his place.”

234 sn The one who will send out an exactor of tribute was Seleucus IV Philopator (ca. 187-176 B.C.).

235 sn Perhaps this exactor of tribute was Heliodorus (cf. 2 Maccabees 3).

236 tn Heb “broken” or “shattered.”

237 sn This despicable person to whom the royal honor has not been rightfully conferred is Antiochus IV Epiphanes (ca. 175-164 B.C.).

238 tn Heb “arms.”

239 tc The present translation reads הִשָּׁטֹף (hishatof), Niphal infinitive absolute of שָׁטַף (shataf, “to overflow”), for the MT הַשֶּׁטֶף (hashetef, “flood”).

240 tn The words “in defeat” are added in the translation for clarification.

241 tn Heb “a prince of the covenant.”

242 tn Heb “broken” or “shattered.”

243 tn The preposition מִן (min) is probably temporal here (so BDB 583 s.v. 7.c; cf. KJV, NAB, NASB, NIV, NRSV), although it could also be understood here as indicating means (so J. Goldingay, Daniel [WBC], 279, n. 23a; cf. TEV, NLT).

244 tn Heb “nation.”

245 tn Heb “and unto a time.”

246 tn Heb “heart.”

247 sn This king of the south was Ptolemy Philometer (ca. 181-145 B.C.).

248 tc The present translation reads יִשָׁטֵף (yishatef, passive) rather than the MT יִשְׁטוֹף (yishtof, active).

249 tn Heb “heart.” So also in v. 28.

250 tn Heb “speak.”

251 tn Heb “he”; the referent (the king of the north) has been specified in the translation for clarity.

252 sn The name Kittim has various designations in extra-biblical literature. It can refer to a location on the island of Cyprus, or more generally to the island itself, or it can be an inclusive term to refer to parts of the Mediterranean world that lay west of the Middle East (e.g., Rome). For ships of Kittim the Greek OT (LXX) has “Romans,” an interpretation followed by a few English versions (e.g., TEV). A number of times in the Dead Sea Scrolls the word is used in reference to the Romans. Other English versions are more generic: “[ships] of the western coastlands” (NIV, NLT); “from the west” (NCV, CEV).

253 sn This is apparently a reference to the Roman forces, led by Gaius Popilius Laenas, which confronted Antiochus when he came to Egypt and demanded that he withdraw or face the wrath of Rome. Antiochus wisely withdrew from Egypt, albeit in a state of bitter frustration.

254 tn Heb “show regard for.”

255 tn Heb “arms.”

256 tn Heb “the sanctuary, the fortress.”

257 tn Heb “will give.”

258 tn Or “corrupt.”

259 tn Heb “acted wickedly toward.”

260 tn Heb “know.” The term “know” sometimes means “to recognize.” In relational contexts it can have the connotation “recognize the authority of, be loyal to,” as it does here.

261 sn This is an allusion to the Maccabean revolt, which struggled to bring about Jewish independence in the second century B.C.

262 tn Heb “the many.”

263 tn Heb “stumble.”

264 tn Or “by burning.”

265 tn Heb “days.”

266 sn The identity of this king is problematic. If vv. 36-45 continue the description of Antiochus Epiphanes, the account must be viewed as erroneous, since the details do not match what is known of Antiochus’ latter days. Most modern scholars take this view, concluding that this section was written just shortly before the death of Antiochus and that the writer erred on several key points as he tried to predict what would follow the events of his own day. Conservative scholars, however, usually understand the reference to shift at this point to an eschatological figure, viz., the Antichrist. The chronological gap that this would presuppose to be in the narrative is not necessarily a problem, since by all accounts there are many chronological gaps throughout the chapter, as the historical figures intended by such expressions as “king of the north” and “king of the south” repeatedly shift.

267 tn The words “the time of” are added in the translation for clarification.

268 tn Heb “has been done.” The Hebrew verb used here is the perfect of certitude, emphasizing the certainty of fulfillment.

269 tn Heb “consider.”

270 tn Heb “[the one] desired by women.” The referent has been specified in the translation for clarity.

271 tn Heb “act against.”

272 tn Heb “with.”

273 tn Or perhaps “for a reward.”

274 tn Heb “engage in thrusting.”

275 tn The referent of the pronoun is most likely the king of the south, in which case the text describes the king of the north countering the attack of the king of the south.

276 tn Heb “many ships.”

277 tn This most likely refers to the king of the north who, in response to the aggression of the king of the south, launches an invasion of the southern regions.

278 tn Heb “and will overflow and pass over.”

279 sn The beautiful land is a cryptic reference to the land of Israel.

280 tn This can be understood as “many people” (cf. NRSV) or “many countries” (cf. NASB, NIV, NLT).

281 tn Heb “be delivered from his hand.”

282 tn Heb “hand.”

283 tn Or “Nubians” (NIV, NCV); Heb “Cushites.”

284 tn Heb “Libyans and Cushites [will be] at his footsteps.”

285 sn Presumably seas refers to the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea.

286 tn Heb “stands over the sons of your people.”

287 tn Heb “will stand up.”

288 tn Or “from the beginning of a nation.”

289 tn The words “whose names are” are added in the translation for stylistic reasons and for clarification.

290 sn This verse is the only undisputed reference to a literal resurrection found in the Hebrew Bible.

291 tn Or “will run back and forth”; KJV “shall run to and fro”; NIV “will go here and there”; CEV “will go everywhere.”

sn Many will dash about is probably an allusion to Amos 8:12.

292 tn Heb “one to this edge of the river and one to that edge of the river.”

293 tn Or “to the heavens.” The Hebrew term שָׁמַיִם (shamayim) may be translated “heavens” or “sky” depending on the context.

294 tc The present translation reads יַד־נֹפֵץ (yad-nofets, “hand of one who shatters”) rather than the MT נַפֵּץ־יַד (nappets-yad, “to shatter the hand”).

295 tn Heb “my lord,” a title of polite address.

296 tn Heb “to give.”

297 tn The words “your way” are not in the Hebrew text, but are implied.

298 tc The LXX lacks “until the end.”

299 tn The word “receive” is added in the translation for clarification.

300 sn The deuterocanonical writings known as the Story of Susanna and Bel and the Dragon appear respectively as chapters 13 and 14 of the book of Daniel in the Greek version of this book. Although these writings are not part of the Hebrew/Aramaic text of Daniel, they were popular among certain early communities who valued traditions about the life of Daniel.

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